Lean Manufacturing Initiatives in Apparel Industry

Lean Manufacturing Initiatives in Apparel Industry

Introduction

This article is about very basic of lean manufacturing, definition, principle, importance, and steps how you take initiatives to introduce to lean manufacturing in your garments manufacturing industry. Hope this writing would help you to get an idea of Lean Manufacturing initiatives.

Lean Manufacturing Initiatives in Apparel Industry

What is Lean?

A lean is a way of maximization of the benefit by ensuring proper utilization of resources without increasing its cost or wasting any materials. This is a systematic approach to minimizing the cost of any process that can be applicable for production or service-oriented companies. Lean manufacturing is nowadays commonly used the term in the apparel industry. The main objective is to reduce the production cost of garments. Although all companies using a systematic approach of lean manufacturing to reduce the wastage and maximize productivity but they do not name as a lean. Finally, we can say lean is a tool that uses a systematic approach to minimize the production cost which ultimately increases the productivity and overall profit of the company.

Principles of Lean Manufacturing

  1. Recognition of waste
  2. Standard the process
  3. Continuous flow
  4. Pull production
  5. Quality at source
  6. Continuous improvements
  7. Value-define by the customer
  8. Perfection

Why Lean is Important for the Company?

  1. It helps to eliminate the waste
  2. Makes a better environment at home & office.
  3. Change the culture
  4. Better understanding
  5. Productivity improvement
  6. Better quality
  7. To take the challenge of future business

Steps of Lean Manufacturing

  1. Value stream mapping
  2. Kaizen- continuous development
  3. Workplace organization-5s
  4. Quick change over- small quantity
  5. Overall equipment effectiveness- maximum utilization of people instead of mc
  6. Pull production
  7. Kanban– instruction card
  8. Six Sigma- statistical method of systemic analyze to reduce process variation use damic.
  9. Total productive maintenance- all level of function to maximize OEE
  10. Cellular manufacturing

Keys to Lean Success

  1. Prepare & motivate people
  2. Employee involvement
  3. Identify & empower champions
  4. Atmosphere of experiments

Lean Manufacturing Initiatives for Garments Manufacturing

  1. Lean awareness meeting
  2. data gathering  analysis
  3. Gathering data’s from the store, cutting
  4. Gathering data’s from sewing & finishing
  5. Gathering data’s from washing
  6. Train the core team about the lean concept
  7. Material & information flow from store ship
  8. Send all the report to assessment by lean responsible
  9. Draw the Value Stream Mapping of SIL the Current state
  10. Draw the Value Stream Mapping of SWWL the Current state
  11. Get the assessment report
  12. Describe how to make the lean storyboard, waste poster & others
  13. Describe how to make the presentation
  14. Design the Lean storyboard and the project office
  15. Design new posters related to the waste Illustration
  16. Gather the first Core implementation Team and assign them the task to find out the waste in their departments.
  17. Fill the Waste posters with them according to the type of waste under related departments
  18. Reevaluate the assessment data Washing only(inventory)
  19. Set a training calendar for middle management split into four sessions of training
  20. Develop the first presentation for top and middle management
  21. Arrange the first Training session-1 for the management(recognize the waste)
  22. Evaluate the marks.
  23. Analyze the process razing at the cutting
  24. Analyze the process razing at  the washing
  25. Draw the Value Stream Mapping of the Current state
  26. Develop the Future Value Stream Mapping
  27. Develop the second presentation for top and middle management
  28. Arrange the  Training session-2 for the management(How to see the waste)
  29. Evaluate the marks.
  30. Develop the third presentation for top and middle management
  31. Arrange the  Training session-3 for the management(How to think)
  32. Evaluate the marks.
  33. Develop the fourth presentation for top and middle management
  34. Arrange the Training session-4 for the management(How to develop)
  35. Evaluate the marks.
  36. Plan session with management to find the root cause of the each and every waste
  37. Fill the “Tools” sheet in “Kaizen event Master file” with the root causes and send to Lean leader
  38. Visit for the role of the steering committee for lean
  39. Team selection, leader selection & their activities training/ meeting with steering committee/ making operator training calendar/ train the operator for lean/5s, etc.
  40. start operator training for multiskilling/make format for training/ 5s in Bangla/ Arrange training program for staffs for Needs for change/discuss with all PM for process standardization&  sledding. Inform lean officer for next presentation/ training session with all line chief & floor managers
  41. Training program for Composition of SMV/ cross training for operator/attachments for a machine.
  42. Training program for Types of waste/ wasteful motions/ cross training for operator/attachments for machine/ searching machine
  43. Training program for practical waste full motion on the line/ Charles assessment review & findings.
  44. Conduct a meeting for Economical & simultaneous motion/ Quality system of the line.
  45. Training program for Engineering sheet / Line chief& supervisor/ Martine visit the factory / Cross training for the operator
  46. Training program for machine adjustment/ Training program for calculation KPI’s / Line chief& supervisor/ Martine visit the factory / Cross training for the operator/ 4th training session for steering committee “How to Develop?”
  47. Report making / Marking & evaluation/  and visit the plant
  48. Team selection from finishing, leader selection & their activities training/  train the operator for lean/5s, etc.
  49. Start training session for team #A for just in time/ Understand 5s
  50. Training program for Composition of SMV & workplace development/different types of waste in the workplace & how to create continuous flow/ discuss with Mr.  Aminul regarding QA procedure & arrange a meeting for continuous movement of the garments.
  51. Training about wasteful motion(theory & practical)
  52. Lean awareness training for finishing team A QC’s, Lean awareness training for team # 10 front & bk at(2 to 3 pm & assemble 3-4 pm).
  53. Economical & simultaneous Motion for the team leader, supervisor in finishing team #A, a Quality system of the line & product training for the team leaders & supervisors. Train the operator QA, sup of team # 5 in two groups (front & bk 2to 3 & assemble 3-4 pm)
  54. Training about operation breakdown, critical path, quality & tool (work aids), worker balance, Layout & machine requirements.
  55. Training in finishing Btn area for 5s & lean concept & cross training in team #A

Related article you may love to read

Implementation of Lean Manufacturing in Garments Factory

Written by
A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)
Email: [email protected]
Linkedin: A.M. Amirul Islam

SMV and Efficiency Variance Report of Apparel Industry

SMV and Efficiency Variance Report of Marketing Vs Production of Apparel Industry

This report is done on SMV and Efficiency Variance Report of Marketing vs Production in a renowned   Apparel Industry of Bangladesh to find out SMV & Efficiency variance between Marketing and Production to analyze the root causes of variation and find out the solution to improve. Hope this report would help to clear your concept.

SMV and Efficiency Variance Report

Report Objective:
1. To find out SMV & Efficiency variance between Marketing & Production 
2. To analyze the root causes of variation
3. To find out a solution to improve

Unit Wise Production Quantity Report

Reason of SMV Variation

Production UnitItem/OptionReason of SMV Variation
Unit-01Round Neck T-Shirt1. SMV reduces because of Label make process elimination, i/o compound label added
Unit-01V Neck T-Shirt1. SMV reduces because of Label make process elimination, i/o compound label added
Unit-01Short Pant1. SMV increases because of Label make process added, I/o compound label
2. Achieve SMV more than Marketing SMV because of unskilled Kansai machine operator & rented Kansai m/c.
Unit-02Round Neck T-Shirt (Solid)1. SMV increases because of using excess manual operations ( Exp: Front & back part match, sleeve & body match, after sleeve join, side seam & before sleeve ,bottom hem  garments arrangement)
Unit-01V Neck T-Shirt (Stripe)1. SMV increases because of using excess manual operations ( Exp: Front & back part match, sleeve & body match, after sleeve join, side seam & before sleeve ,bottom hem  garments arrangement. Neck rib cut in sewing line i/o cutting section.)
Unit-02V Neck T-Shirt (Stripe)1. SMV increases because of using excess manual operations ( Exp: Front & back part match, sleeve & body match, after sleeve join, side seam & before sleeve ,bottom hem  garments arrangement. Neck rib cut in sewing line i/o cutting section.)
Unit-01Short Pant (Solid)1. SMV increases because of Label make process added, I/s compound label
2. Achieve SMV more than Marketing SMV because of unskilled Kansai machine operator & rented Kansai m/c.
Unit-01Short Pant (Stripe)1. SMV increases because of Label make process added, I/s compound label
2. Achieve SMV more than Marketing SMV because of unskilled Kansai machine operator & rented Kansai m/c.

Reason of Efficiency Variation

Sl No.StyleProduction UnitItem/OptionReason of Efficiency Variation
1KYLIE  SL-SETUnit-01Round Neck T-Shirt1. Production Manpower used more than Layout target Manpower
2. Frequent line layout change
Unit-01V Neck T-Shirt1. Production Manpower used more than Layout target Manpower
2. Frequent line layout change
Unit-01Short Pant1. Production Manpower used more than Layout target Manpower
2. Frequent line layout change
3. Rented low quality m/c
4. Unskilled Kansai machine Operator
2KYLIE N-SLIPUnit-02Round Neck T-Shirt (Solid)1. Production Manpower used more than Layout target Manpower, but achieved efficiency
Unit-01V Neck T-Shirt (Stripe)1. Production Manpower used more than Layout target Manpower
Unit-02V Neck T-Shirt (Stripe)1. Production Manpower used more than Layout target Manpower, but achieved efficiency
3KYLIE 2PK SHORTSUnit-01Short Pant (Solid)1. Production Manpower used more than Layout target Manpower
2. Frequent line layout change
3. Rented low quality m/c
4. Unskilled Kansai machine Operator
Unit-01Short Pant (Stripe)1. Production Manpower used more than Layout target Manpower
2. Frequent line layout change
3. Rented low quality m/c
4. Unskilled Kansai machine Operator

Feedback:

  1. Manual operations need to be reduced.
  2. Before the changeover, required m/c with quality must be ensured.
  3. Need to train operator & improve skill.
  4. Unit-01 need to improve more by reducing helping operations (Exp: KYLIE N-SLIP V neck T-shirt Stripe).Unit-01 achieved efficiency 36% & Unit-02 achieved efficiency 51%
  5. Style-wise big volume sewing quantity but short time running in several lines, that`s why line average efficiency reduces. During line planning, this factor should be considered.

Sharmin Akther Diba
Industrial & Production Engineer
Rajshahi University of Engineering & Technology
Email: [email protected]
LinkedIn: Sharmin Akther Diba

Operation Breakdown, SMV and Layout of Jogger Manufacturing

Operation Breakdown, SMV and Layout of Jogger Manufacturing Process

Jogger with Welt Pocket and Panel

A jogger is a casual bottom item; Welt pocket is an inside pocket with bone covered in the mouth. Here given all operation list sequence wise of jogger manufacturing. Here jogger total SMV is 19.61, 72 manpower required.
This Operation Breakdown is done by LOGIC ERP software, used to prepare operation bulletin & m/c layout & others departmental jobs as well.  There is a data bank, style SMV analysis, machine layout & operation balancing. This LOGIC ERP database can be linked with other software & web for different uses. 

Operation Balancing Sheet of Jogging Pant
Seq. NoBody PartOperationResourceSMVTarget (100%)Cycle Time(s)Theoretical MPLayout MP
1Front PartFront leg panel attach4T OL Auto1.444286.45.335
2NeckMatch n Back panel attach4T OL Auto1.444286.45.335
3Front PartFront Rise join4T OL Auto0.3200181.111
4Back PartBack rise join4T OL Auto0.3200181.111
5PocketingPocket position markAssistant Operator0.3218819.21.191
6PocketingPress welt with fusing paper n markSewing Iron0.4812528.81.782
7PocketingPocket welts attachSNL Auto0.5610733.62.072
8PocketingPocket liner attach behind weltSNL Auto0.5610733.62.072
9PocketingCut pocket mouth n form fishtailAssistant Operator0.786422.592
10PocketingWelt edge neaten4T OL Auto0.5120301.852
11PocketingSecure fishtailsSNL Auto0.728343.22.672.25
12PocketingTopstitch pocket welts with cornerSNL Auto0.847150.43.112.75
13PocketingPocket bag attach4T OL Auto0.6100362.222
14PocketingSecure pocket bags OL seamSNL Auto0.4150241.481.5
15PocketingPocket bag tack at side n waistSNL Auto0.4812528.81.782
16AssemblyFront n back part sticker matchAssistant Operator0.2821416.81.041
17AssemblySide mark n tackSNL Auto0.5610733.62.072
18AssemblySideseam join4T OL Auto0.767945.62.813
19AssemblyInseam join4T OL Auto0.649438.42.372
20AssemblySecure crotch pointBT0.1833310.80.671
21AssemblyElastic press and cut to lengthSewing Iron0.2300120.741
22AssemblyElastic join as a circle n markDNL Lock Switch Auto0.3200181.111
23Waist BeltWaist band join as circleSNDL Edg Cutter0.2623115.60.961
24Waist BeltMark n fusing attachSewing Iron0.2821416.81.041
25Waist BeltMark n form holes at waist bandBH Auto0.35171211.31
26Waist BeltElastic tack at waistbeltSNL Auto0.4812528.81.782
27Waist BeltWaist band topstitch form channelKNS0.5120301.852
28Waist BeltWB lower edge close n markSNL[Chain STS]0.45133271.672
29Waist BeltAttach waist band to body4T OL Auto0.4812528.81.782
30AssemblyCare label makeSNL Auto0.2425014.40.891
31AssemblyLabel attach at back waistSNL Auto0.4150241.481.5
32AssemblyLoop measure cut n attach at inside waistSNL Auto0.2821416.81.041
33CuffCuff join as a circleX2SNL Auto0.2821416.81.041
34CuffCuff fold into halfAssistant Operator0.2425014.40.891
35CuffCuff attach at leg opening4T OL Auto0.5120301.852
36AssemblySticker remove n GMTs turnAssistant Operator0.2623115.60.961
37Waist BeltWaist band topstitch1NDL FL0.4613027.61.72
38PocketingSecure Pocket cornersBT0.4812528.81.782
39AssemblyDrawstring insert through the waist channelAssistant Operator0.3200181.111
40Waist BeltSecure tie at CB waist bandBT0.1833310.80.671
41AssemblyDrawstring end knot makeAssistant Operator0.2821416.81.041
42AssemblyThread trimAssistant Operator0.35171211.31
 – – –Total19.6 – –72.6372
Operation Breakdown, SMV and Layout of Jogger Manufacturing Process

SMV Summary of Jogger

Sewing Helper3.69
Sewing Machine15.92
Sewing QI0
Finishing I/M0
Finishing QI0
Poly Helper0
Packing0
Hand Tag0
Total19.61

Man Power Summary of Jogger

Sewing Helper13
Sewing Machine59
Sewing QI0
Finishing I/M0
Finishing QI0
Poly Helper0
Packing0
Hand Tag0
Total72

Machine Summary of Jogger

4T OL Auto25
SNL Auto21
BT4
DNL Lock Switch Auto1
SNDL Edg Cutter1
BH Auto1
KNS2
SNL[Chain STS]2
1NDL FL2
Total59
Balancing Graph of Jogger Manufacturing

Written by

Rabin Saha
PGD in Textile Management
BSc. in Textile Engineering
Email: [email protected]
LinkedIn: Rabin Saha

Operation Breakdown, SMV and Layout of Hoodies Manufacturing

SMV of Hoodies Manufacturing

Hoodies with Kangaroo Pocket

Hoodies with Kangaroo Pocket
  • A hoodie cloth is a jacket, sweatshirts with hood. Kangaroo pocket is open on either side usually use in hoodies. Here given all operation list sequence wise of Hoodies Manufacturing. Here hoodies total SMV is 15.99, 59 manpower required. Operation Breakdown is done by LOGIC software. It is a tool to make style breakdown & machine layout report. There is a calculative & non-calculative method for operation breakdown. It helps to make data bank, style SMV analysis, machine layout & operation balancing. A LOGIC database can be easily interlinked with other software or medium, like Fast-react, ERP, etc.
Operation Breakdown, SMV and Layout of Hoodies Manufacturing
Operation Breakdown, SMV and Layout of Hoodies Manufacturing

Operation Balancing

Garments Item: Hoodies
Style Ref. : V H UGH Patch
Custom Style :
Buyer Name :
Working Hour : 1
Target : 71
Efficiency : 32
Fabric Type : Fleece , 350 gsm
Line No. :
Allocated MP : 59
Pitch Time : 27
Insert Date Time:
Insert By :
Update Date Time:
Update By :
Remarks : P.Q.-5000 PCs

Operation Bulletin Sheet

Seq. NoBody PartOperationResourceSMVTarget (100%)EfficiencyCycle Time(s)Layout MP
1HoodHood upper two part attach4T OL Auto0.32000181
2HoodHood upper topstitch2NDL FL0.28214016.81
3HoodHood liner two part join4T OL Auto0.32000181
4HoodHood upper n liner two part join4T OL Auto0.33182019.81
5HoodBluffstitch hood join seam1NDL FL0.41500242
6HoodHood mark n make holeSnap0.28214016.81
7HoodEyelets attach at hoodSnap BA0.351710211
8HoodHood channel make1NDL FL0.42143025.22
9HoodHood middle tackSNL Auto0.18333010.81
10HoodHood lower edge closeSNL[Chain STS]0.32000181
11HoodHood crotch tackSNL Auto0.24250014.41
12PocketingPocket position markAssistant Operator0.24250014.41
13PocketingPocket hem kangaroo pocket2NDL FL0.351710211
14PocketPocket edge pressSewing Iron0.41500241
15PocketingPocket attach and edge close-[Kangaroo]SNL Auto0.85710513
16PocketingPocket excess raw-edge cutAssistant Operator0.32000181
17PocketingPocket opening secure X4BT0.41500242
18AssemblyFront n back part matchAssistant Operator0.28214016.81
19AssemblyShoulder Join with/ without tape4T OL Auto0.351710211
20SleeveSleeve n body matchAssistant Operator0.351710211
21SleeveInsert Sleeves in hoodies4T OL Auto0.56107033.62
22SleeveArmholes topstitch2NDL FL0.51200302
23LabelCare label makeSNL Auto0.24250014.41
24LabelFlag label tack at sideSNL Auto0.26231015.6 
25AssemblySide seams ins care label4T OL Auto0.8750483
26CuffCuff join as a circleX2SNL Auto0.28214016.81
27CuffCuff fold into halfAssistant Operator0.24250014.41
28CuffCuffs attach at sleeve opening4T OL Auto0.51200302
29HoodHood n body match n markAssistant Operator0.32000181
30AssemblyHood tack at neckSNL Auto0.24250014.41
31HoodHood attach to body4T OL Auto0.351710211
32AssemblyFront neck topstitch2NDL FL0.32000181
33NeckTape attach at back neckSNL Auto0.351710211
34NeckBack neck top stitchSNL Auto0.451330272
35LabelLabel makeSNL Auto0.24250014.41
36LabelAttach main label at back neckSNL Auto0.32000181
37AssemblyBottom band join as circleSNDL Edg, Cutter0.24250014.41
38AssemblyBottom band edges close and markSNL[Chain STS]0.451330272
39AssemblyBottom band attach to body4T OL Auto0.47128028.22
40AssemblySticker remove and GMTs turnAssistant Operator0.26231015.61
41CuffCuffs topstitch [circular]2NDL FL0.451330272
42AssemblyBottom band topstitch2NDL FL0.451330272
43NeckTie insert at hood chennelAssistant Operator0.28214016.81
44HoodSecure tie at c/frt hoodBT0.18333010.81
45AssemblyThreads trimAssistant Operator0.41500241
Total1659

SMV Summary of Hoodies

Sewing Helper3.05
Sewing Machine12.94
Sewing QI0
Finishing I/M0
Finishing QI0
Poly Helper0
Packing0
Hand Tag0
Total15.99

Man Power Summary of Hoodies

Sewing Helper10
Sewing Machine49
Sewing QI0
Finishing I/M0
Finishing QI0
Poly Helper0
Packing0
Hand Tag0
Total59

Machine Summary of Hoodies

4T OL Auto14
2NDL FL9
1NDL FL4
Snap1
Snap BA1
SNL Auto13
SNL[Chain STS]3
BT3
SNDL Edg Cutter1
Total49
Operation Balancing Graph of Hoodies Manufacturing

Sharmin Akther Diba
Industrial & Production Engineer
Rajshahi University of Engineering & Technology
Email: [email protected]
LinkedIn: Sharmin Akther Diba

Visual Management: A Tool of Lean Management for Garments Finishing Unit

‘Visual Management’ is an important part of lean manufacturing. It can carry up to 90% information in production floor. Visual management can convey message more effectively & easily understandable by all. Though It has positive impact, we sometimes overlooked this tool because of our ignorance or lack of knowledge. Visual management is a tangible way of communication to express rules, SOP, performance, standard, warning etc. It requires prior or less training to implement & follow. In this article it will be discussed how visual management is important for garments finishing unit. Garments finishing is one of the important step of completion of product life cycle. Finishing unit consist of garments checking, measurement follow-up, standard follow-up, trimming uncut threads, ironing, adding trims & accessories, wrapping, packing, weighting etc.

Steps of Visual Management

Visual Management: A Tool of Lean Management for Garments Finishing Unit

1. To Hang a Layout Diagram/Picture

It is good practice to use same layout for all lines in finishing unit. Here A layout showing every steps of garments finishing along with workstation orientation. There must include all physical variables, structures, length & width, substations, pathway etc. It is easy to make layout diagram in excel or AutoCAD by keeping measurement. Whenever a new employee or worker will see the layout, can easily understand the workflow. Language used in layout can be Bengali or English as per wish. It is helpful for any kind of technical or compliance audit also. A layout of your production or finishing floor can easily make first impression better when a new buyer visits your floor. It is an easy lean tool to make anyone understand about work activities & discipline.

Garments Finishing Layout picture

2. To Do Demarcation

Demarcation is the second step of visual management. Demarcation is fixing or identifying area for specific work. Do divide your finishing line is substations. Then fix the area by measuring & considering ergonomically standard work stations. You can take operators or workers view while dividing the area. It will add positive value & they will abide by the rules later. The question may be why this is necessary? It is necessary to fix work area to make sustainable discipline in finishing floor. No machine, table, man or accessories will move beyond your demarcation area. It is another way to eliminate process flow time by irregular flow. Demarcation can be done using color or different color tiles as per wish.

Zone alignment demarcation in garments factory

3. To Attach Identifier Board and KPI Board

After subdividing your work stations, the third step is to make visual boards or stickers for every workstation. Workstation identifier boards must be attached to every workstation. When you will follow it for every line in your finishing floor, it will look like an organized finishing floor. Anyone can understand process flow very easily. During any kind of buyer visit or audit, you will not have to follow them and show them the workstation by telling operation name. Well organized factories follow this visual management to reduce these kinds of micromanaging activities. Don’t think about the monetary value of identifier boards, implement them first & gradually you would see the result. KPI board need to be attached in front of the finishing line. You can add KPI list as per your factory standard. Finishing garments operation breakdown, DHU percentage, daily production & efficiency, attendance & leave status can be added in KPI board. It is good practice to include several departments activities in KPI board like HR, Quality, IE & top management. A well-organized KPI board can save minimum 1hour time. You want to know, how? At morning IE will fill up KPI board with efficiency or bottleneck status, QC will fill defect rate or top defect areas, HR will fill leave or attendance status, the production team will fill plan vs target status etc. These kinds of visual management will help top management to identify any line status at a glance. So why not you are applying it on your floor!

4. To Make Rules, Instructions, and Standardization for Sustain

It is necessary to make visual management sustainable. For this purpose, some rules & instruction can be visualized for standardization. It also helps to maintain discipline & in some cases have direct impact on productivity improvement & defect reduction. A proper set up of visual management is the first pre-requisite of lean manufacturing process. It helps to make audit successful, reduce defect label, maintain HR rules & regulations, workplace standardization & calm environment.

Visual Management A Tool of Lean Management for Garments Finishing Unit

Visual management helps to identify mistakes, improper orientation, mismanagement & irregularities. Not only for garments finishing unit, visual management is mandatory for all units like cutting, printing, sewing, washing, dyeing, warehouse etc. Office workstation can be properly visualized & it will make your organization a wonder land of lean based organization. Then why not approaching towards this small & continuous improvement? You can easily follow mentioned four steps for any kind of factory or organization from shop floor to workstation.

Written by

Sharmin Akther Diba

Industrial & Production Engineer

Rajshahi University of Engineering & Technology

Email: [email protected]

Linkedin: Sharmin Akther Diba

Necessary IE Terms of Apparel Industry

Industrial Engineering – IE is one of the popular term used in the apparel industry, where this work for optimization of complex process within the industry. Optimization is applicable to men, machine, materials, methods, and monetary resources. Here in this article you will have details of necessary IE terms of apparel industry with examples.

Necessary IE Terms of Apparel Industry

Necessary IE Terms of Apparel Industry

Needed Industrial Engineering (IE) Terms Mostly Used in Apparel Industry

Very basic apparel industrial engineering terms discussed with example for clear understanding. List of terms are:

  1. Standard minute value (SMV)
  2. Efficiency
  3. Line target
  4. CPM & CM
  5. CM/COM/MC
  6. Broad calculation of garments cm
  7. Conventional vs modern profit theory
  8. Cost of making (CM) rule
  9. Work study
  10. Time & motion study
  11. Line balancing

1. Standard Minute Value (SMV)

  • SMV defined as the term Standard Minute Value, is mostly used in the garments industry and it is a common measurement calculated by the Industrial Engineer. Generally, SMV indicates the time taken to make garments by the workers using the right types of machinery.
  • SMV = BASIC TIME + (BASIC TIME × ALLOWANCE)
  • Suppose to complete an operation, a standard operator takes 1 minute.
  • We put 15% allowance (Men, M/c & Time)
  • SMV=1+(1×.15) Min
    =(1+.15) Min
    =1.15 Min
  • GMT SMV is the sum of SMV for all M/c & Manual operation to complete an item

Related Terms of SMV

  • Standard Operator: For a specific item & style, the potential operator who can give maximum output with the best quality & can improve productivity.
  • Let’s see an Example for better understanding,
  • Batsman faces 10 balls to score 5 Runs
  • Batsman faces 10 balls to score 12 runs
  • Batsman faces 10 balls to score 10 runs.
  • Obviously 2nd one is the potential batsman who uses his
  • Inputs (balls) to get maximum output (Runs)
Related Terms of SMV Standard Operator
  • Pre-defined Conditions: On time input arrival, single piece flow, running m/c conditions, defined quality status, etc. are called pre-defined conditions.
  • Basic Time: Actual time to complete an operation. In another word, basic time is the pick & drop time including an operation for quality output.

                        Basic Time= Pick time + Operation + Drop time;

                        Result , Input=Output with required quality

  • In a broad sense , a GMT SMV=Sum of all operation SMV, not SMV of GMT + allowance.

2. Efficiency

  • Efficiency defined as ’The comparison of what is actually produced or performed with what can be achieved with the same consumption of resources (Men, M/c, Material, etc. )’’
  • Efficiency = Earned Minute/Available Minute
  • Earned Minute = Production (Pcs) x SMV
  • Available Minute = Manpower (Helper + Operator) x Working Time (Minute)

Calculation of Efficiency Percent

  • Suppose any GMT item SMV is 5.5 (For any fixed style SMV always fixed)
  • We use 22 Manpower(Operator & Helper) to achieve 1500 Pcs for 10 hours working shift
  • Earned Minute = 1500× 5.5 or 8250 Min
  • Available Minute = 22× (10×60) or 13200 Min
  • Efficiency = 8250 Min/13200 Minute or 0.625
  • Efficiency is expressed as % ,Then Efficiency =(0.625 ×100)% or 62.50%
  • Efficiency is a ratio, not a number.
  • Efficiency varies with Lead Time and Quantity. More Lead time & Quantity Increase Efficiency, on the other hand, less lead time tends us to use more MP or time to get the required output, so efficiency reduces.

3. Line Target

  • Target= (total MP X WH X 60)/SMV
  • Suppose We have 22 MP for 10 hr .GMT SMV is 5.5
  • Target =(22 X10 X60)/5.5 =2400 PCs/Hr (That is 100% TGT)
  • For expected efficiency this 100% Target is multiplied by efficiency to fix Line Target
  • Line Target =(2400X.625) ; (Lets , we have expected efficiency of 62.5%)
    =1500 PCs or 150PCs/Hr

4. CPM and CM                   

CPM Stands for Cost Per Minute which means Cost of every minute of garments sewing operations. To offer the best competitive price to the buyer and make maximum profit on garments selling CPM cost need to be kept at a minimum level.

For Calculating of CPM you need to sum all direct labor cost and any other operational cost for a particular order or for a particular period.

5. CM/COM/MC

  • Cost of Making (CM/COM)/Manufacturing cost(MC) have to calculate after calculating factory CPM.
  • CM = (SMV × CPM)/ Expected Efficiency%
  • Suppose , any GMT item SMV is 4.7, Expected efficiency = 65.8 % , CPM[let] = $0.0267
  • CM = (4.7 × .0267)/ .658
    = $0.19/PCs
    = ($0.19 ×12)/Dzn
    =$2.28 /Dzn

6. Broad Calculation of Garments CM

To calculate the Cost of Making of a garment you have to collect the following information:

  • First of all, you need to get the monthly information of factory rental expense, commercial expense, utility expenses (Electricity, Steam, Compressed Air, Water), transportation cost, repair & maintenance expenses, salary, and wages expense, etc. suppose for all these expenses the total cost is 70000 USD.
  • Secondly, the number of functioning machine for a particular month. Suppose the number of machines is 120. Cost associate in the first section is for this 120 machine.
  • You also need the number of machinery to do the layout for the particular item for which we are calculating the cost of making. Suppose the number of machines is 30.
  • By using the existing layout, the amount of target production per hour (excluding the alteration and rejection of garments). Suppose 250 pcs per hour production will be there.
  • The total number of working days for a particular month. This can be 26 days (30 days a month, 4 days of holiday in a month)

Cost of Making (CM) Rule

= {(Monthly total expenditure of the garments factory/ 26 days) / (Number of Functioning Machine of your factory for a particular month) X (Number of machine to complete the layout)} / [{(Production capacity per hour by using existing layout, excluding alteration and rejected quantity) X 8 working hours a day}] X 12 piece

= [{($70,000 / 26) / (120) X (30)} / {(250) X 8}] X 12

= [{2692.30 / (120) X (30)} / 2000] X 12

= (673.08 /2000) X 12

= .33654 X 12

= $4.04/dozen

7. Conventional VS Modern Profit Theory

  • Conventional : COST + PROFIT = PRICE
  • Modern : PRICE – COST = PROFIT
  • Price should be moderate to get maximum order!
  • Cost should be minimized to get maximum profit!

 9. Work Study                                   

  • A systematic study of methods of work to improve effectiveness & set standards
  • 2 stages:

1. Method study: study of current method & find out to implement the improved method

2. Work measurement: determine the standard time required to complete improved method

Benefits of Work Study

  • Productivity improvement
  • Efficiency increase
  • Improved workflow
  • Improved work layout
  • Improved standards

10. Time and Motion Study

  • Time study: a work measuring technique to calculate basic time by finding cycle time & adding allowance
  • Motion study: a technique to analyze operators motion & set a standard by eliminating unnecessary motion
  • Two different theory but need parallel running to improve system known as ‘method engineering’
  • Time & motion study is a conjugal technique to process control, improve dissimilar work performance & set standard goals
  • IE is a combined package to improve by time study, work study & motion study

11. Line Balancing

  • Line balancing is a manufacturing engineering function in which the whole collection of production-line tasks are divided into equal portions.
  • Well balanced lines avoid labor idleness & improve productivity
  • Line balancing is for keeping workload (theoretical mp/actual mp) as 1 or less than 1 by balancing work as per capacity & target
Line Balancing in Apparel Industry

Steps for Line Balancing

Steps of Line Balancing in Apparel Industry
  • Bottleneck’ (constraint m/c or mp or operation that reduces productivity) have to find out
  • Find same m/c / m/c condition such as gauge/pressure feet/device/thread etc.
  • Find same m/c / m/c condition such as gauge/pressure feet/device/thread etc.
  • Find same m/c / m/c condition such as gauge/pressure feet/device/thread etc.
  • Find same m/c / m/c condition such as gauge/pressure feet/device/thread etc.
  • Find same m/c / m/c condition such as gauge/pressure feet/device/thread etc.
  • Find same m/c / m/c condition such as gauge/pressure feet/device/thread etc.
Example of Line Balancing of T-Shirt

Written by

Sharmin Akther Diba

Industrial & Production Engineer

Rajshahi University of Engineering & Technology

Email: [email protected]

LinkedIn: Sharmin Akther Diba