Trims and Accessories are used to make a complete garment. Other than fabric, different trims and accessories are the main parts of cloth. Sewing thread, price tag, size tag, sticker, label are the main trims and accessories. Although the price of these items depends on the quality of the product and quantity ordered. But we have been sharing here the average price of these items. Hopefully, this list of trims and accessories with price will help you to do the initial costing of garments. Apparel manufacturing company basically source these materials from China.
Responsibilities of Garments Internal Audit Manager
The job description of the Audit Manager must contain the following responsibilities if you want to recruit and assign responsibilities of garments internal audit manager. The audit manager and his team play a vital role in ensuring a good internal control system. An effective internal control system brings efficiency in terms of operation and cost minimization.
Routine Responsibilities of Audit Manager
Review the effectiveness and efficiency of the Internal Control System and implement corrective action
Plan and monitor regular factory visit schedule of an audit team and report to Head of Audit/top management.
Prepare audit plan weekly, monthly, the quarterly and yearly basis for the company.
Report to Head of Audit/top Management and follow up audit findings and recommendations (if required).
Invoice checking any verifying the figures
Insurance and sales commission bill checking
Pro-forma invoice (PI) checking
Proceed all kind of credit, cash and adjustment bill
Purchase rate analysis with the procurement department
Approval of material purchase requisition through database and Construction material requisition approval from top Management
Any other task assigned by the head of internal audit
Periodic Responsibilities of Audit Manager
Weekly factory visit
Factory bill and voucher checking and follow up.
Checking subcontract receive challan & other receiving challan and follow the status up a time to time.
Follow up LC (letter of credit) & TT (telegraphic Transfer) and any other short receive reports
Follow up MRS (return challan) checking for whether the item bill paid or not paid.
Quarterly or Yearly inventory valuation of the company
Monitoring bill in hand to Audit, an advance bill in hand to Purchase, old challan in hand to Store Department
Auditing Over Time, Tiffin bill & unpaid wage of the company
Follow up yarn balance checking to subcontract party
C&F and Transport rate following up and keep records of rates.
Check and prepare Financial Statement as per BAS (Bangladesh Accounting Standard), IAS (International Accounting Standard)
Coordinate the external audit
Manage team and coordinate with the client for report findings
Any other task assigned by the head of audit/management.
Skills Required for Audit Manager
Person Should have Knowledge of IFRS, BAS, IAS, GAAP, GAAS
Proper Knowledge of Chartered Accountancy is Mandatory for this position
Knowledge on Income Tax Ordinance 1984, Companies Act 1994 and Business Laws (Bangladesh)
Ability to conduct an analytical review of financial statements
Familiar with internal control requirements at different environments and record-keeping
A committed auditor with an ability to generate and implement effective auditing procedures and also to evaluate accounting systems for efficiency.
Having a successful track record of checking and implementing different internal control procedure
The Digital Printing Technician will be responsible for the digital Dye Sublimation printer and Ink Jet printer. The job description of a digital printing technician includes all the responsibilities mentioned below. This role is basically suitable for the candidates who have digital printing experience, wanting to challenge themselves in a good factory environment. It is crucial to understand the dye sub and direct print on the fabric process and how each step affects color and quality. This person will understand the profiles and conditions of the press, keeping up on maintenance to ensure the best quality printing output.
Responsibilities of Digital Printing Technician
You will be responsible for operating all the digital printing equipment.
Provide technical solutions as required for bulk production of different types of printing.
Work independently to design, execute and document digital printing experiments.
Capability to solve all types of technical issues related to sample, size set, bulk production, etc. with the printing machine.
Ensuring that products meet set requirements and specifications (colorfastness, durability, and accuracy, etc.)
Color retouching, fixing or re-creating files as needed, and color management.
Inspect and examine the coordination of the printed products with the quality team for print clarity, color accuracy, conformance to specifications and external defects.
Ensure the quality during bulk production and also minimize the rejections.
You will need to take responsibility for the storage of prints and other works in production, monitoring and maintaining records of usage, monitoring and reordering stock, and working within a given budget.
To ensure proper maintenance and security of printing software, database storage, and related documentation and manuals.
Communicate with designer and sample department, color department, coordinators and merchant team for development issues of a good product.
Checking products for suitability and testing for performance under various conditions as required.
Examine the specific style to determine the details, such as sample quality, types of color/chemicals be used, color sequences and any other instructions.
Be responsible for components of variable data printing, including the creative aspects and print production.
Collaborate with Material Managers and Developers to test innovation opportunities and identify solutions to meet innovation objectives.
Bring recommendations and ideas on what is possible with technology and keeping up to date with trends and innovations.
To provide advice, training, and support to concern people; this will include designing and implementing personal training programs for an individual as necessary.
Be responsible for proofing your work to help ensure accuracy and efficiency.
Skills Required for Digital Printing Technician
Excellent influencing, communication, interpersonal and facilitation skills.
Must have technical knowledge of digital printing.
Ability to develop and implement complex project plans and strategies required for the printing section.
Experience working with ink chemistries and fluid rheology a plus.
Knowledge of data management software and information technology used in digital printing.
Knowledge of textile chemistry, physical materials testing, product testing, design, and product engineering a plus.
Knowledge of creating the design to execute on a digital printer.
Basic knowledge of file conversion and image file formats or any other printable file formats.
Excellent time management and organizational skills.
Ability to manage multiple tasks, shift gears quickly for changing priorities, and meet demanding deadlines.
Complete Training Cost-Benefit Analysis of Workers
This article will provide your complete training cost benefit analysis of garment workers. Suppose 5000 workers are working in your factory. You are not able to reach the target productivity level. After critical evaluation of the productivity of every worker, you have identified that 500 workers are performing below the expected level. The actual productivity is 50% for these 500 workers, which was estimated to be 65% on an average. And you also come to know that they have lower productivity because of lack of skills and experience. You cannot just replace this large number of workers with skilled one because getting skilled workers is hard to find and time-consuming process.
So it will be a better choice for you to provide the training, that will improve their skills, which results in increased productivity and lower in cost. But before that, you must do a cost-benefit analysis of investment for the training program and also calculate the return on investment. If you get a positive result, then you must go for the investment of the required training program.
A proper training plan and materials must be prepared by export from the related field, otherwise, your investment will become a loss project.
Training Plan of Garment Workers
To provide training you have to
be ready with the following things
How many people will receive training?
Training for how many Days (Whole day training or few hours of a day)
Workshop training will be provided with a practical opportunity of learning
Course materials will be provided by the company (if it is required)
Company will arrange this training program at its own cost
Food allowance will provide by the company for the training days
Training Cost May Includes
Training Facilities arrangement
Course Materials (Book containing visual images
of the required processes)
Opportunity Cost of Reduced Productivity of the
Calculation of Training Cost Benefit
Following parameters are required:
Total number of worker will receive training = 500 person
The training program will be for = 3 Days for each batch
Number of hours of training = 8 Hours/Day
The total training program will be for = 3 Days x 8 Hours = 24 Hours
Total 50 people will receive training for 3 Days in a Batch
Number of batch required = 500 Person/50 Person a day = 10 Batches
Total Days Required for this training program is = 10 Batch x 3 days = 30 working days
Number of Trainer = 2 Person
Average Salary of Workers Per Month = 9,000 BDT/Month
Total Working Hours in a Month = (8 Hours x 26 Days) = 208 Hours
Average Salary of Workers Per Hour = (9,000 BDT/208 Hours) = 43.27 BDT/Hour
Cost Estimation of Training Program
Total Consultancy/Trainer Fee = (30 Days x 20000
BDT) = 600,000 BDT
Food Allowance = (500 Person x 3 Days x 100 BDT)
= 150,000 BDT
The cost of training facility arrangement = 300,000
The cost of Training materials = 400,000 BDT
Opportunity Cost of Losing Productive Hours =
(500 Person x 3 Days x 8 Hours) = 12,000 Hours
Total cost of Productive Hours = (12,000 Hours x
43.27 Average Hourly Salary) = 519,240 BDT
After summing up all these expenses, you will get the total cost of the above training program.
Total Cost of Training = (600,000 BDT + 150,000 BDT + 400,000 BDT +
519,240 BDT) = 1,669,240 BDT
The training cost can vary industry to industry, training method to method.
The training cost is highly depending on the scope of the training program.
It is not necessary to provide food allowance and training course materials for the garments workers. But if you provide, then it will be beneficial for them. Although it is costly for most of the garments.
Calculation of Existing Productivity
Suppose if a factory can maintain 100% efficiency then a worker production capacity should be 1000 piece a day. You are expecting that your factory worker’s productivity should have 65%, which is 650 piece a day. But your factory running at 50% capacity, based on the production of 500 pieces a day.
Expected Productivity = (650 Piece of Work /1,000
Piece of Work) = 65%
Actual Productivity (Before Training) = (500
Piece of Work /1000 Piece of Work) = 50%
Actual Productivity (After Training) = (550
Piece of Work /1000 Piece of Work) = 55%
Cost Benefit Analysis of Training Program
Daily Production Will Increase for each worker =
(550 Piece of Work – 500 Piece of Work) = 50 Piece of Work a Day
Total Daily Increased Production = (50 Piece of
Work x 500 Workers) = 25,000 Piece
Total Monthly Increased Production = (25,000
Piece of Work x 26) = 650,000 Piece of Work in a Month
Suppose a piece of work has a value of 0.070 BDT
then total Benefit your factory will get = (650,000 Piece of Work x 0.70 BDT) =
Yearly Benefit = (455,000 BDT x 12 Months) = 5,460,000 BDT
Wages and Salary Expenses = (500 Worker x 9000 BDT)
= 4,500,000 BDT
Cost Per Operation (Before Training) = (4,500,000
BDT/ (500 Workers x 500 Piece a Day x 26 Days) = .692 BDT per Piece of Work
Cost Per Operation (After Training) = (4,500,000
BDT/ (500 Workers x 550 Piece a Day x 26 Days) = .629 BDT Per Piece of Work
Reduction of Cost per Piece ofWork =
(.692 BDT – .577 BDT) = .063 BDT
Reduction Percent = 9.10% because of increased productivity
Calculation of Return on Investment of
Return on Investment of Training Program = (Yearly
Total Benefit/Total Investment) x 100 = (5,460,000 BDT/1,669,240 BDT) x 100 =
Calculation of Cost Benefit Ratio of
Cost Benefit Ratio = (Yearly Total Benefit/Total
Cost) = (5,460,000 BDT/1,669,240 BDT) = 3.27:1
That is, if you
invest 1 BDT then you will receive benefit of 3.27 BDT which is more than three
times of the investment amount.
All numbers are taken assumption basis, so these numeric results are not 100% accurate to the apparel industry.
BDT is used as a currency; you can use of your own currency.
You will not find anybody who is working in different processing of apparel manufacturing but didn’t have any idea about GSM. Simply, GSM is the unit for the weighing of fabric. Actually not only fabric but GSM is also used specifying the weight of paper, lather or any sheet-like materials.
Meaning and Calculation of GSM
What GSM Stands for?
GSM is the abbreviation Grams per Square Meter. It says the weight of one square meter of fabric. That means if we make a piece of fabric whose area is just 1 square meter and weighted in a balance what the reading shows will be the GSM of that fabric.
Calculation of Fabric Gram Per
Square Meter (GSM)
If we need to check/calculate the weight of any fabric, what we do? We cut a circular shaped piece of fabric by GSM cutter and put it on an electronic balance. Balance shows the reading 1.80gram, we proclaim that the fabric has Gram Per Square Meter (GSM) 180 moving the decimal for two digits from the balance reading. Why we do this? Though GSM is the weight of one-meter fabric why we measure such circular piece fabric?
There is very silly but interesting math in it. Let’s have look.
Measurement of GSM
It is much difficult to measure fabric weight by making a piece of fabric of 1 square meter and it will be a wastage of fabric as we have to check the weight for several times of the same fabric. Then what can we do? If we make the specimen 1/100 of 1sqm i.e., 100 square centimeters, now weigh the piece of fabric of 100square centimeter and multiply the reading by 100, we will find the GSM of the fabric.
That means it is more convenient to measure the weight with a piece of 100square centimeter, rather than 1square meter.
Now the problem is that our GSM cutter is circular shaped, not square. Let us think if the GSM cutter is square-shaped, will that be possible to cut the piece by screwing the cutter?
That’s why GSM cutter is circular shaped. Now we need to find out a circle whose area is 100cm2. It is pretty easy, just back to the High School Geometry. We know, area of a circle is πr2.
Now if we summarized it then comes, the radius of our GSM cutter is 5.64cm and the area of the circular piece of fabric that we found by the GSM cutter is 100cm2. We will find GSM of that fabric by multiplying the weight reading of 100cm2 fabric by 100.
Sizing is the process of applying different size solution with paper or textile materials. In the textile industry, sizing solution is used on the twisted yarn (cotton, linen, and polyester) surface during weaving, so that the strength of yarn can increase and reduce the hairiness. Commonly used sizing solutions are an adhesive, softener, binding agent, anti-mildew agent, hygroscopic agent, anti-foaming, and wetting agent. Normally 15% of sizing materials are added with 85% of water to prepare the sizing solution. The solution preparation is depending on the type of yarn and the machine will be used in weaving. The main problem of sizing is the actual shade of yarn may change.
Sizing: Meaning, Purpose, and Modern Process of Textile Sizing
In this article, we will have a discussion on the sizing meaning, the purpose of sizing and modern automated process of textile sizing. You know, sizing is the process of coating with different size solution to ensure the supply of good quality yarn for weaving.
Purpose of Textile Sizing
The purpose of
sizing is to apply size solution on to the warp yarn surface during weaving
warp yarns under high tension and vigorous abrasion. So that we can get the
Sizing particularly on cotton yarn will increase the yarn strength and reduce the yarn breakage.
Sizing helps to reduce the yarn hairiness
Sodium Phosphate is used to Increase the overall weight of cotton yarn.
Because of using softener, the yarn softness will increase.
Process of Textile Sizing
A sizing machine is used to size the yarn before using it for weaving. Sizing machine is generally composed of four sections; the beam creel, size box drying, chamber, and winding head. The process of textile sizing is given below:
Warp beams are attached on a beam basket pneumatic warping brakes are fitted on the beam stands. It is used to reduce the warp let-off speed by applying a suitable pressure so to adjust the warp tension.
The brake system can also stop the beam instantly to avoid further rotation due to inertia.
Cooked size solution is pumped into the size box and the size solution is applied to the yarn by application rollers. It is important to control the size box temperature and yarn tension during size application.
Sized yarns are then passing through a series of steamrolls in the drying chamber. Yarn should have good contact with the steamroll surface for a good drying result.
At the front end of the sizing machine, the yarn separation rolls separate the warp sheet into individual yarns. In order to give a uniform yarn layout for winding onto the beam.
The adjustable Reed controls the width of the warped being wound onto the beam while the press rolls control the warp density of the beam, hence more yarn can be wound onto it. Warp length is marked by a stamping device. This mark assists the operator to cut the continuous fabric into rolls according to the required length during weaving.
Process parameters such as; winding speed, and tension, moisture content, Creole tension, drying temperature, and size can be controlled by the control panel located at the front end of the machine.