PP Meeting: PP meeting refers to Pre-Production meeting before starting of bulk production. There are various types of garments order, types of styling and buyer requirement. So, PP meeting is very important for garments manufacturing to discuss and do all experiment for production. All department head of apparel industry present in PP meeting so that everyone can be concerned about the requirement of production. In this article, you will get an overall idea of PP Meeting Checklist in Garments. Earlier we have an article “PP meeting in apparel industry” you can read this for better understanding.
PP Meeting Checklist in Garments
Major Works of PP Meeting
PP sample evaluation with approved sample
Garments construction checking with approved sample
Checking washing effect as per requirement
Giving instruction to every department for their specific responsibility
PP Meeting Checklist of Apparel Industry
SHADE (with base color) Light or dark
A – (abrasion) Less or Heavy
T – (Tint) Heavy or less
C – (coverage all dry process)
H – (Hand feel) Hard or soft
Styling Check with Updated PDM & seal sample
Trims check with approved trims card
Trims Placement check with updated PDM
Match Number UPC and care label each piece
All types button check
Security Tack each piece
Check Zipper slider open & close
Attached button, Elastic Pull & check both side
Belt tack stitch both end &weaving quality & belt size
Belt tracking number should be same all the pieces
Check inside pocket; remove stone, dust, long thread
Every Snap button Open and Check, including a sharp edge
Workmanship inside garments
Fusing Shrinkage test report
Before Wash GMTS
Fabric test report and PI Sheet from the supplier
Measurement within a tolerance limit
Check Belt measurement
Hanger, sizer check with size label After attached
A snap button is a pair of interlock discs made mainly by metal which is used as an alternative of a button. The main objectives of using a snap button in our cloth are given stylish look and fasten the wearing of cloth. Various types of snap button use in Garments. Snap machine pinch settings following snap manufacturer technical data sheet (recommendations), garments manufacturer check daily. Snap button pinch setting is very important for every apparel manufacturing industry because of setting snap button into cloth in a right process. Pinch setting is very sensitive and included in technical requirement checklist for every garments buyer. It is one of the safety issues of garments.
Snap Button Pinch Setting
Pinch setting is checked by Digital Vernier Caliper Machine. Basic pinch is what two components of snap button measure when they come together without fabric between them. Compressed Foundation Thickness (CFT) is the minimum and maximum compressed fabric thickness where the snap will be located. These limits vary according to snap size and type. Setting pinch is the total height of attached snap fasteners on fabric as measured on the specified locations. (CFT) Compressed Foundation thickness can be measured by Torque Micro Meter. Snap button supplier data sheet can be collected by sending a mockup to the supplier, they will send data sheet after an experiment.
Pinch Setting Formula
For setting Pinch following formula is used. It is a simple formula to use. Hope example of pinch setting will help you to understand easily.
Setting Pinch = Basic Pinch+ Compressed Foundation thickness (CFT)
Example of Calculation of Pinch Setting
Basic Pinch (INCHES)
Setting Pinch (INCHES)
Pull Test of Snap Button
Pull test of a snap button is required to check the setting pinch for two or three times daily as per customer required strength. For garments item, you need to use supplier dies and machines for ensuring perfect attachment.
Garments Measurements control are very important because cloth fitting depends on the right measurement and it is expected by the consumer that their dress fits properly. Every garment identifies by a size number. Every Size number has a fixed measurement chart for each and every part. Garments manufacturer have to keep control of their finished garments measurement. Keeping correct measurement of garments is the major job of Apparel Industry. Here I am sharing all points of measurement of Top and Bottom garments so that you can have an idea of all measurement points which will help you to deliver right measurement product to the customer/Buyer.
Measurement of Top and Bottom Garments
Garments Measurement Points
Measurement Points of Top Garments
Measurement Points of Bottom Garments
Measurement Points of Top Garments
Box Placket Width
Bin Placket Width
Back Yoke Height
Back Pleat Pos From Armhole
Sleeve Packet Width
Sleeve Packet Length
Sleeve Placket Pos From Edge
Sleeve Pleat Depth
Bottom Hem Height
Sleeve Hem Height
Measurement Points of Bottom Garments
Waist Band Height
W/B Loop Width
W/B Loop Length
Front Pocket Width
Front Pocket Length
Back Pocket Width
Back Pocket Length
Back Pocket Position from Center Back
Back Rise Position From W/S at Center Back
Back Pocket Pos From WB to Side Seam
Yoke Height at Side Seam
Bottom Hem Height
Cargo Pocket Width
Cargo Pocket Length
Measurement Tolerance Limit of Garments
There is a certain tolerance limit for Garments measurement fixed by the buyer. Tolerance limit has lower and upper limits, allowed measured value limit between maximum and minimum of fixed requirement. Tolerance, for example, you can follow the below-mentioned data.
*It’s just an example, ORDNUR is not responsible if you find a match with any company.
Polo shirt is one of the most popular dresses among the all ages of people, especially for the younger generation. People like to wear because of its comfort, style, and the adaptability. Both male and female used to wear this polo shirt because of a smart look. If you are passionate about polo shirt then you must have an interest in learning what are the different parts of a polo shirt and how designer design a polo shirt. As a merchandiser, you also should know about the consumption of fabric for a polo shirt.
Different Parts of a Polo Shirt
Placket (Inner Placket, Outer Placket)
The Collar of Polo Shirt
The collar added an extra edge of a look of a polo shirt. This is one of the differentiating objects from the basic t-shirt. The size of the collar is not limited to a standard, a designer can choose any size which is suitable for a particular polo shirt.
Placket of Polo Shirt
The placket is the opening parts of the front of polo shirt where it has two parts 1) Inner Placket and other is 2. Outer Placket. In the placket, buttons are attached.
Button of Polo Shirt
The button is used to close the opening parts of the packet to ensure the proper fit of the clothing. You may find there are two to three button on a polo shirt.
Neck Tape of Polo Shirt
Neck tape of a polo shirt is the part which basically attaches on to the neck of our body.
The yoke of Polo Shirt
The yoke is put each side (right and left) of the polo shirt is attached to give a different color look. Basically, the fabric color of a yoke is different than the color or polo shirt. This gives a stylish look for the polo shirt.
Pocket of Polo Shirt
One of the optional parts of a polo shirt is pocket. Most of the polo shirt does not have any pocket. But sometimes designers prefer to put a pocket on it so that polo shirt gives a different look. And the person who is using this polo shirt can put his pen or any other small object as required. The style of pocket also can be varied and it depends on the user’s perception.
The Sleeve of Polo Shirt
Normally a polo shirt has a short sleeve but manufacturers make long sleeve polo shirt also. Long sleeve polo shirt is preferable for the winter season.
Cuff of Polo Shirt
In a polo shirt, a cuff can be added with different color and fabric can be narrow fabric so that it can stitch and fit according to the share of muscle.
The body of Polo Shirt
A larger part of a polo shirt is the body part where this part indicates both the front and back side of the polo shirt. On this body part sometimes different types of design are made by embroidery or printing which can add value to the product and catch the buyers interest to buy that polo shirt.
Bottom Hem of Polo Shirt
This is the last part of a polo shirt. Normally fabric is fold and sewing is done on it so that it completes the product and give a better look.
This article will help you to learn about jeans pant and answer the question of what are the different parts of jeans pant.
Parts of Jeans Pant
Pant is one of the common forms of garments which ware by both male and female to cover waist to lower part of our body. Although jeans are one type of casual dress it is becoming more popular because of comfortability, affordability, durability, availability, and style. The consumption of jeans is increasing around the world. As the demand for jeans increasing in the Asian subcontinent, many industries already established in this region. Jeans pants are made from denim, a special type of fabric. World consumption of denim is for Jeans pant is much compared with other forms of dresses. So if you want to get into the market or you want to involve in jeans pant business then you must know the different parts of jeans pant. If you have detail knowledge of parts of pant, then it will be helpful for you to make stylish and comfortable jeans pant for man.
Different Parts of Jeans Pant
There are fifteen different parts of jeans pant you can identify from the following anatomy analysis of jeans pant
The waistband is made from denim fabric which surrounds our waist when we wear jeans pant or any other pants. On this waistband, we basically wear a belt to fit properly. A jeans pant contains only 1 waistband on it.
Belt loops are added with jeans pant so that belt can fix on it and hold the pant where we supposed to hold. There are five to seven loops are there in jeans pants. But most of the designer prefer five loops onto the waistband.
The button is used to close the top of the fly of jeans pant.
Fly of Jeans Pant
The fly is the opening part of the middle of the pant which is used to hide the zipper or button attached in there.
Watch pocket is the small pocket which places in the upper part of the front right pocket of jeans pants. Watch pocket is also known as a key holder which make the jeans pant more attractive. There is only 1 watch pocket for Jeans pant.
In clothing, a pocket is mainly used for holding small materials but it also increases the attractiveness of cloth. A pocket is one of the main part of jeans pant where there are four pockets. Two-pocket are in front side and the other two are on the back side of the jeans pant.
In a jeans pant, you may find rivets which are made of metal. Rivets actually used in the joining point of pockets of each side which not only holds the denim fabric together but also increase the attractiveness of that jeans pant.
Crotch point is the joining point of two parts below the fly of jeans pant.
In a jeans pant, you may find yoke which is located in the back side of the pant, attached with the waistband. Back yoke ensures the close fitting of jeans pant to our body.
Bottom hem is in the bottom of jeans pant which is folded and attached by sewing.
Back rise is the middle back joining point of jeans pant.
Side seam and Inseam basically the part of jeans pant where two parts joint together by sewing.
A zipper is used to close the front opening part of the jeans pant where both chain and button system can be used in jeans pant. Two buttons can be used instead of using a chain system zipper.
There is not much difference between parts of jeans pant and parts of normal pant or trouser. You may find many similarities among parts of pants and jeans pant/trouser. Here we list out 13 different parts of a basic pant. The main difference between jeans and normal pant is the fabric used for making. For jeans denim fabric is used and for pant normal fabric is used which is not categorized under the denim.
Mold is a type of fungus. Mold can grow on almost all organic material as long as moisture and oxygen are present. Mold eventually cause structural damage to the building, building materials and manufacturing product of a garments industry. To control mold you need to have a good idea of how mold prevention in apparel industry can be applied.
Mold Prevention in Apparel Industry
Due to molding in garments, apparel manufacturer gets a big amount of financial claim from customer. So it’s very necessary to adopt a control measure to prevent mold from garments.
Molds can be Grown on the following Materials
Any organic surface
Causes of Mold in Apparel Industry
Improper storage method / conditions
Incorrect procedure to operate the vacuum system of pressing table.
Poor storage of anti‐molding materials before packing.
Poor ventilation of finished garments.
Poor storage of finished garments.
Wrong vacuum system setting of pressing table.
Wrong timing to pack pressed garments
Poor loading environment
Minor and major roof leaks
Dark space in factory indoor also create a mold
Leaking in roofs
Leaking or condensing water pipes, especially pipes inside wall cavities or pipe chases.
Leaking fire protection sprinkler systems.
Landscaping gutters and downspouts that direct water into or under a building.
High humidity (60% or more relative humidity) and condensation.
Mold Preventive Action for Garments
Set mold prevention policy or SOP for workplace
Staff training, awareness creation
Develop humidity control system for every section
Keep good general housekeeping
Daily checks humidity level and keep records accordingly
Good Storage condition of incoming materials & finish products
Good shipping condition of finish products and checking the delivery container
Ensure section cleanness
Use ultraviolet light; mold cannot grow under ultraviolet light
Maintain relative humidity (RH) less than 55% or 60%
Maintain temperature 70-72° F
Ventilation or dehumidifiers system should be there.
Improve general housekeeping system.
Mold Preventive Areas in Garments Factory
Raw material and finished goods warehouse
Garments manufacturing workplace
Finishing and packing section
Mold Prevention in Garments Warehouse/Store
Keep your warehouse organized
No sign of mildew on the wall, floor in the warehouse and conduct mold check weekly basis.
All packed cartons (for trim & finished garment) must be loaded on the wooden/plastic pallets and at least about one meter away from walls & windows. (Nonwooden pallets is better).
Maintain relative humidity of about 55% and humidity is to be measured daily basics and maintain proper records.
Protect all trims, fabric, and garment by storing them in polybags or cartons.
Empty cartons must be placed on pallets and well covered by poly sheets or clothes before use.
When there is any doubt, then you need to measure the moisture content on carton by “moisture meter machine”. The reading should be less than 8%.
Apply First in First out (FIFO) method for all raw materials.
Mold Prevention in Factory Workplace
Apply vacuum function correctly on pressing table. Leave the garments on vacuum table for 5 seconds more after steaming (in order to remove moisture from the garments)
The pressing table must connect with steam ducts to remove the vapor out from the building.
Increase air ventilation by using big fans in the finishing areas.
Garments cannot be piled up too high right after pressing. Quantity can be 20 pcs for denim products and 30 pcs for non‐denim products.
Garments cannot be packed until they are exposed to open environment at least 12 hours.
Anti‐molding materials (e.g. silica gels) must be stored in the original packing material until they are required to put into the polybags/cartons.
Measure the garment moisture content by “moisture meter machine” for each Shipments (especially during the high humid season). The max reading is 8%. If garments are failed, dry them in the de‐humidifying room for about 1 day before re‐
Measure the relative humidity in the finishing and packing area at least twice per day. Max reading is 55%. Walls show no sign of mildew. Conduct mold checks in every week and keep a record.
Avoid placing the garments directly on the floor, placing them at least one meter away from the wall/windows.
Good pressing table maintenance. No water leakage foam steam pipe. Keep the cloth and foam clean and dry by changing it at least once per week.
Mold Prevention in Garments Shipping Container
Check container before loading to ensure that there is no hole/leakage on the container wall.
Every factory has their own policy to control quality to get a better product. Everything is to be written in a document; how to control quality and how to get the best quality product. For quality control, this document is known as a quality manual, which is followed by each and every company in the apparel industry. A complete quality control manual of garments factory actually increases the effectiveness of quality control by providing guidelines to the related parties. Here in this article, you will find a complete quality control manual of a typical Garments Industry. After reading this, you will have detail idea of a complete quality manual of a garments factory.
Quality Control Manual of Garments Factory and Its Working Procedure
1. Styling Sample
At first, we need to make styling sample for getting styling approval as per buyer’s specification, fitting & workmanship. Everything we need to follow as original sample & comments. For styling sample, we give fabric & accessories similar to original color or approved lap dip. We, make a paper pattern of sample size as buyer requirement. As per styling sample comments, we make the size set pattern.
2. Size Set Sample
Size set sample covering all size & covering all size & color. All actual fabric & accessories are used for styling sample. Must adjust the pattern as require fittings, grading, workmanship according to approval specification & comments.
3. Pre-Production Sample (P.P Sample)
For the final configuration of styling fitting & workmanship, before state production we make another size set sample covering all size & color for approval. After receiving p.p sample comments, manufacturer meet all of buyer requirements, then start bulk production.
4. Counter Sample
In every step of sampling, we kept a counter sample with marking the sample name. Pre-production sample counter should follow with p.p comments for bulk production. We make the copy of p.p sample with comments to give every line in production.
5. Shipment Sample
Shipment sample has to prepare for buyer 15 days before shipment covering all size & color with all actual accessories. These requirements very buyer to buyer. we always fulfill our buyer’s requirements.
6. Trial Cutting
We cut 60 pcs of garments as a 1st trail to see the measurement. If any correction is required then we do it accordingly. For the safety, we again cut 300 pcs of garments as 2nd trail cutting. After full confirmation, we start bulk cutting.
7. Pilot Run/Size Run
A pilot run is a small cut across all sizes & colors that will identify & potential problem in manufacturing prior to the factory cutting bulk. The inspection of the pilot run should be carried out by the factory Quality Control (QC).
Pilot Lots are Required When
A new fabric is being introduced and the factory has not handled it before.
Machine setting must be reevaluated and set accordingly.
New construction methods are being introduced for critical fit tests.
New machinery or new settings are being introduced.
To ensure that shrinkage allowances built into patterns are corrected for steam shrinkage, washing shrinkage, fusing, printing or any other after treatment to standard.
8. Pre-production Meeting (PPM
The Pre-production meeting should be held to review all aspects of production. It should be held after PP sample has been approved & sealed. Line managers should attend this meeting which should be facilitated by production head and attended by PP sample maker.
The meeting agenda should include style file checklist, production T & A plan, PP sample and comments review and other aspects of the manufacturing run which could impact garments of the manufacturing run which could impact garment Quality and delivery. The factories in-house documentation/from is also acceptable.
Criteria for Pre-Production Meetings (PPMs)
(requested when factory received advice of pp sample approval)
A new fabric is being introduced (including repeat orders)
Machine setting must be reevaluated and set accordingly
New construction methods are being introduced for critical fit tests
New machinery or new setting are being introduced
To ensure that shrinkage allowances built into patterns are correct for seam shrinkage, washing shrinkage, fusing, printing, or any other after treatment to standard.
Repeat order of same season without any change, no need to attend PPM repeat order with changes PPMs need to attend. Repeat order of previous season (no change) need to have pp reference review.
1. Accessories Inspection
We inspect 1.5 AQL/10% of accessories as per packing list quantity, by store Q.I we use quality manual. Q.I checks the accessories quality & safety issue. And write down the information about quality, safety issue & short excess quantity. For that, we can take an effective action from the very beginning.
We import 10% of fabric as per receiving quantity. we make the fabric lot in various stages, these are like:
Without Inspection. (Those are not yet starting inspection)
Inspection running. (Inspection running but yet not finish)
Quality pass. (That means permitted for cutting)
Rejected lot. (Not permitted for cutting)
Held up. (Waiting for a decision from buyer side or supplier)
We inspect fabric by a 4-point system, where 40 point is our acceptable range. Q.C inspects fabric and gives the report. As per inspection report, we take a final decision. Point rating for inspection is given below:
0 to 3″ defects = 1 point
Over3″ to 6″ defects = 2 point
Over3″ to 9″ defects = 3 point
Over 9″ defects = 4 point
Any hole = 4 point
2. Blanket Making
For every style, it is washed or non-washed, we make a blanket to see the fabric shade & variation of color. We mark rejected roll on that one, which is out of color standard. We divide the toll as per shade wise to ensuring shade wise cutting.
To find or all shade from bulk fabric for shade band making. Shade band to be made base on the outcome of shade blanket.
To evaluate bulk fabric shade before bulk production to ensure all shade lots within an acceptable range
Shade blanket to be made once bulk fabric available in factory
Each roll of bulk fabric to be cut an 8″(weft) x 6″ (warp) swatch for shade blanket making
Roll number to be marked on the back side by textile maker pen
Join all fabric swatches together by overlock stitch then join the left-right side to make a blanket in leg panel form
To set up an acceptable shade range for factory bulk production guideline.
To find out off shade & solve a problem at the earlier stage before bulk production.
Shade Band Making Method
Shade band must be submitted before bulk production is started.
Each shade let made two set of leg panels for buyer approval.
Leg panel dimension is to be (8″half x 16″)
Whenever the handstand/Ppspray effects are presented in the standard, they should be demonstrated on one side of the leg panels.
A pocket to be sewn on one side of the leg panel
Leg panel to be washed same as the bulk washing
Achieve shade as close as the washing standard
Half/Cut leg panels are not acceptable for approval
Shrinkage & Distortion Testing
The Objective of Shrinkage Testing
To determinate bulk fabric shrinkage for paper pattern adjustment to ensure washed garment measurement meet with the size space.
To determinate whether the fabric shrinkage fulfills buyer requirement at the earlier stage before bulk production.
The Objective of Distortion Testing
To determinate whether the fabric skew movement is fulfilling buyer requirement at the earlier stage before bulk production
Defect twisted issue before bulk production
Shrinkage Testing Method
Shrinkage & Distortion testing to be done once the bulk fabric is in-house
Shrinkage & Distortion testing could proceed with the same template at the same time with the same yardage.
For normal fabric, minimum 10% of bulk fabric is being tested.
For low stretchability fabric, minimum 30% of bulk fabric to be tested.
For high stretchability fabric 100% of bulk, fabric to be tested
Please refer to the purchase order to determine bulk fabric is high stretchability fabric or not.
Specimen for testing to be selected for each dyeing lot.
100% test when shrinkage in bulk fabric is unstable. Such as part of fabrics shrinkage exceed the tolerance, shrinkage range is too wide in the same lot of bulk fabric.
Specimen for testing must be fully relaxed before marking.
Mark two 50 cm x 50 cm squares (Minimum) on specimen’s left, right.
Specimens must be washed as bulk production; no ironing /pressing/steaming on the washed specimen for shrinkage test result.
Measure the length difference between the before wash and after a wash in weft & warp
Convert in percentage
Take the average of the 2 parts
For distortion test result
Measure the length of diagonal (AC & BD) after wash
Calculate the percentage by using below formula X =100x[2(AC-BD)/(AC+BD)]
Show 2 parts results, do not take the average
None of them can exceed buyer requirement :3%
When AC is 70 cm & BD IS 72 cm
X =100x [2(70-72)/ (70+72)]
X =100x [2(-2)/ (142)]
X=-2.8169(Acceptable, with intolerance)
When AC is 73 CM & BD is 69 cm
X=100x [2(73-69)/ (73+69)]
X=100x [2(4)/ (142)]
x=5.6338(Unacceptable, with intolerance)
C) Cutting Inspector’s Instructions
Spreading: The Quality Control inspector should check the work of each spreader for the following
Placement of Marker: Check and verify so that the marker is sited on the range with the brink matching to the selvage of the piece goods. Also, you need to Confirm that all cut pieces will be finished properly.
Shading: A control system should have for checking of shading if all parts are ply marked.
Table Marks: Table is be marked so check the table marks and please do not allow any splices.
Markers: Make sure that there are no makers with creased or overlapped parts in the markers.
Splices: After spreading is finished then check the splice laps that both plies extend past the marked splice by less than 1/2 (half) inch and not more than 1 (one) inch.
Narrow Goods: After completion of the spread, check the “far edge” of the spread to see that all plies extend beyond the marker line.
Tension: Check tension during spreading. This is very important on knit fabrics
Count: Check the count after completion of spreading, and before cutting. Count all plies at both ends. There is no tolerance.
Leaning: Check carefully to ensure that one edge of the fabric is square to the tabletop. Visually inspect the alignment of the edge with the table top.
Record spreading defects by the number of defects found for each checkpoint. For fabric utilization purposes, the sample form includes columns for edging end and remnants.
Calculate the defect rate for the spreader by dividing the number of defects found by the height.
Cutting: The quality control inspector should check each cutter at a 2.5 acceptable Quality Level (A.Q.L) based on the number of parts being cut.
The Quality control inspector should check for
Miscut: Check for miscut or the failure of the cutter to “split the line “Tolerance is 1/16” Report all defects for miscut to the cutting foreman (Supervisor)
Matching: Plies check the top ply with the bottom ply. Compare both to a hard pattern or the paper marker Comparison to a hard pattern is best. Tolerance is +- 1/8”. Report each defect found to the cutting foreman(supervisor).
Rugged Cutting: Check for rugged cutting according to the standards for your product. This a judgment defect. It is more important on critical parts if the part has to be recut, it is a defect.
Notches: Check the notch location by placing the pattern over the top ply. Tolerance is +- 1/8″ If the botch is more than 1/8″ off. Contact the cutting foreman (supervisor).
Pattern Check: Compare the pattern to maker paper to ensure that the maker was correct.
Record cutting defects on a cutting quality control form along with the number of bundles examined. To calculate the defect rate for cutting, divide the total defects found by the number of bundles checked.
Often changes are made to patterns to adjust for production problems. Some suppliers note such changes on the pattern and/or maker for the cutter to correct. Do not allow such a policy. Preventive measures are the best control for quality. Make a new pattern with the correction.
100% in Line Q.I Audit
We follow root canal system in sewing. For that, we analyze the source & reason of defects and take preventive action as per the root cause. Q.I checks 100% incomplete garments of quality control manual. Q.I writes the operator name & I.D in the format and make that, how many defects she has done in one hour and then one day. And this daily total result is added for monthly summarization for the quality evaluation process. The hourly defects record is very important for root cause analysis. If anyone of Q.C sees the hourly record, he can easily imagine that what is going on & what have to do?
100% End Line Audit
End line Q.I checks 100% garments. Q.I writes down the name & ID no of operators & keeps an hourly record of defects. So that we can easily identify the most defective operation and take preventive immediate action. We compare both reports of inline & end line to see the efficiency of Q.C, either he is doing proper work or doing homework.
In-house Q.C Check
An in-house audit is another station audit done by line Q.C we do that for the more safety. When comes first output, Q.C check the styling & the statistical audit to find out any mistake which has done in sewing. In finishing a section, finishing Q.C will again do the statistical audit for find out any error, which has done in finishing section. For that, we can solve any problem from the very beginning.
E) Finishing Procedure
After Receiving From Wash
After receiving from wash we start finishing the procedure, at the same time we press covering all size & color to see the measurement, wash standard, hand fill & any wash defect by wash factory. Also, carton & poly, measurement ensure by the first production.
Trimming is a most important thing of quality issue. For that, we establish a trimming section to strictly control the uncut thread. We don’t allow tread end over 3 mm. We should take care of trimming throughout the stitching process. Final trimming is done in the finishing area before packing.
A large quantity of Q.I recon check 100% garments, process-wise in the side of garments. They ensure that no defect & uncut thread inside of the garments. For every Q.I give their personal Q.C pass number inside of the pocket.
For removing the loose thread & number sticker garments we use thread shaking machine.100% garments go finishing area through the thread shaking action.
Preliminary Top Side Checking
In finishing section Q.I person check 100% garments, process-wise top side of garments. They ensure that no defect & uncut top side of the garments. For that every Q.I give their personal Q.C pass no inside of the pocket.
We have a gas steam boiler for clean ironing. We use the iron shoe to avoid the shining mark. For the perfection, we press a garment two time. One is called preliminary pressing & another is called repressing. This has after final & getup checking.
After preliminary pressing Q.I person check topside of whole garments. They ensure that no defect, spot & uncut thread top side of the garments. For that every Q.I give their personal Q.C pass no inside of the pocket.
100% garments should a measurement check before packing. Measurement defects garments should not advance for packing. Defect means out of tolerance, if it can rectify, it will be pack otherwise it will be count as a reject.
Q.I check there is something odd looking at a glance in whole garments, like out of shape, spot, poor pressing and mainly checks any missing of a hand tag price tag, and size tag. And match the barcode number, bar, wording everything with the approval trim card.
Re-pressing is needed to recovering the damage by Q.C handling. We do this for an attractive outlook.
There is no perfection to enter any okay garments without metal detector machine checking. We sent all okay garments to packing section through metal detector machine. Packing section is isolated by gatekeeper system. Our detection standard is 1.0 mm diameter sphere of ferrous metal. We keep 100% record of metal detection.
Ratio & Shade Checking
Before seal, the carton Q.C check the ratio & garments shade that, the ratio & garments shade is as per buyer requirement & same shade in one carton. If both thinks are okay Q.C give a sign inside of carton, then the carton should seal in front of Q.C.
There is an in-house pre-final audit for self-confirmation, done by the chief quality controller. He audits by 2.5 A. Q.L as receiving the Q.C pass report we offer for final inspection. Our A.Q.L chart is shown as bellow.
Hopefully, after reading this you already understand that how you can maintain a better-quality control. If you follow this type of manual and make your own manual for each section of your garments factory then it will be easy for you to ensure a quality production.
If you need more guidelines regarding this then please do not hesitate to ask, our comment section is always open for your opinion.
One of the highest manufacturing industry is a garments manufacturing industry where different types of garments are manufactured. Calculate Garments cost of making time to time is the right decision because the main motive of garments manufacturer is to make a profit where they manufacture garments and then sell it. But the problem is, what should be the required price of that item and how to calculate the cost of the garment of making. To solve this problem first, you have to know the cost of garments making then add your markup price to set the selling price. Here the cost of making means the cost of manufacturing garments. Monitoring garments making the cost is necessary so that trends of the cost of making can be identified and you can actually know whether your garments making cost is increasing or decreasing. Based on your change in garments cost of making you may take decision accordingly.
Calculate Garments Cost of Making
Here in this article, we will show you two different ways of calculation Cost of Making (CM) of garments.
Normal Method of Calculation of CM
Effective Way of Calculation of CM
Pre Requirement of Calculation of Garments Cost of Making
Before you start your costing by using the normal way, you need to know the followings:
Fixed Cost are those cost of garments manufacturing which are fixed in nature. With the increase of a number of unit of production, your per unit fixed cost will be reduced. Some example of fixed cost is; salaries and wages, interest expense of bank loan, a rental expense of your factory building, depreciation expense of your fixed assets, etc.
Variable Cost of Garments Making
Variable cost is the cost which is change over an additional number of unit of production. But per unit variable cost is fixed. The variable expense of garments making is; Utility (Electricity cost, Water cost, steam cost, Air cost) Expenditures, transportation cost, repair, and maintenance expense, etc. Here the most crucial variable cost is utility cost. We need to carefully handle the utility section to minimize utility cost.
Hourly Total Production Capacity of Garments Machinery
To identify hourly total production capacity, you need to identify the total number of machine and capacity of each machine. After that, you need to multiply the hourly capacity with machine number.
Daily Production Capacity of Garments
For calculating the daily production of your garments, you need to multiply your hourly effective production capacity into working hours each day.
Monthly Production Capacity of Garments
To calculate monthly production capacity you have to multiply your daily production capacity with the number of working days in a month.
Costing of Utility of Garments
Electricity: To get electricity cost you need to identify the total kW consumption of your factory and then multiply total KW with Price of per Kw electricity. Remember the cost of electricity is much higher in case of fuel generator and local REB compared with Gas Generator.
Water: Water cost is the cost of collecting water and the filtering cost. Normally in textile and garments, De-Mineralized (DM) water is used.
Steam: First identify the total consumption of steam per machine each hour and then multiply with the number of machines.
Compressed Air: In case of air you have to identify the compressed air cost for per cubic meter then multiplies with the total consumption.
The formula of Calculating Garments Cost of Making
Monthly Garments Cost of Making (GCM) = (Monthly Total Cost of Garments Operation)/Monthly Total Output Produced by the Factory.
Here Total Cost include both fixed and variable Cost of your garments factory for one month
Monthly total Production is the output produced by the factory.
Example: Suppose Your Factory Costing Related Information are;
Salary & Wages Expense Tk. 20,000,000
Monthly Interest on Bank Loan Tk. 100,000
Depreciation Expense is Tk. 50,000
Rental Expense of Building is Tk. 200,000
Transportation Cost is Tk. 150,000
Repair & Maintenance Expense is Tk. 50,000
Utility Expense is Tk 10,00,000 where Electricity Cost is Tk 500,000, Steam Tk. 200,000, Water Cost is Tk. 100,000, Chiller Cost Tk. 100,000, Compressed Air Cost is Tk. 100,000.
Finishing is the last step of the apparel industry. Quality Control is necessary for every stage of garments production for the purpose of making a quality product, finishing the garments, prepare for shipment and finally deliver to the garments buyer. So, finishing is a very important process in garments. To ensure finishing quality control by the garments manufacturer a finishing quality control SOP of Apparel Industry is to prepared and followed accordingly. Here SOP means Standard Operating Procedure. Ultimate quality control, garments decoration, and ticketing are done in the finishing process of the apparel industry.
Finishing Quality Control SOP of Apparel Industry
For finishing quality control following standard operating procedure can be followed for the apparel industry.
All Sewn Garments is to receive into finishing section after washing (if GMTS need finishing as per buyer’s requirement).
Washed garments to be checked for shade acceptance in a standard lightbox as per buyer approved all shade standard. If a lot fails in AQL to meet shade acceptance, then GMTS will send back to washing for rewash.
After passing shade of Garments and thread trimming, quality checking starts as per style wise process sequence but must maintain size wise bundle.
Excessive WIP (Work in Process) and dumping more than one bundle stacking in one layer is not allowed in any operation of finishing.
Any defective garments will not pass from any operation without alteration and QC pass.
Finishing Quality Control Standard of Garments
Pull test as per customer requirement
100% Garments quality inspection and thread trimming
100% Garments key point measurement
100% pressing as per customer requirement
Quality audit is to be done before moving garments to pack
Specific written instruction for every operation with garments form mockup as visual instruction for ironing, attaching the sticker, measurement, quality inspection, folding and packing.
Approve trim card for every style with all finishing trims and accessories.
Ironing (Pressing) Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) in Garments Finishing
Garments come in iron table size wise by the bundle.
Only one size is allowed in a bundle.
Iron table marking before every style starting.
A carton in every iron table to keep defects and marking with arrow sticker to detect defects.
Out of tolerance Garments not be passed from measurement section, the Iron show having every measurement table.
Every Gate up Quality inspector having measurement tape and style wise measurement sheet.
Approved sample hanging with written instruction in Iron, Quality Inspection, and packing area.
From Iron garments moving bundle wise up to packing.
Garments not are gathered by more than one style or color in every iron and quality inspection table.
Finishing Quality Audit
Finishing AQL Auditors audit GMTS before moving GMTS to packing area from every bundle using AQL 2.5. If audit pass, GMTS will move forward for packing. If Audit fails, an auditor will give back GMTS to Quality checkpoint area to recheck. After completing recheck, AQL Auditor will re-audit. An auditor audit full PO lot as per buyer final audit sampling policy when that PO is already 80% packed to check packed GMTS quality before a final audit. If Pre-final audit fails, then full PO will be rechecked.
Needle, Broken Needle and Sharp Tools Control Procedure in Apparel Industry applies to all types of Machine needles, Hand Sewing needles, Label Applicator Gun needles, staples, and sharps (defined as knives, scissors, cutters, etc.). This article has two parts of controlling sharp items in the garments industry. One is a needle and broken needle control, the 2nd part is all others sharp tools control. All these items are sharp but there at least one needle in every sewing machine so we are giving needle control separately. Actually, every garments industry has to control needle and other sharp tools separately. The needle used to sew garments. Scissor, cutter and cutting knife used to cut fabrics and thread. And must eliminate staples from all areas, sections, raw materials (like supplier’s cartons), and processes of the factory. Loose sharp objects in any production related area near fabric or garments are not allowed, they must be tied up. A general procedure for controlling all sharp tools are broken needle log/no needle on idle machines, no sharp points, no staples, and scissors attached & secured, blades control.
Needle and Sharp Tools Control Procedure in Apparel
List of Sharps Tools Used in Garments
Cutter (Thread trimmer)
Cutting M/C Knife
Loose Metal or M/C Parts
A needle issue booth is to be available on every production floor, only one person in the relevant department should be given the authority to operate the needle control procedure. The apparel industry has to set a needle control policy and manage the procedure effectively because safety is important for the Buyers & GMTS makers point of view. Applicable to sewing, embroidery, knitting & linking, or any other place where the needle is used or where there is a risk of metal contamination of apparel manufacturing industry.
Objectives of Needle Control
To ensure customer product safety
To ensure safety for employee
To ensure safety for the consumer
Keep discipline of sharp tools handling
Safe working environment
Application of Needle Control Procedure
Machines not in production, should not have a needle attached. Mechanics must not leave spare needles with the machine after servicing. No spare or replaced needles should be held at the machine by an operator. The only needle allowed at the sewing machine is the one in use. All spare needles should keep in a secure location, keys for that location should be kept by the person who is responsible for managing the needle control procedure. When a needle breakage occurs, all broken parts must be found and taken to the person responsible for managing the needle and this ensures proper control procedure of needle. Once all the broken needle parts have been recovered, they must be attached with clear adhesive tape to a control sheet; a new needle may then be issued by the authorized distributor. If all the broken needle parts cannot be located, the work in the immediate area of the machine must be isolated and kept in a locked box. A metal detector should then be used to locate the missing needle pieces. Once the location of the needle pieces has been determined, the needle should be removed.
The article does not have to be destroyed if the whole needle piece has been removed. Handheld detectors are very useful for tracing lost needles in sewing rooms very quickly. One in each factory location is suggested. If the pieces cannot be located by the metal detector then the whole isolated batch of work should be destroyed. Records of all control sheets must be maintained. This also should be maintained in a locked, secure location. All whole needles replaced due to wear and tear should be held in a sealed container away from the factory floor and disposed of in a way, which would avoid injury to any persons. Glass items, e.g. bottles or paperweights, in the production area should also be discouraged in case of glass splinters. The use of snap-off blade type knives should not be used for any production or packaging, shipping areas – i.e. disposable metal blades, craft knives etc. should not be used. The whole needle must be sealed in containers prior to issue.
Action Need to Follow to Control Needle
The Needle Status could be marked as “B” for Broken and “W” for Worn/Twisted/Crooked/Bent needles
When a needle breakage occurs, all broken parts must be found and taken to the person responsible for managing the needle control procedure.
Once all the broken needle parts have been recovered, they must be attached with clear adhesive tape to a control sheet; a new needle may then be issued by the authorized distributor.
If all the broken needle parts cannot be located, the work in the immediate area of the machine must be isolated and passed through Metal Detector.
If the pieces cannot be located by the metal detector, production in that area should be stopped; and the whole batch of work should be destroyed.
How to Control All Sharp Tools Used in Apparel/Garments
Keep section wise records of all sharp tools quantity
Supply all necessary sharp tools start of the workday and take this back end of the workday.
Make sure any single number of tools not lost
Keep section wise stock management report
Tie all Scissor and cutter with relevant machine/table in work running time
Staples should not use anywhere, staples threat for safety.
Any metal or machine spare part not allowed to keep in the workplace.