Classification of Yarn
The yarn is a continuous strand which is made by natural or synthetic fiber or material twisted or laid together that can be made into a textile fabric. So, a continuous twisted strand of natural or synthetic fibers used in weaving or knitting to produce fabric. If you are involved in the apparel industry then you must know the classification of yarn.
- Classification according to their structure
The yarn may be divided into three types according to their structure. They are as follows:
1. Single yarn/staple fiber yarn / spun yarn
By mechanically assembly or twisting of staple fibers together spun yarns are made. Ring spinning, Rotor spinning, wrap spinning, Air-jet spinning etc. machines are used to produce this single yarn or spun yarn.
2. Ply yarn
For normal textile and clothing producing single yarn is used. But ply yarns are often needed to obtain special yarn features such as:
- To ensure high strength
- For gaining special properties.
**A ply yarn is sometimes called folded yarn also. It is produced by twisting two or more single yarn together.
**Another is cabled yarn which is produced by twisting two or more ply or folded yarn.
The direction of twisting of yarn to make ply yarn is defined as S or Z twist. Generally, the folding twist is in the opposite direction to that of the single yarn.
3. Filament yarn
The yarn which is made from one or more continuous strands is called filament yarn. In filament yarn, each component filament which is used to make this filament yarn runs the whole length of the yarn.
Filament yarn can be classified in following ways
Mono Filament yarn: Those filament yarns which are made from one filament is called mono filament yarn.
Multi filament yarn: Those filament yarns which are made from more filaments is called multi filament yarn.
Texturing is the main method used to produce the bulked filament yarn. Silk is the only major natural filament.
Classification of yarn according to their use
The yarn may be divided into two categories according to their use. They are as follows.
1. Weaving yarn
Yarns which are made for weaving purpose should have following properties:
- Yarn of lengthwise direction should be stronger.
- They should have a tighter twist.
- They should be smoother
- They should more even than filling yarns.
- Highly twisted crepe yarns are usually found used as filling yarn.
Note: filling yarn means the yarn which is used in the crosswise direction of cloth.
2. Knitting Yarn
Knitting yarns are twisted more slackly than weaving yarns. Knitting yarn can be of two types. I.e.
- Hand knitting yarn
- Machine knitting yarn
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