Factors of Garments Costing

Factors of Garments Costing

The price of a garments product depends on the all cost incurred to make it available for selling. Whenever we talk about the garments product costing, we have to consider all cost related to that product acquired or production. As merchandisers are responsible to negotiate with the buyers for selling the product, they need to calculate/ costing by considering several factors of garments costing. Basically, merchandisers have to calculate cost on a lot basis, and lot size may vary from company to company or factory to factory.

Factors of Garments Costing

Remember one thing is that all expenses of factory related with the product must be included in costing. As cost is the main determinants of product price for this reason at the time of costing in apparel industry more importance is given by the respective parties. After determining the cost, merchandisers contact with the potential buyers for getting orders and negotiate about the price of garments.

The following factors of garments costing normally can be identified

  1. Fabric cost
  2. Dyeing/printing cost
  3. Fabric consumption
  4. Number of order
  5. Cost of making the product
  6. Overhead cost (direct material, direct labor, and factory)
  7. Utility cost (electricity cost, or any other power and energy)
  8. Washing cost (depends on what kinds of washing is required)
  9. Trims and accessories cost
  10. Finishing cost
  11. Product specification
  12. Freight cost (Sea or air)
  13. Payment mode (It can be 60 days or 90 days)
  14. Shrinkage % of the fabric
  15. Wastage
  16. Inspection (at the time of production and after completing production)
  17. Style, size, color
  18. The distance from the factory to Shipment place (port or airport)
  19. Commercial cost
  20. Fabric construction
  21. The weight of fabric (GSM)

Not necessarily all these factors must be considered when costing because these factors may vary depending on the production and product and also the product destination.

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

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Number One Environmental Friendly Factory

Number One Environmental Friendly Factory in the World

Can you guess which one is the number one environmental friendly factory in the world? I think you would not be able to guess the right one.

You will be surprised to know that a factory from the developing country recently attains the achievement of world’s number one environmental friendly factory which is located in Bangladesh. Although a factory from a developing country like Bangladesh; from their current economic condition right now it is impossible to ensure all the factors for becoming an environmental friendly factory because of lack of developed infrastructure. But we are trying to improve our factory environment according to the guidelines provided by the government and from this, we get the positive outcome of improvement of factory condition by the success of Plummy Fashion.

number one environmental friendly factory

Factory of Plummy Fashions

Plummy Fashions is number one environmental friendly factory in the world certified by the United States Green Building Council (USGBC) which is located in Bangladesh near Dhaka city, Narayangonj. This is a great achievement by the Bangladeshi company. USGBC basically works for ratings of the company’s/ factories environmental condition and green building. The rate is based on different factors related to the company/factory. There are four categories of rating points first one is certified (40-49 points), second one silver (50-59 points), third one gold (60-70) and last one platinum (80 plus).

If a company or factory which gets 80+ points then it is considered as an environmental friendly factory; whereas Plummy Fashions got 92 points which is the highest point ever a company get from the USGBC ratings around the world. Because of this achievement by the Bangladeshi company we are getting a positive indication of doing, what is good for our employees working condition and environmental factors.

After the deathly incident (Rana Plaza crashed, Tazreen factory fire, Spectrum factory, KTS textile mill) happened in the recent year’s buyers are now more concerned about the work environment, a safety measure for the workers and for the factories. To ensure the safety of workers huge pressure is coming from the foreign buyers and from the government of Bangladesh. Now each and every company trying to ensure safety and a good working environment in Bangladesh and many companies attain a good overview from the regulatory body that the company is secured enough to work.

Now come to the point that what makes it possible for the Plummy Fashions to achieve this recognition of world’s number one environmental friendly factory?

For ensuring and maintaining the standard of SUGBC Plummy Fashions actually tried to do the followings very much strictly.

  • A proper building code is maintained when making building and infrastructures.
  • It follows LEED manufacturing standard for installing machinery and installed calibrated machinery.
  • For using solar energy this company setup larger solar plant in Bangladesh.
  • Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) free cooling system is adapted
  • Ensure proper use of water which is collected from the rainwater and underground water. Also, they ensure reuse of water for minimizing water wastage.
  • Use of LED light in the factory
  • Use of low energy consuming machine
  • Also, their system ensures a lower level of carbon footprint.

Not only limited to these factors, but also there are many other factors which are strictly controlled and maintained by the Plummy Fashions, which working behind their achievement.

Advantages an Environmental Friendly Factory can get

As we all know that now people around the world are more conscious about the health of the people and the environment, so if a company can ensure to meet the expectation of people then definitely they will be treated differently and for their product, they will be ready to spend more money.

Hope all other company will be inspired by watching the achievement of Plummy Fashions and will try to improve their factory condition and finally they will become an environmentally friendly factory.

Features of Denim Fabric

Features of Denim Fabric

Now a day’s Denim is a most popular and demanding fabric around the world because of the unique features of denim fabric. Denim came from the French word “Serge de Nimes”. “Jeans” produced by denim is preferable to the teenagers because it can be worn as a fashionable or casual dress in different conditions. The production of denim is more than 50 percent of the world’s production is done by the South Asian countries whereas China and Bangladesh are one of the larger contributors.

features of denim fabric

The following features of denim fabric can be identified

  • Denim is one of the highly demanding international commercial fabric
  • Produce by 100% cotton yarn but you may find there are a few denim fabric blended with spandex and polyester.
  • Manufactured by Twill weave
  • Warp yarn dyed by indigo/blue eye
  • Weft yarn remain white/grey as its natural color
  • Denim jeans is very strong and does not tear easily that’s why it is long lasting.
  • Denim can be ironed at a high temperature
  • Denim is very long lasting fabric but after a certain period it becomes fade
  • Denim is durable, drape and flexible in nature
  • Denim is a woven fabric made by interlacing warp and weft yarn
  • To control shrinkage, wrinkling commonly blended with spandex
  • Blended denim fabric has a very good stretchability, comfortable wear for a slim figure
  • Use of denim: Jacket, jeans, shirts, skirts, swimsuit, belts, handbags etc.

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

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Bottom Close Shed

The divination of warp threads into two groups for insertion of weft threads is called shed and the processing mechanism of the shed is called shedding. Shedding is the primary motion of weaving.

Types of shed

  1. Bottom close shed
  2. Centre close shed
  3. Semi-open shed
  4. Open Shed

Bottom close shed

This type of shedding is produced by giving motion only to threads that are to form the upper line. Under this condition, the warp is level on the bottom line. In order to form a top shed, it is necessary to move some threads through a space equal to twice the depth of a shed, once up and down, before a fresh selection is made.
A shed of this kind is known as a stationary bottom with a rising and falling top.

bottom close shed

Bottom Close Shed

A: Bottom line of warp

B: Rising and falling line

C: An arrow showing the space passed through

Advantages of a bottom close shed

  • In this method, alternate tightening and slackening the warp threads produce a covered cloth.
  • Fine fabric i.e. silk can be produced in this method.
  • This method mostly is used in handloom

Disadvantages of a bottom close shed

  1. In this method there remain more stress or tension on the top warp line and less tension on the bottom warp line.
  2. There is more chance of breakage on the top warp line.
  3. Unequal warp tension produces poor quality fabric.
  4. By this type of shed loom speed/ weaving speed is slower.
  5. By this shed type, it is impossible to produce the compact fabric.
  6. More power consumption is required in this shed type.
  7. It also requires more time for this type of shed.

Written by

Engineer Sheikh Nurja

B.Sc engineer of textile

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Classification of Textile Testing

Classification of Textile Testing and Quality Control

Textile Testing & Quality control (TTQC)

TTQC is an important factor in textile and garments sector. Everybody want qualitative goods. Textile testing and quality control related to each other and this ensure production and supply of good quality.

textile testing

Textile testing

Textile testing

Textile testing means the test of textile materials. It refers quality standard.

Quality control

Quality control means improving product standard. Quality control depends on customers demand. With different textile, process quality can be control.

textile testing and quality control

Textile Testing and Quality Control

Objectives of Textile testing

  • Monitoring product quality.
  • To know the product standard.
  • To research & development product.
  • Checking quality.
  • To know performance at every stage.
  • To know product specification 7.To Qualify every product.

Types/ Classification of Textile Testing

classification of textile testing

Classification of Textile Testing

Routine process testing: a Routine process for checking quality in the running of process or after a process.

Quality Record testing: Quality record testing to record test result for different purpose and activities in future.

Textile testing & Quality control also classified as given below:

Two kinds of TTQC:

  • Online process control
  • Offline process control.

Online process control: In running a process or after a process, testing called online Textile testing & quality control.

Offline process control: Textile testing after finishing all production process called offline Textile testing & Quality control.

There two types of offline process control:

  1. Physical test: To determine physical properties and calibration.
  2. Chemical test: To know chemical properties using chemical

Testing of Fibre, Yarn, and Fabric: In the case testing of fibre, yarn and fabric generally following properties are made to check

For Fibre

  • Identification of fibres
  • Grading
  • Color of fibres
  • Fibre length
  • Fibre strength and elongation
  • Fibre fineness
  • Fibre Maturity
  • Trash
  • Naps
  • Short fibre index(SFI)
  • Short fibre content(SFC)
  • Immature fibre content(IFC)

For Yarn

  • Warp Yarn count
  • Weft Yarn count
  • Twist per unit length
  • Single yarn strength
  • Lee strength and elongation
  • Appearance
  • Evenness and regularity.
  • Hairiness

For fabric

  • Number of ends per inch
  • Number of picks per inch
  • Fabric strength and elongation
  • Width
  • Thickness
  • Weight
  • Design and construction of cloth
  • Shrinkage
  • Air permeability
  • Crimp
  • Stiffness, handle, drape
  • Crease resistance and recovery
  • Abrasion
  • Thermal properties
  • Water absorbency
  • Pilling
  • Color fastness

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A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

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An Overview of Wet Processing

An Overview of Wet Processing

The wet process must have to do for both Woven and knit fabrics. It’s a textile engineering department. It is a very sensitive process done by chemicals and water. Mainly wet processing includes three processes. These are:

  • Pretreatment
  • Coloration
  • Finishing

an overview of wet processing Wet Processing


Pretreatment is the treatment before Coloration process. The main objective of pretreatment is to make ready for coloration. All the steps of pretreatment should follow:

  • Singeing
  • Desizing
  • Scouring
  • Bleaching
  • Mercerizing


Coloration is to color the textile material using dyes or pigment. Two processes of coloration are:

  • Dyeing
  • Printing


Finishing is done to make useable, getting comfortable wear. Some Finishing process is:

  • Soft Finish
  • Hard Finish
  • Medium Finish
  • Urea Finish
  • Curing
  • Heat setting

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Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)
E-mail: [email protected]
Cell : +8801929643301

Properties of Cotton

Physical and chemical Properties of Cotton

Cotton fibre:

Cotton is natural celllosic fibre.Cotton is called the king of textile fibre. Now cotton is the most used textile fibre in the world. Cotton is soft fibre that grows around the seed of the botto plant. The long cotton fibres are use to make cloth. The other short fibre can be use in the paper industry.

Botanical names of cotton:

  1. Gossypium Herbaceum
  2. Gossypium Arboreum
  3. Gossypium Hirsutum
  4. Gossypium Barbedense
properties of cotton

Cotton in the Field

Chemical composition of cotton fibre:

  • Cellulose -94%
  • Protein -1.3%
  • Ash -1.2%
  • Pectin -1.2%
  • Oil,Fat,Wax-0.6%
  • Sugar -0.3%
  • Others -1.4%

Physical properties of Cotton:

  • Comfortable soft hand
  • Good absorbency
  • Prints well
  • Machine washable
  • Dry cleanable
  • Good strength
  • Drapes well
  • Easy to handle and sew
Use of cotton:
  • Shirts
  • Blouses
  • Childrenwear
  • Active year
  • Swimwear
  • Suits
  • Jacket
  • Skirts
  • Pants
  • Sweaters
  • Hosiery
  • Table cloths
  • Table mats
  • Napkins

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)
E-mail: [email protected]
Cell : +8801929643301

Classification of Textile Fiber

What is the Classification of textile fiber?

Textile Fiber

A textile fiber is anything that is that raw material of yarn. To be useful in textile fiber must have some properties such as strength, length, elasticity, absorbency. In this article, we will have a discussion on Classification of Textile Fiber.

Classification of Textile Fiber

Fiber can be collected or created from different natural sources such as animal hair, insect cocoons as with silkworm and as well as semi-synthetic methods. The textile industry required several types of fiber according to their objectives. Various types of fibre found around the world collected from diversified sources such as byssus fibre, chiengora, qiviut, yak, rabbit, wool, lambswool, cashmere wool, mohair wool, camel hair, angora wool, lima wool, silk, coir, cotton, jute, bamboo, hemp, modal, sisal, ramie, lurex, acrylic etc.

classification of textile fibre

Flax Fibre

Classification of Textile Fiber

There are generally two types of textile fiber

  1. Natural fiber
  2. Synthetic/Manmade fiber

Natural fiber

Natural fiber is that types of fiber which are produced naturally. Those produced from plants, animals and geological origin.

Natural fiber can be classified according to their origin as follows

Classification of Fiber According to the Vegetable Origin

  • Cotton
  • Jute
  • Linen/Flex
  • Hemp
  • Ramie
  • Sisal
  • Coir
  • Pine

Classification of Fiber  According to Animal Origin

  • Wool
  • Silk
  • Hair

Classification of Fiber According to Mineral Origin

  • Asbestos

Synthetic/Manmade Fiber

Synthetic fibers are produced by the polymerization of various monomers. It is made by the man, for this reason, it is so called.

 Classification of Manmade Fiber


  • Rayon
  • Acetate
  • Triacetate


  • Nylon
  • Aramide
  • Polyester
  • Acrylic
  • Modacrylic
  • Spandex
  • Olefin
  • Vinyon


  • Azlon


  • Rubber


  • Metal


  • Glass, Ceramic, Graphite

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)
E-mail: [email protected]

Objects of winding

What are the objects of winding?


Winding is the process of transferring yarn or thread from one type of package to another to type of package. Winding is one of the most important operation in textile sector. It is mainly done in spinning mill. Rewinding is also an important operation in fabric manufacturing factory.

objects of winding

Winding of yarn

Types of winding

According to winding way:

There are basically two types of winding. They are

  1. Precision winding
  2. Non precision winding

Precision Winding

The winding process in which yarn is laid close together in a parallel or near parallel manner is called precision winding. Maximum amount of yarn storing is possible by this system.

Non precision Winding

The winding process by which yarn is laid in helix angled way so that the layers cross one another and give stability to the package is called non precision winding. These types of winding package are more stable than precision winding package.

According to package winding can be classified as:

  • Pirn winding
  • Pool winding
  • Cop winding
  • Cone winding
  • Cheese winding
  • Flanged winding

Objectives of winding

  1. To transfer yarn from one package to another package.
  2. To remove faults like hairiness, neps, slubs, foreign matters.
  3. Improve the quality of yarn.
  4. Reduce the end breakage.
  5. Improve productivity.
  6. To store the yarn in suitable package.
  7. To get required package of yarn.

Requirements of winding

  • Minimum fault
  • No damage of yarn
  • Easy unwinding
  • Suitable size and shape
  • Correct tension
  • Cheap cost of package

Faults during winding:

  • Breakage of yarn during winding
  • Variation of twist
  • Improper shaped winding
  • Dirty packages
  • Hairiness package
  • Poor unwinding
  • Softer or harder winding package in great rate etc.


Engineer Sheikh Nurja

B.Sc engineer of textile

Merchandiser at buying house

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Present Situation of Denim Business in Bangladesh

What is the Present Situation of Denim Business in Bangladesh

Before discussing the Present Situation of Denim Business in Bangladesh let have some idea of global market trends of denim.

Global Market Trend of Denim

Since the commencement, worldwide market of denim remains evergreen. Centuries ago, denim had a limited usage but with the versatility of its utility now the demand for denim is always sky high in the global market. Irrespective of any market condition, denim gets ready for acceptance to the consumers.

present situation of denim business in bangladesh

The Present Situation of Denim Business in Bangladesh

In 2013, three countries clearly stood out from the mass of jeans suppliers to the European Union: Turkey, Bangladesh, and China. Together they supply two thirds (62%) of jeans imports in terms of value and 69% in terms of pairs of jeans. These three suppliers are followed by Pakistan and Tunisia, then trailed by Morocco and Cambodia fairly far behind.

top denim consumers

Top Denim Consumers

One of the significant differences in 2013 is that China ceded its place as a prime supplier to the European Union, which is still occupied in 2012; it was overtaken not just by Turkey but also by Bangladesh. China, however, remains top-ranked in terms of numbers of pairs, with 142 million pairs of jeans exported to the European Union in 2013 Many other countries, Asian ones, in particular, export jeans to the European Union. Some, like India, is on the wane while other suppliers like Cambodia or Vietnam are advancing rapidly.

top denim consumers

Top Denim Consumers

The Export Market of Denim

Bangladesh is the second largest exporter of denim after China; denim has been playing a significant role in our economic development over the last few years. Usually, denim is used for making stylish clothes for all the seasons. Most of the people of our country are familiar with denim. Usually, Bangladesh exports it to the European countries, including England, Russia, Norway, Italy, Poland, Germany, Romania, and many countries of Latin America, including Brazil, Argentina etc. Apart from USA and EU, the BD denim apparels are also shipped to African countries and Australia.

 In 2013, Bangladesh exported about 74 million pieces of denim apparel to the US market and around 140 million to Europe. The country was also the largest exporter of men’s jeans to Europe in 2013 with 89 million pieces compared to 65 million from China.


The global market for denim is projected to reach a mammoth sixty-five billion dollars by 2015. Though the United States were the major denim producer throughout the years but now with the emergence of the Asia Pacific countries like China, India, Pakistan and Bangladesh you can say denim is not anymore an American product. So, to meet the demand of both the requirements of our country as well as abroad country we should come forward to produce quality denim products.

Written By

Engineer Sheikh Nurja

B.Sc Engineer in Textile

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