Flow Chart of Apparel Dyeing

Apparel Dyeing is a process by which color is applied on apparel. Basically through the dyeing process color is applied on fabric. Dyeing is used for giving fashionable look on fabric, and using these fabric, garments manufacture denim, t-shirt, sweater, Shirt, jackets etc.

Objectives of Dyeing

  • To produce fashionable garments by changing the outlook.
  • Comparatively low cost
  • Different shade can be accepted in same batch

Basic Dyeing Process of Garments

Process Flow Garments Dyeing

Mainly dyeing process is applied on grey fabric and after completing the whole process we get colored fabric. But remember one thing that after Dyeing you have to wash your fabrics.

Flow Chart of Apparel Dyeing

Flow Chart of Apparel Dyeing

If closely see the flow process of complete Dyeing of fabric, then you may identify the following procedure. Earlier I said that Dyeing process starts with grey fabrics/garments then loading into Dyeing machine, after that pre-treatment and bleaching garments, then Dyeing, fixing (after treatment) and finally we will get finished dyed fabrics.

Flow Chart of Apparel Dyeing

Written by

Md. Mashud Rana Opurbo

Industrial Engineer.

Email: [email protected]

Cell: 01928-186429

Calculation of Earnings and Loss for Garments Industry

Calculation of Earnings and Loss for Garments Industry

Calculation of earnings and loss for garments industry is required to monitor whether factory operation is generation expected revenue or not. Based on your calculation of earnings and loss you can set production target to meet your expected level of profit for your business.

Calculation of Earnings and Loss Template

As sewing is one of the main operation of garments, you can take sewing as a factor and calculate earnings accordingly. You can use same formula for calculating profit or loss of your industry after shipment of your final product.

Calculation of Earnings and Loss for Garments Industry

Let’s see the calculation at a glance.

Suppose, Your Factory’s last 3 Month Expenditure= 1466400$

So, Per month Expenditure = (1466400$/3) = 488800$

So, Daily Expenditure = (488800$/26) = 18800$ [if fty run 26 days per month]

Your fty produced = 8800 Units per day

Per GMTS CM= 2.20$ (It’s vary style to style, you need to calculate style wise from buyer given CM)

Then, Daily Earnings = (8800 X2.20$) $ = 19360$

So, Your Daily Earnings = (19360$-18800$) = 560$

Production Report

Template for Calculating Earnings and Loss for Garments Industry

I have developed an excel template to calculate earnings and loss for your convenience. You can use this template for any industry; specially for your daily garments production. I hope this will give you well understanding.  You can download this template for free, just click on daily production & CM earnings report.

Daily Production & CM Earning Report

This template includes:

  1. Production report
  2. Production chart
  3. Earning calculation and report
  4. Per unit CM (Style wise)

This template can be very helpful for any Garments professional. Based on the output of this template you can prepare your report maintaining professionalism.

You will get not only earnings and loss report but also production report. In this way it will be helpful for everybody to see actual status of a factory. If you face any problem of understanding then please do not hesitate to contact with me.

Written by: Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

Facebook: Amirul Islam Washim

Phone:+8801929643301
E-mail: [email protected]

Quality Improvement Techniques in Apparel Industry

Quality Improvement Techniques in Apparel Industry or Garments Industry

As quality is one of the key success factors, managers always try to devote their effort for improving the quality of garments. In this article we will show you how quality improvement techniques in apparel industry can be ensured.  Not only productivity but also quality improvement getting most importance in apparel industry. Without ensuring quality you should not make shipment of your goods to the customer’s destination. We have seen that sometimes our valuable customers reject the goods or hang the payment because of low quality goods which is not in accordance with the specification. Although there is continuous efforts is given but there may have some problem which is not correctable/repairable. So it would be a right decision to take all precautionary measures to avoid unexpected fault of your garments and ensure right quality.

Quality Improvement Techniques in Apparel Industry

Garments Quality depends on these Quality Factors

If you want to ensure quality and continuous improvement then you have to avoid the following defects of the garments.

  1. Fabric defect
  2. Trims and accessories defect
  3. Cutting defect
  4. Construction and placement Defect
  5. Seam and Stitching Defect
  6. Finishing defect
  7. Packing defect

Let’s have a short discussion about these quality factors/matters

Fabric Defect

Fabric cost is at least 60% out of total garment Cost. Apparel Industry inspect fabric roll for quality matter. If your fabric roll fail in inspection you should return to fabric supplier and replace with the quality one. If your finished garment contains fabric defect, you are the one who will be responsible for that not fabric supplier.

Trims and Accessories Defect

Apparel industry should check all trims and accessories after in housed. If they found any problem, they should return to suppliers for replacement.

Cutting Defect

As per Running shade and Selvage report, marker will make for bulk cutting. Otherwise garments will contain part shading. All cut components should match with marker.

Construction and Placement Defect

You will sewing garments as per buyer’s approved sample for bulk production. All stitching of every process should same as sample. Different parts placement should accurate. Up-down is not acceptable.

Seam and Stitching Defect

All sewing machine should fit for sewing with accurate tension. Otherwise there are possibilities of skip stitches, puckering. Garments should be clear of some other stitching defects like: broken stitch, over stitch, down stitch, jam stitch, and joint stitch.

Finishing Defect

After pressing Garments there should be no crease mark, puckering. Keeping good appearance is also necessary for garments.

Packing Defect

There are zero tolerance any types of packing defect. Incorrect size, incorrect PO, incorrect quantity, folding defect include in packing defect. You should be careful about these defects.

Inspection

You should check your quality of 100% garments in finishing. If repairable of defective garments, you should repair it quickly as you can. Before final inspection, you can do pre-final or shadow inspection to see quality of your packed garments. If you found lots of defect in packed garments, you should re-check all garments and take effective measures to resolve the quality problem of garments.

Finally quality improvement is a continuous process that’s why you have to give your effort continuously and this will be possible through proper monitoring every steps of garments manufacturing. If you can ensure monitoring and take immediate action to resolve the defects then obviously you product quality will be improved.

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

Facebook: Amirul Islam Washim

E-mail: [email protected]

If you like this article please do not forget to share on facebook and put your valuable comment.

Garments Quality Standard

Garments Quality Standard

Garments Quality Standard is now one of the most important factors that need to be maintained as because people are now more conscious about the quality of garments. The quality standards may vary company to company, market to market, but there is some common quality standard which all garments always try to maintain. Here I am going to share a list of defects which must be avoided to ensure minimum Quality Standard for garments:

Garments Quality Standard

  1. Garments should not have these defects

  • Needle cuts
  • Holes
  • Slabs
  • Snags
  • Open seams
  • Broken stitches
  • Puckering
  • Raw edges
  • More than one skipped stitch
  1. Garments should avoid these manufacturing defects

  • Defective Stitching
  • Untrimmed or loose threads
  • Pills
  • Cleaning solution
  • Embroidery hoop marks
  • Stain or soils
  • Part Shading
  • Any unrelated operation
  • Pleats in any seaming
  • Contain dirt, Lint
  • Uneven seam
  • Insecure stitch
  • Pinked edge
  • Uneven tension
  1. Some Defect must avoid in Finished Garments

  • Fabric Fold marks
  • Center crease
  • Any Fabric defect
  • Unspecified color, shade and cast
  • Sleeves or legs shall be twisted
  • Improper pressed
  • All tape or stickers other than inspection stickers inside the garment
  • Clip or clamp
  • Wrinkles, creases or other signs of poor pressing
  • Pressing marks shine, scorching or burn marks
  • Unnatural creases or folds
  • Wavy or puckered seams
  • Appearance of Repairing

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

Facebook: Amirul Islam Washim

Phone: +8801929643301
E-mail: [email protected]

If you like this article please do not forget to share on facebook and put your valuable comment.

Overview of Modern Auto Cone Winding Machine

Auto cone is a modern yarn winding machine. It is use to prepare bigger package from ring bobbin. It is just not only has a winding machined, there also some extra specification of this machine.

An Overview of Modern Auto Cone Winding Machine

Features of auto cone winding

•    Auto splice without knot.
•    Automatically remove yarn fault.
•    Make bigger package in minimum coast
•    Waxing devise
•    Pneumatic disc type tensioner
•    Electronic yarn clearer
•    Reserve ring bobbin

overview of modern auto cone winding machine

Parts of AUTOCONER Machine

•    Bobbin Magazine
•    Chute guide
•    Bobbin peg
•    Knit preventer
•    Bal con
•    Photo electric yarn feeler
•    Pre clearer
•    Re-tie arm/mouth
•    Yarn tensioner
•    Suction arm/mouth
•    Splicer
•    Electronic yarn clearer
•    Waxing devise
•    Drum
•    Package cradle
•    Unit start & stop switch
•    Unit indicator
•    Empty conveyor
•    Cone conveyor
•    Over head cleaner
•    Machine ON switch
•    Machine OFF switch
•    Blower ON switch
•    Blower OFF switch

Working principle / Function of auto cone machine

•    Making Cone package from cops.
•    Remove yarn fault (Thick & thin place, naps, foreign materials etc)
•    Remove knot of yarn by auto splicing.
•    To wax the materials
•    Minimize yarn imperfections
•    To wax yarn
•    Improve yarn quality
•    Give suitable shape of cone package
•    Make uniform yarn
•    Achieve higher production and less power consumption

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

Facebook: Amirul Islam Washim
E-mail: [email protected]

If you like this article please do not forget to share on facebook and put your valuable comments.

Pattern Making in Garments

Pattern is a hard paper which is made by following each individual component for a style of garments. The appearance and fit of garments is highly dependent on each process. In the development of a garment pattern making is one of the most important step.

Pattern making in garments depends on the

  • Skill of the person
  • Technological Knowledge.
  • Analysis of design
  • Experience of garments making
pattern making in garments

Pattern Making Step

  1. Block pattern or Basic block
  2. Working or garment pattern

Block pattern or Basic block

Block pattern or basic block is individual component of garments without any design or style. It is produced according to exact dimension of standard body measurement where no allowance is considered.

Block patterns are made in two ways

a) Flat method

b) Modeling

Flat method

In Flat method the pattern of different parts of garments especially body and sleeve are made by technical drawing.

  • In technical drawing, the rule and application of method of body measurement and its ratio depends on pattern maker.
  • This type of pattern can be made by computer. In this case, the program of pattern of pattern making is stored in computer disk.
  • This method actually comes from modeling method.
  • This is a fast pattern making method.

Modeling

Modeling method is primary and first method of pattern making. Till now this method is used widely in apparel industry.

  • In modeling method, Block is made with standard body measurement of dummy is called Toile. Toile is worn on the body of dummy to check fittings.
  • Then toil is worn out from the body of dummy and individual parts of toile are drawn on hard paper or board paper.
  • This method is the most efficient method of pattern making but required more time in this method.

Garments pattern

  • On the basis of block pattern or basic block Garments pattern is made. Individual block pattern are drawn on hard paper or board paper.
  • Sewing allowance, trimming allowance, button whole allowance, dart, and pleat is considered. Individual patterns are made for individual parts of garments.
  • In the pattern, grain line is showed by arrow.
  • After drawing of pattern, working pattern is separated from board paper by knife.
  • Size and name of individual parts are written on every part.
  • Simple garments are made from working pattern.

Written by

Engineer Sheikh Nurja

B.Sc engineer of textile

Merchandiser at buying house

If you like this article please do not forget to share on facebook and put your valuable comment

Difference Between Tailor and Garment

Difference between Tailor and Garment

Garment can be made in both in tailor and in garments industry. What is the basic difference of these two ways of garment manufacturing process? Here mentioning the difference between the tailor and garments.

Tailor

  • In tailors, it takes 1 or 2 person to make a garment.
  • Generally garment is made for a particular person in tailor.
  • Garment is made according to the body measurement of a person.
  • In tailor no grading is done.
  • In tailor garment can be made from a machine.
  • Initial cost is relatively low.
  • Single ply of fabric is used.
  • In this way fabric wastage is high.
  • Risk of loss is least.
  • No need of pattern.
  • It takes a few hours to make a garment.

Garments

  • In garments, it takes many persons to make a garment.
  • A garment is made for many people.
  • Garment is made according to standard body measurement.
  • Grading is done in garments.
  • Generally many machines are needed for making a garment.
  • Initial cost is relatively high.
  • Multiple ply of fabric is used.
  • Fabric wastage is low.
  • Risk of loss is more.
  • Pattern must be required.
  • It takes less than one minute to make a garment.
difference between tailor and garment

Comparison picture of tailor & garments

Garments manufacturing is done with a long process in garments industry which can never be cleared in a single article. But today here I am going to present about the major sections of garments.

Different section of garments

There are mainly four sections in garments manufacturing industry. They are as follows.

  1. Sample section
  2. Cutting section
  3. Sewing section
  4. Finishing section

Sample section

The main function of this section is to make approve sample. This section is the first and important section. This section includes, “ Designing to marker making”.

Cutting section

This section includes process starting from “ Marker making” to “sorting & bundling”. The main function of this section is to cut fabric according to the marker dimension.

Sewing section

The function of this section is to make a complete garment by using all of the cutting components for a particular style of garments.

Finishing section

This section includes process from “Ironing to send to buyer”. After making sample, it should be treated by steam, iron and use in it all of the finishing accessories and ultimately make the garments attractive as per buyers approved sample.

Written by

Engineer Sheikh Nurja

B.Sc engineer of textile

Merchandiser at buying house

If you like this article please do not forget to share on facebook and put your valuable comment

Process Sequence of Fabric Cutting

In garments manufacturing fabric cutting means to cut out the garments pieces from lays of the fabric with the help of cutting template or marker. Cutting is one the major step to make a complete garment. For cutting of fabric generally the marker is applied to the top ply of a lay.

Process Sequence of Fabric Cutting Section

In garments manufacturing industry the term cutting is used in different meaning. Here the term cutting is used in the sense of cutting room which indicates an area which normally includes the activities of marker planning, spreading and preparation for sewing.

Stages of fabric cutting

Generally fabric cutting is carried out with two stages. They are as follows:

  1. Cutting (Separating the individual pieces.)
  2. Final cutting ( accurate cutting of the individual shapes)

Objectives of Cutting

  • To separate fabric parts from the spread of lay according to the dimension of the marker.
  • To make the garments according to required design and shape.
  • To prepare garments pieces to go forward with next process of garments manufacturing.
process sequence of fabric cutting section

Cutting Section in a Garment Factory

Requirement of fabric cutting

To achieve the required objectives by cutting of fabric in garments manufacturing process, the following requirements must be fulfilled.

  • Precision of cut.
  • Clean edges
  • Unscorhed , infused edges
  • Support of the lay
  • Consistent cutting

Different types of fabric cutting

There are mainly three types of cutting techniques. They are as follows:

  1. Completely by manual
    1. By hand operated Scissor.
  1. Manually operated powered knife
    1. Straight knife
    2. Band blade
    3. Round blade
    4. Die cutter
    5. Notcher
    6. Drill
  1. Computerized technique
    1. Knife cutting
    2. Cutting by water jet
    3. Laser cutting
    4. Plasma torch cutting

Flow Chart of fabric cutting

flow chart of fabric cutting

Flow Chart of Fabric Cutting

Working procedure in fabric cutting section

  1. By following production planning at first sample is collected from sample section with pattern and garments approved.
  2. Lay order sheet/ratio sheet fill up by cutting section
    1. e Item, fabric width, color etc.
  3. After putting all information in order sheet then send to CAD section for marker making. Or if it is to do manually than make marker manually.
  4. Checking marker after getting marker.
  5. Sending fabric requisition from cutting section to store for cutting according to plan.
  6. Receiving fabric in cutting table as per marker and cutting plan.
  7. Matching fabric to trim card by merchandiser approved fabric.
  8. Then starting layering manually or with machine.
  9. Completing layering then spread marker upon on the fabric.
  10. Marker checking by quality people & keep all document of style , size wise report to send to store & sewing section.
  11. Before cutting attaching clamp and gum tape on the layer.
  12. If there is any drill mark in marker then need to drill.
  13. Starting cutting by cutter man.
  14. Then dividing group and ratio wise.
  15. Make bundle chart as per lay order sheet and sending for bundle card printing.
  16. Numbering as per bundle chart wise.
  17. Panel checking.
  18. If there is any fault need to replace cut bundle roll and shade wise then bundle and send to sewing section.
  19. If there is any fusing or embroidery then send for this process.

So, hopefully it was helpful for you to understand. If you like it do not forget to put down your valuable comment and share on facebook

Written by

Engineer Sheikh Nurja

B.Sc engineer of textile

Merchandiser at buying house

Indirect Yarn Count System

Yarn Count

There is a nice definition of yarn count according to textiles institute of UK, “count is a number of indicating the mass per unit length or length per unit mass of yarn of yarn”

In other word count can be defined as , the numerical values which expresses the fineness or coarseness of yarn. It indicates the relationship between length and weight also.

So, “Yarn count is a number which indicate the mass per unit length or the length per unit mass of the yarn”

Indirect yarn count system or numbering system

classification of yarn count

Yarn Counting System

Classification of Yarn count

Direct Count

Study my another article about direct yarn numbering (direct count) system

Indirect count (length/weight)

The length of a fixed weight of yarn is measured. The length per unit weight is the yarn indirect count. General features of all indirect count systems are the weight of yarn is fixed and the length of yarn varies according to it’s fitness.

Points should remember during indirect count

  1. In indirect count system weight is fixed.
  2. Higher the yarn number finer the yarn and
  3. Lower yarn number coarser the yarn.

The following formula is used to calculate the indirect yarn count

indirect yarn count system

Formula of Indirect Count

Here,

N = Yarn count or numbering system

W= Weight of the sample

L = Length of the sample

l = Unit of length of the sample

w =The unit of weight

Some indirect yarn count system

 English count system, Ne              : No of 840yd lengths per pound

Metric count, Nm                               : No. of kilometers per kilograms

Woolen count (YSW)                        : No. of 256 yd lengths per pound (lb)

Woolen count (Dewsbury)              : No. of yd lengths per oz

Worsted count, NeK                         : No. of 560 yd lengths per pound

Linen count, NeL                              : No. of 300 yd lengths per pound

Discussion

English Count

English count indicates how many hanks of 840 yards length weighs one pound.

That means, if count 40 Ne, then it means 40 hanks (bundle) of 840 yards will give 1 pound weigh.

(Note: So, for gaining 1 pound weigh, 840 yards long how many yarn bundle we will in need, this require number of bundle is the English count of this yarn.)

Here count 40 Ne means, 40 bundle of yarn with 840 yards length will be required to get 1 pound weigh.

So, hopefully it was helpful for you to understand English count properly. If you like it do not forget to put down your valuable comments and share on facebook

Written by

Engineer Sheikh Nurja

B.Sc engineer of textile

Merchandiser at buying house

Yarn Count

Direct Yarn Numbering (Yarn Count) System

Count is a numerical value which is used to express the fineness or coarseness of the yarn. yarn count also indicates the relationship between length and weight of the yarn. So, as definition of yarn count we also can say yarn count has been introduced as a certain ratio of length to weight or weight to length.

Types of yarn count

There two types of yarn count system. They are as follows.

  1. Direct Count System
  2. Indirect Count System
yarn count

Textile Yarn

Direct Count System

Direct count is determined by the weight of a fixed length of yarn. The weight per unit length is the count (direct count). The common features of all direct yarn count systems are the length of yarn is fixed and the weight of yarn varies according to its fineness.

We should remember in direct yarn count system

  • In direct count system Length is fixed.
  • Higher the yarn number coarser the yarn and
  • Lower yarn number finer the yarn.

The following formula is used to calculate the direct yarn count

N = (W × l)/L

Here,

N = Yarn count or numbering system

W = Weight of the sample

L = Length of the sample

l = Unit of length of the sample.

Some direct yarn count system

  1. Tex system
  2. Denier system
  3. Decitex
  4. Militex
  5. Kilotex
  6. Jute count

Brief definition of the above direct count system

As I have given the definition above, now here I am going to present brief definition of above direct count system.

Tex system    : Number of grams per 1000 meters.

Denier            : Number of grams per 9000 meters.

Decitex           : Number of grams per 10,000 meters

Militex            : Number of milligrams per 1000 meters

Kilotex            : Number of kilograms per 1000 meters

Jute count     : No. of pound (lb) per 14,400 yards

Indirect Count System: (Will discuss in my next article. Remain with us.)

Discussion

Example :

Now I am going to disscuss about direct yarn count system with an example so that we can understand it more clearly.

  • Suppose 35 Tex,

What 35 Tex defines?

35 Tex means 1000 meters of yarn weigh 35 gram. If 1000 meter long yarn gives 35 gram weight then it is called 35 Tex. Hope it is clear now.

Others direct yarn count system also define so,

Wish it was helpful. Now I am going to ask you some question about direct count system. Try to solve these questions by yourself. Or, you can also give your answer as comment below the post. I will discuss about these following question in my upcoming post. If you have any other question never hesitate to ask me.

Questions :

  1. 20 Tex defines…………………
  2. 35 Denier defines………………..
  3. 35 Tex defines………………………
  4. 10 Decitex define…………………….
  5. 5 Kilotex defines………………………..
  6. 10 Jute count defines……………………..

Written by

Engineer Sheikh Nurja

B.Sc engineer of textile

Merchandiser at buying house

If you like this article please do not forget to share on facebook and put your valuable comment