## Necessary IE Terms of Apparel Industry

Industrial Engineering – IE is one of the popular term used in the apparel industry, where this work for optimization of complex process within the industry. Optimization is applicable to men, machine, materials, methods, and monetary resources. Here in this article you will have details of necessary IE terms of apparel industry with examples.

## Needed Industrial Engineering (IE) Terms Mostly Used in Apparel Industry

Very basic apparel industrial engineering terms discussed with example for clear understanding. List of terms are:

1. Standard minute value (SMV)
2. Efficiency
3. Line target
4. CPM & CM
5. CM/COM/MC
6. Broad calculation of garments cm
7. Conventional vs modern profit theory
8. Cost of making (CM) rule
9. Work study
10. Time & motion study
11. Line balancing

### 1. Standard Minute Value (SMV)

• SMV defined as the term Standard Minute Value, is mostly used in the garments industry and it is a common measurement calculated by the Industrial Engineer. Generally, SMV indicates the time taken to make garments by the workers using the right types of machinery.
• SMV = BASIC TIME + (BASIC TIME × ALLOWANCE)
• Suppose to complete an operation, a standard operator takes 1 minute.
• We put 15% allowance (Men, M/c & Time)
• SMV=1+(1×.15) Min
=(1+.15) Min
=1.15 Min
• GMT SMV is the sum of SMV for all M/c & Manual operation to complete an item

#### Related Terms of SMV

• Standard Operator: For a specific item & style, the potential operator who can give maximum output with the best quality & can improve productivity.
• Let’s see an Example for better understanding,
• Batsman faces 10 balls to score 5 Runs
• Batsman faces 10 balls to score 12 runs
• Batsman faces 10 balls to score 10 runs.
• Obviously 2nd one is the potential batsman who uses his
• Inputs (balls) to get maximum output (Runs)
• Pre-defined Conditions: On time input arrival, single piece flow, running m/c conditions, defined quality status, etc. are called pre-defined conditions.
• Basic Time: Actual time to complete an operation. In another word, basic time is the pick & drop time including an operation for quality output.

Basic Time= Pick time + Operation + Drop time;

Result , Input=Output with required quality

• In a broad sense , a GMT SMV=Sum of all operation SMV, not SMV of GMT + allowance.

### 2. Efficiency

• Efficiency defined as ’The comparison of what is actually produced or performed with what can be achieved with the same consumption of resources (Men, M/c, Material, etc. )’’
• Efficiency = Earned Minute/Available Minute
• Earned Minute = Production (Pcs) x SMV
• Available Minute = Manpower (Helper + Operator) x Working Time (Minute)

#### Calculation of Efficiency Percent

• Suppose any GMT item SMV is 5.5 (For any fixed style SMV always fixed)
• We use 22 Manpower(Operator & Helper) to achieve 1500 Pcs for 10 hours working shift
• Earned Minute = 1500× 5.5 or 8250 Min
• Available Minute = 22× (10×60) or 13200 Min
• Efficiency = 8250 Min/13200 Minute or 0.625
• Efficiency is expressed as % ,Then Efficiency =(0.625 ×100)% or 62.50%
• Efficiency is a ratio, not a number.
• Efficiency varies with Lead Time and Quantity. More Lead time & Quantity Increase Efficiency, on the other hand, less lead time tends us to use more MP or time to get the required output, so efficiency reduces.

### 3. Line Target

• Target= (total MP X WH X 60)/SMV
• Suppose We have 22 MP for 10 hr .GMT SMV is 5.5
• Target =(22 X10 X60)/5.5 =2400 PCs/Hr (That is 100% TGT)
• For expected efficiency this 100% Target is multiplied by efficiency to fix Line Target
• Line Target =(2400X.625) ; (Lets , we have expected efficiency of 62.5%)
=1500 PCs or 150PCs/Hr

### 4. CPM and CM

CPM Stands for Cost Per Minute which means Cost of every minute of garments sewing operations. To offer the best competitive price to the buyer and make maximum profit on garments selling CPM cost need to be kept at a minimum level.

For Calculating of CPM you need to sum all direct labor cost and any other operational cost for a particular order or for a particular period.

### 5. CM/COM/MC

• Cost of Making (CM/COM)/Manufacturing cost(MC) have to calculate after calculating factory CPM.
• CM = (SMV × CPM)/ Expected Efficiency%
• Suppose , any GMT item SMV is 4.7, Expected efficiency = 65.8 % , CPM[let] = \$0.0267
• CM = (4.7 × .0267)/ .658
= \$0.19/PCs
= (\$0.19 ×12)/Dzn
=\$2.28 /Dzn

### 6. Broad Calculation of Garments CM

To calculate the Cost of Making of a garment you have to collect the following information:

• First of all, you need to get the monthly information of factory rental expense, commercial expense, utility expenses (Electricity, Steam, Compressed Air, Water), transportation cost, repair & maintenance expenses, salary, and wages expense, etc. suppose for all these expenses the total cost is 70000 USD.
• Secondly, the number of functioning machine for a particular month. Suppose the number of machines is 120. Cost associate in the first section is for this 120 machine.
• You also need the number of machinery to do the layout for the particular item for which we are calculating the cost of making. Suppose the number of machines is 30.
• By using the existing layout, the amount of target production per hour (excluding the alteration and rejection of garments). Suppose 250 pcs per hour production will be there.
• The total number of working days for a particular month. This can be 26 days (30 days a month, 4 days of holiday in a month)

#### Cost of Making (CM) Rule

= {(Monthly total expenditure of the garments factory/ 26 days) / (Number of Functioning Machine of your factory for a particular month) X (Number of machine to complete the layout)} / [{(Production capacity per hour by using existing layout, excluding alteration and rejected quantity) X 8 working hours a day}] X 12 piece

= [{(\$70,000 / 26) / (120) X (30)} / {(250) X 8}] X 12

= [{2692.30 / (120) X (30)} / 2000] X 12

= (673.08 /2000) X 12

= .33654 X 12

= \$4.04/dozen

### 7. Conventional VS Modern Profit Theory

• Conventional : COST + PROFIT = PRICE
• Modern : PRICE – COST = PROFIT
• Price should be moderate to get maximum order!
• Cost should be minimized to get maximum profit!

### 9. Work Study

• A systematic study of methods of work to improve effectiveness & set standards
• 2 stages:

1. Method study: study of current method & find out to implement the improved method

2. Work measurement: determine the standard time required to complete improved method

#### Benefits of Work Study

• Productivity improvement
• Efficiency increase
• Improved workflow
• Improved work layout
• Improved standards

### 10. Time and Motion Study

• Time study: a work measuring technique to calculate basic time by finding cycle time & adding allowance
• Motion study: a technique to analyze operators motion & set a standard by eliminating unnecessary motion
• Two different theory but need parallel running to improve system known as ‘method engineering’
• Time & motion study is a conjugal technique to process control, improve dissimilar work performance & set standard goals
• IE is a combined package to improve by time study, work study & motion study

### 11. Line Balancing

• Line balancing is a manufacturing engineering function in which the whole collection of production-line tasks are divided into equal portions.
• Well balanced lines avoid labor idleness & improve productivity
• Line balancing is for keeping workload (theoretical mp/actual mp) as 1 or less than 1 by balancing work as per capacity & target

#### Steps for Line Balancing

• Bottleneck’ (constraint m/c or mp or operation that reduces productivity) have to find out
• Find same m/c / m/c condition such as gauge/pressure feet/device/thread etc.
• Find same m/c / m/c condition such as gauge/pressure feet/device/thread etc.
• Find same m/c / m/c condition such as gauge/pressure feet/device/thread etc.
• Find same m/c / m/c condition such as gauge/pressure feet/device/thread etc.
• Find same m/c / m/c condition such as gauge/pressure feet/device/thread etc.
• Find same m/c / m/c condition such as gauge/pressure feet/device/thread etc.

Written by

Sharmin Akther Diba

Industrial & Production Engineer

Rajshahi University of Engineering & Technology

Email: [email protected]

## Costing of Knit Garments

Costing of Knit Garments: During the consumption, it is good practice to use the measurement of middle size for calculation or the size which have most of the quantity. For example, If the style has 6 sizes then better to use size number 04 for consumption. Here we will show you the calculation consumption for the size “L”.

## Costing of Knit Garments

1. Body length of the garments in cm. Say it is – 73 cm
2. Sleeve length of the garments in cm. Say it is – 19.5 cm
3. Approximate stitching allowance at body hem, shoulder joint, sleeve hem joint (in cm). Say it is – 10 cm
4. Chest width (1/2) in cm. Say it is – 52 cm
5. Approximate stitching allowance at each facet seam (in cm). Say it is – 4 cm
6. Fabric GSM (finish). Say it is – 160 gsm
7. Approximate fabric wastage in various stage. Say it is – 10%

In this regard, fabric wastage depends on how many additional elements the garments have, which may change in any time. When there is rotary print in garments or enzyme stone wash than the amount of fabric wastage will be more than the normal level of wastage.

## Knit Garments Costing Formula

### What need to know or do before start costing

Fabrication: Take clear idea regarding the fabrication before taking the order from the buyer/buying house. After then, you need to ensure that you have a strong a good source of fabric.

Size specification: You also need to ensure that there is a correct size specification with the measurement of all the sizes, which will be ordered. Most of the time we see that PO sheet has come with a new bigger size which was not included during costing.

Fabric color: Try to know that, how many colors the style has & also try to know that, color-wise order quantity ratio.

Quantity: Take information regarding approximate order quantity.

Shipment date: Asked buyer for the shipment date and check with your production department, whether they have enough space for shipped out the followings qty within the require ship date or tell you’re a possible date.
Test requirement: This will allow you to recognize the order need to any test or not.
L/C payments term: Take a copy from the respective party previously and discuss with your commercial people regarding all the terms along with payment terms.

Inspection: Get a confirmation from the buyer that, who will inspect the goods. If there involve third party then who will pay the charge.

GSP: Please confirm with the buyer that they need the GSP or not.

## Calculating Fabric Consumption

Body Consumption:

Calculate the body fabric consumption at first. If possible calculate it after making the pattern. Be confirmed regarding the dia. Calculate the consumption with adding + 5 gsm extra which fabric is sells in kg (s/j, pique, rib etc.). Or reduce 2” (in width) from the both side which are in yards (tricot, taffeta etc.). Moreover, if the garments are wash garments then make sure that, the pattern has the wash allowance.

Moreover, if clothes|the clothes} square measure wash garments then ensure that the pattern has the wash allowance.

Rib: Calculate the rib consumption carefully because sometimes the garments have a rib at cuff opening & bottom hem. Some individuals erroneously do the consumption considering one cuff.

Neck tape: Calculate the consumption of neck tape.

Applique & others fabric: Ensure that, you’re not missing any appliqué cloth.

Estimate the wastage: Normally we add 9% wastage for the knit items. However, it’s may vary depends on how many processes the garments have. If it is with only front chest print then 9% is ok but if with all-over /rotary print, with heavy wash etc. then you must increase the wastage. Moreover, if the garments with pigments dye then add minimum 25 to 30% wastage because in this pigment dye garments reject percentage is very high.

Others Item

Print: If the garments have print then make sure that you have a clear artwork of it. Check the print quality, dimension & placement. Send the artwork to your printers for a better price idea. Many times, we found that the buyer has asked for so many type/kind prints in the same body which is so difficult for production. Such as, if the buyer asked for Flock + discharge & foil print in at the same artwork then it is not possible for production.

Embroidery: Discuss with your embroidery provider concerning the embroidery & take quotation of price.

Wash: Take the washing cost from the washing factory.

Test: Confirm the charges of the test from the testing company.

## Accessories and Trims

Sewing thread: Confirm that, which thread you need 100% cotton, spun polyester or filaments. Then you need to ensure the count 50/2 or 40/2 or any other denier. It’s may vary on fabrications. Regarding the pigment dye garments, we normally used cotton grey color cotton thread. Calculate the sewing thread consumption part by part & add require wastage percentage.

Labels: Take the quotation from your supplier for the entire woven & satin/paper label.

Tape: Calculate the consumption of tape if it has, such as Velvet, herringbone or canvas etc.
Elastic: Make sure which denier & width it need. Then take the quotation from supplier.

Zipper: If the garments have zippers then confirm that, from where you will purchase that. Many time the logo zipper need to import the mold from abroad. Make sure the zipper quality, such metal or nylon zipper. Check the zipper measurement from your production department and get prices from your zipper supplier.

Button: Take the button price from your supplier if the garments have it.

Inter lining: Calculate the inter lignin price if the garments need.

Patch or badge: Calculate the patch or badge or others metal item if the garments have.

Finishing item: Tissue paper, silica gel, hang tag, barcode sticker, backboard, h/tag string, scotch tape, security tag calculates the prices of these items.

Hanger: Take the quotation of a hanger.

Poly: Make the measurement of poly. Confirm the quality & with adhesive or not.

Carton: Find out the carton measurement & take the prices from carton supplier along with top, bottom & divider.

PP belt: Take the price quotation of pp belt if the buyer asked it.

## Commercial Cost

Normally we add 3% of total purchase (Fabric cost+ other item cost + Accessories cost) as commercial cost if the L/C payments terms are as sight. If the L/C is 60 days deferred then you can add 7.5% additional cost of total price and it will be 15% for 90 days deferred.

## CM (Cost of making)

Calculate the CM after finalizing CPM of the factory. It varies depending on Product SMV & Efficiency.

CPM (Cost Per Minutes) = (Direct Labor Cost + Operational Cost) of the month/ Usage Minutes (Available Minutes) of the month.

CM= (SMV × CPM)/ Expected Efficiency%

## Price Break Down of Polo Shirt

Description: 100% cotton pique polo shirt with two buttons at front placket w/o any pocket. At first, we will calculate the consumption of body fabric from Size spec which we have got from the buyer.

Suppose,

i) The body fabric consumption is 5.10 kg / dozen

So, total yarn consumption will be = 5.10 + 9%

= 5.10 + 0.459

= 5.559 kg / dozen

ii) The current yarn price is \$3.5.00/kg

iii) The current Pique knitting cost is \$0.25/kg (Knitted by circular knit S/J M/c)

iv) Average color dyeing cost is \$1.23 / kg

v) Normally Collar & cuff consumption is 60 gram/body (1 pc collar & 2 pcs cuff)

So, for 12 pcs it will be -0.06 X 12 + 9% = 0.78 kg / dozen

vi) Collar & cuff Knitting cost is \$0.05 (knitted by flat knitting m/c)

### Step: 1

Body fabric cost calculation:

Yarn price / kg = \$3.50

Knitting cost /kg = \$0.25

Dyeing cost / kg = \$1.23

Finished fabric cost = \$4.98

### Step: 2

Collar & cuff cost calculation:

Yarn cost/Doz = 0.78 X \$3.50 = \$2.73

Knitting cost/Doz = \$0.05 X 12 = \$0.60

Dyeing cost = 0.78 X \$1.23 = \$.9594

Collar& Cuff cost / Doz = \$4.2894

### Step: 3

Total production cost:

Body fabric cost (5.559 kg X \$4.98)

= \$27.68 / Doz

Collar & Cuff cost = \$4.2894 / Doz

CM = \$5.50 / Doz

Accessories Cost = \$2.50 / Doz

Total production cost: = \$39.97 / doz

### Final Step

Fob pricing of per piece polo shirt:

Total production cost: = \$39.97 / doz Commercial cost will be (3%) = \$1.03 / doz (Except Cost of Making)

Profit will (20% of Cost of Making) = \$1.10 / doz

Total FOB price (doz) = \$42.1 / doz

Fob price per piece will be = \$3.5083 / pc

Final quoted price for buyer = \$3.51 / pc (FOB)

Written by

Sharmin Akther Diba

Industrial & Production Engineer, RUET

Email: [email protected]

## Standard Minute Value: SMV in Garments, Calculation, Importance

The term Standard Minute Value – SMV is mostly used in the garments industry and it is a common measurement calculated by the Industrial Engineer. Generally, SMV indicates the time taken to make garments by the workers using the right types of machinery. In garments factory, you may find that many people used to the SAM – Standard Allowed Minute which is same as SMV. SMV varies garments to garments, style to style, factory to factory. Management and buyers ask for SMV and it is the responsibility of the IE department to calculate SMV and give it to the respective parties. Here in this article, I will share details of Standard Minute Value: SMV in Garments, Calculation, Importance with a practical example.

Industrial Engineering is concerned with the design, improvement, and installation of an integrated system of men, machinery, and materials. SMV is one of the most important tools used by IE.

## The prime objective of industrial engineering is:

• To Increase Productivity
• To eliminate waste and non-value added activities
• To come up with the optimum use of scarce resources that would bring out the best results.

## Importance of SMV in the Apparel Industry

The reason Why we use SMV in Garments Factory is given below

• SMV is calculated for doing a costing of garments
• It is used for calculation of target and set the right target
• For Calculating the Efficiency of workers
• SMV is calculated for making a plan and take effective factory production decision.

For Calculating SMV – Standard Minute Value in Garments you must have a proper idea of machine operating procedure and working process of workers. Close observation of Industrial Engineer is required to calculate the right SMV for a particular product or style in your factory.

Basically, SMV is the sum of the basic time requirement and allowance applicable to it. Normally allowance is given at the rate of 10% based on the efficiency.

## Calculation of SMV in Garments

SMV = (Basic Time + Allocated Allowance)

The formula of Basic Time = Observe Time x Rating Factor

Basic Time: Basic time is the most likely time required to make garments considering observe time and applicable rating factors.

Observe Time: Time taken to do a work when an observer is observing closely and record the worker’s work speed.

Calculation of Observe Time = Total Cycle Time is divided by Number of Cycle

Cycle Time: Cycle Time is the time between starting a garments manufacturing and finishing of those garments.

Rating Factor: Rating factor is assigned based on an evaluation of worker performance which is conducted through eye judgment. A worker can be fast, slow and rating is on a scale of 100% to lower.

Costing SMV is calculated for sending SMV information to buyers. Normally 5% additional time is added with the actual SMV.

Costing SMV = Actual SMV + (Actual SMV x 5%)

### Example of Calculation of SMV in Garments

Suppose for making a product the following assumption is there

• Observe Time = 25 Minutes
• Rating of Operator = 80%
• Considering Allowance = 10%
• Basic Time = 25minutes x 80% = 20 minutes
• Allowance = 20 x 10% = 2 Minute

So, SMV = 20 minutes + 2 minutes = 22 minutes for making a particular garments product

### Calculation of Capacity of Single Operator in Garments

• If an operator works for 10 Hours a day
• 30 minutes to make a product

Capacity = (1 operator x 10 hours x 60 minutes)/30 Minutes = 20 Pieces of Garments by an operator

If you assign 100 operators then your capacity will be = 100 operators x 20 pieces = 2000 pieces a day

### Calculation of Efficiency Percent

• SMV 22 Minutes
• Working Hours 10 a Day
• Number of Operators 100 person
• Actual Production 2000 pieces

Efficiency (%) = (2000 pieces x 22 minute)/(100 operators x 10 hours x 60 minutes) x 100 = 73.33%

whereas the target was,

Target = (10 hours x 60 minutes x 100 operators)/smv 22 minutes = 2727 Pieces of garments

## SMV of Different Types of Garments Manufacturing

Hopefully, you understand what is Standard Minute Value: SMV in Garments, Calculation, Importance of SMV in the apparel industry. If you have any confusion then please let me know. I will try to clarify farther in details.

Written by

Md. Nahian Mahmud Shaikat

## What does Right First Time (RFT) Mean?

Right First Time is lean tools that mean doing the thing right in the first time which can remove eliminate or repair and defects producing in garments manufacturing. RFT percent is one of the key performance indicator tools in Garments quality control. In this article, we will discuss What is RFT, RFT Factors and Calculation in Apparel Industry.

## Advantages/Benefits/Importance of Producing Right the First time

1. Reduce cost and penalty of quality failure
2. Improve quality and productivity
3. Remove re-work and repairing
4. Save time and energy
5. Save defects rectification cost
6. Improve work accuracy

## RFT calculation for Cutting, sewing, finishing, and Quality Control

Right First Time = (Number of passed goods or Lot / Number of total produced Garments or Lot) x 100

For example, If 200 pcs Garments is produced in the sewing section, found 13 pcs defect by QC then first pass quantity is =(200-13)= 187 pcs.

So, Sewing RFT will be = (187/200*100) % = 93.5%

 Date RFT Defect % 4/11/2017 95.67% 4.33% 5/11/2017 96.54% 3.46% 6/11/2017 96.57% 3.43% 7/11/2017 95.80% 4.20% 8/11/2017 96.20% 3.80% 9/11/2017 96.74% 3.26%

## Actual and Target RFT

 Date Actual RFT Target RFT Total Check Quantity 1-Jul 93.40% 96% 2500 2-Jul 93.50% 96% 2600 3-Jul 93.10% 96% 2400 4-Jul 94.20% 96% 3000 5-Jul 94.60% 96% 3500 6-Jul 93.50% 96% 2500

## RFT Key Factor Areas of Garments Manufacturing

There may have others area you need to count RFT, I am giving here what I know. Surely RFT is a performance measuring tool of quality control.

1. Cutting panels quality
2. Sewing output garments quality
3. Finishing packed garments quality
4. Final Audit RFT.

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)
Email: [email protected]

## Kanban Board in Garments Manufacturing Production Floor

What is Kanban? Kanban is a visual card or billboard; Japanese word which meaning Cards or board, a tool of lean manufacturing for visualization entire production teamwork to control production focusing on creating a production system more effective and efficient, focusing mainly in the production and logistics activities. Kanban is a visual system as ‘Signal card’ indicate what to do, items will put when needed, Kanban cards order necessary task, update with time and surely reduce wastage. In this article, you will have an idea of how kanban board in garments manufacturing production floor is used.

## Types of Kanban System

Generally, two types of Kanbans or Kanban Cards used in the apparel industry:

### Production Kanban

Production Kanban is the first step of Kanban implementation, production Kanban takes the place of standard production orders in material requirements planning (MRP) push.

### Transportation Kanban

Transportation Kanban system is very important that carried on the trolley, containers that are associated with the transportation to move through the loop again.

## Importance of Implementation Kanban Board in Apparel Industry

1. Reduce idle time in a production process.
2. Increase productivity, more effective and efficient production
3. Visualize work and optimize the flow of the work
4. Reduce WIP (Work in Process)
5. Improve workflow
6. Avoidance of over-production and limitation of stocks
7. Higher availability of materials
8. Reduce inventories
9. Improve communication between management and operational staff

## Garments Kanban Board Information Includes

1. Backlog
2. To do list
3. Doing List/ work-in-process List
4. Work completed List
5. Plan list
6. Lot name
7. Process name

This content also have the answer of below points

• Kanban system in Apparel manufacturing
• Set up Kanban board in the production floor
• Kanban board in sewing floor

If you have any confusion then please let me know.

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)
Email: [email protected]

## Management Levels and Their Functions in Textile and Apparel Industry

If you are involved with the apparel industry or you have an interest in working in any levels of management, then you must know the Management Levels in Garments Factory. When you clearly know the Management Levels and Their Functions in Textile and Apparel industry, you can easily decide who is responsible for what. Generally, you can find three levels of management in the Apparel Industry.

1. Top level management in Apparel Industry
2. Middle-level management in Apparel Industry
3. Lower level management in Apparel Industry

## Top Level Management in Textile and Apparel Industry

Top level management has the Supreme authority and most of owning a share in a garments factory. Their designation titled as MD (Managing Director), Director, Chairman, CEO (Chief executive officer), COO (Chief operating officer). They are mainly responsible for setting company policy, objective, ethics and employee code of conduct of employees as their job role.

### Functions of Top Management in Garments Factory

1. To establish company policies, define goal and objectives
2. Set up company structure and form a company’s core ethics
4. Appointing mid-level management
5. Taking strategic decisions and giving direction in a critical situation
6. Take the decision about Staff increment, employee promotion
7. Follow up factory profits loss and giving decision any types of financial matters
8. Keeping good relation with the buyer (Customer)
9. Follow up factory productivity and quality performance

## Middle-Level Management in Textile and Apparel Industry

Middle-level management is called executory level subordinate of senior management but above of lower level management. Generally, in the Textile and Apparel industry, their job titles are Production manager (PM), Executive officer, Officer, Manager etc. Company performance depends on Middle-level management.

### Functions of Middle Management in Garments Factory

1. Lead low-level management /operational staff directly.
2. Manage both top and lower level management
3. Appoint low-level management employees
4. Set production target and taking responsibility of production
5. Implement company goals, strategy, and policies
6. Implement all types of customer requirement
7. Responsible for company profit, losses, and performance to the buyer
8. Working for top level and customer satisfaction
9. Contact with all level of management

## Lower Level Management in Textile and Apparel Industry

Lower level management is in supervisory level, supervise worker directly. They also are known as operational staff who report directly to the mid-level management. In textile and Apparels industry their job title as Supervisor, controller and in-charge. Low-level management directly connected with work and ultimately responsible for company performance.

### Functions of Lower Level Management in Textile and Apparels

1. Supervise all Worker directly
2. Fulfill the production target
4. Report Middle-level management
5. Solve any problem of worker

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)
Email: [email protected]

## 12 Qualities of a Fashion Designer

The fashion designer is the key persons responsible for bringing stylish clothing. Although the style is based on region, culture, religion, and individual choices. But there are many things, a fashion designer can offer by using their creative mind. Many people born with a talent for designing. And many people learn through the academic process. You may find several institutions around the world who are offering fashion designing degree. To become a successful fashion designer, you will be required special qualifications. Either you born with these qualifications or you adopt from different means. According to our research if you want to become a fashion designer then you will be required to have 12 Qualities of a Fashion Designer. A fashion designer can also work as a fashion merchandiser.

1. Understand Fashion Trends
2. Good Communication Skills
3. Ability to Critically Think
4. Ability to Visualize
5. Proper Fabric Knowledge
6. Good Sense of Color
7. Expert of Drawing
8. Efficient Operator of Computer
9. Creative Mind
10. Knowledge of Sourcing of Materials
11. Ability to Perfectly Measure
12. Good Presentation Skill

## Qualities of Successful Fashion Designer

A successful fashion designer goes through many critical processes and attains some core qualifications which actually works behind their success.

### Understand Fashion Trends

Trends in fashion always changing which is part of our lifestyle. As a fashion designer, you must concern and keep an update of change in fashion trends around the world. So that you can develop your own ideas and design. Offering fashionable clothing based on market demand is a challenging task. If you can successfully provide a design which meets the expectation of your apparel items, then you must get appreciation.

### Good Communication Skills

Whatever you do, communication is necessary. Good communication not only helps to interconnect but also manage business dealings. As a fashion designer, you may have to communicate with your customers, wholesaler, retailers, outlets, fashion house etc. Both oral and written communication is required for a fashion designer.

### Ability to Critically Think

A critical thinker always tries to bring new design, ideas. Successful ideas actually push the market trends of fashionable cloth. For a successful fashion designer, it is required to have the qualities of critical thinking. Always think out of the box so that new things may generate. So that marketers can offer new stylish garments items.

### Ability to Visualize

For the fashion show, or for designing store layout, visualization of ideas and then implement accordingly is one of the key tasks of a fashion designer. A successful fashion designer has the ability to visualize. Visual effect generates more customer attraction.

### Proper Fabric Knowledge

Without fabric, you cannot make any cloth. So the first thing is you need to collect your required fabric. Proper knowledge of fabric has you to identify and select the right fabric for your cloth. You may acquire knowledge of fabric from the export who always deals with fabric. At the time of buying fabric it is required to select the right materials otherwise your garments item may not give your expected comfort.

### Good Sense of Color

Color is one of the main factors which actually attract the customer. Color may vary according to the season, occasion, taste, and gender. Before making a fashionable cloth you need to keep in mind all these factors otherwise your objective may not be fulfilled.

### Expert of Drawing

Fashion designer always works with a new design; before final design, they work with the sketch. As a fashion designer if you can draw whatever you want then it will add extra value to your other qualifications. Through practice, you can be an expert at drawing anything.

### Efficient Operator of Computer

The new different software is available for designing cloth or drawing sketch. Good knowledge of computer and designing application software will make your job easier. You can use adobe illustrator, Autodesk or any other applications.

### Creative Mind

Your Creative mind will help you to develop a new product which may create enormous demand in the market. Ultimately you will gain because of your demand. So if you are planning to become a fashion designer, first of all, think whether you have a creative mind or not, then decide what you should become.

### Knowledge of Sourcing of Materials

To make your fashionable cloth you will be required to source and collect fabric, trims and accessories and any other materials. So proper knowledge of these think should be there otherwise your garments will be as good as you were thinking. Also, the cost of your fashionable cloth will be increased which is not expected. Based on your least cost fashionable cloth your market demand will dependent.

### Ability to Perfectly Measure

A good finish product depends on the proper cutting of fabric and for proper cutting, a perfect measurement is required. So as a fashion designer you need to have the ability to perfectly measure each and every component of making a dress.

### Good Presentation Skill

After making fashionable cloth if you are interested to offer it for the customer or you want to attend a fashion show then you must have a good presentation skill of presenting your products to the audiences. A better presentation skill will make your product more attractive and people will order your design.

Written by

Md. Nahian Mahmud Shaikat

## Compliance Audit in Apparel Industry

A compliance audit is one kind of audit which is specially designed for auditing the compliance issues related with the apparel industry. Different regulatory authorities set different type of regulatory issues. And buyers of garments ask from the company whether they are following their required compliance or not. These issues are checked by the auditing process which is known as compliance audit. After a compliance audit, they provide/ issue certificate. From the Compliance Audit Checklist in Apparel Industry a garments makers will be able to know what are the things buyers may ask from the company.

## Compliance Audit Checklist in Apparel Industry

Compliance Audit is very important for garments manufacturing factory. To get an order from the buyer, your company must have to pass social Compliance Audit. Buyer may cancel the order if your company fails to pass the Compliance Audit. In this article, I am giving a checklist for any buyer Compliance audit preparation.

## Areas/Categories of Garments Compliance Audit

1. Licenses, permits and Facility Information
2. Child and under-aged worker
3. Forced labor and Discrimination
4. Freedom of Association and collective bargaining
5. Right of worker
6. Disciplinary Practice
7. Working Hours
8. Wages, Benefits & Compensation
9. Workplace Safety
10. Occupational Health & Welfare
11. Environment Management
12. Management Practice & Sub-contractor /supplier control
13. Training records
14. Company Policies

### Licenses, Permits and Facility Information

• Factory profile
• Architectural & Structural Drawing Approval
• Soil Test Report Approval
• Generator permission
• Electrical permission/ Sub-station permission
• TIN certificate
• Export registration certificate and Import registration certificate
• Export promotion bureau certificate
• Rent agreement

### Child and under-aged worker

• Child labor remediation process
• Recruitment policy
• Personal file
• Agreement with the service provider/sub-contract

### Forced labor and Discrimination

• Any harassment or discrimination issues
• Policy on a prohibition of forced labor
• Awareness/Training register
• Job responsibility of security guard

### Freedom of Association and Collective Bargaining

• Policy on freedom association
• Awareness/Training register
• Formation procedure of worker association/trade union
• Meeting minutes of worker participatory committee
• Register for complain /Suggestion
• Grievance handling procedure

### Right of Worker

• Personal file of worker
• Service book
• Employee ID card

### Disciplinary Practice

• Policy on disciplinary practice or rules
• Leave Record
• Orientation training on factory code of conduct & legal requirement
• All kind of policy
• Disciplinary action log & record
• Awareness/training register
• Final settlement
• Others legal facilities

### Working Hours

• Working hour Approval
• Working hour record for all section
• Overtime hour record
• Attendance Register
• Declared holiday list
• Manpower list

### Wages, Benefits & Compensation

• Wages/payroll sheet (last 1 year)
• Overtime wages sheet (last six months)
• Payslips (last 1 year)
• Wages Increment record
• Maternity Benefit register & Record
• Group Insurance with manpower update list
• Policy on wages, overtime, payment date, calculation method, leaves & holidays etc.

### Workplace Safety

• Sub-soil/Geological investigation report
• Building structural plan/approval
• 3rd party assessment report
• Firefighting training record
• Fire drill record
• Firefighting team
• Firefighting equipment list
• Fire safety plan
• Personal file of Fire Officer
• Electrical & Mechanical Equipment periodical checklist
• Competency certificate of Electrician
• Competency certificate of Boiler Operator
• Chemical Handling Training
• Health checkup record
• Chemical list
• Safely machine operating training register
• Needle stock register, Broken & Missing Register
• Sharp tool policy
• Emergency evacuation diagrams
• Emergency exit doors
• Building structure safety
• PPE (personal protective equipment) use
• Aisle or Stairway

### Occupational Health & Welfare

• Personal file of Welfare officer
• Drinking water test report
• First aid training & List of the first aider
• Medical agreement
• Competency certificate of Doctor
• Competency certificate of Nurse
• Personal file of care governance
• Childcare register
• Canteen committee

### Environment Management

• Environmental risk assessment as per section
• Emergency procedure to reduce risk
• Environmental clearance certificate
• Waste disposal agreement /procedure
• Wastewater test report in-house and outside
• Energy survey/ Assessment record

### Management Practice & Sub-contractor /Supplier Control

• Awareness training record for new & old workers
• Mid Management training record
• Internal Audit record
• Policy on Sub-contract control
• Sub-contract control procedure & record

### Training Records

• Emergency evacuation & fire drill record
• List of firefighters trained by fire service/BGMEA
• Disciplinary Rules communication
• First Aid training record
• Chemical Training record
• Machinery safety training record
• Health and safety training record
• Training on KIABI compliance

### Company Policies

• Child Labor Policy
• Child labor Remediation Policy
• Disciplinary Rules/Policy
• CSR Policy
• Anti-Corruption/Bribery policy
• Sub-contractor/Supplier Monitoring
• Grievance Procedure
• Environmental Policy
• Energy efficiency plan
• Environment emergency procedure
• Deduction for late/after lunch assentation

Compliance Audit Checklist in Apparel Industry

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)
Email: [email protected]

## Garments Washing Defects

Garments washing is the process to improve hand feel, appearance and better outlook of garments. That’s why washing plays a vital role in garments manufacturing. Because of various washing defect, rejection of garments increases. We need to reduce the rate of washing defects/faults at a minimum level. Rejection increases the cost of overall manufacturing. For this reason, reducing washing faults is the major concern for all apparel manufacturing industry. One major KPI points are to reduce washing rejection in the apparel industry. I made a list of all types of garments washing defects so that you may have a better idea of garments defects.

## List of Garments Washing Defects

1. Garments Discoloration
2. Poor Hand Sanding
6. Over Washing
7. Washing Damage
8. Washing Spot
9. High pH Level
10. Poor Grinding
11. Lycra Out
12. Poor Sand Blasting
13. High Abrasion Effect
14. Color Bleeding at Pocket Bag and Label
15. Washing Mark
16. Poor Hand Feel

## Washing Defect Description

### Garments Discoloration

If garments or any parts of garments discolored in washing it’s called discoloration. It is one of the common defect problems.

### Poor Hand Sanding

Because of improper hand sanding, more or less hand sanding than the actual requirement.

### Care Label Fading or Damage

Care label is an important part of garments. Sometimes label fades or damage in washing.

All garments have an original buyer required shade/color standard. If washing fails to meet shade standard then it is considered as off shade defect.

Various types of shade in a lot, when fabrication and washing are the same for a whole lot.

### Over Washing

There a certain limit of garments washing time and temperature. Crossing washing limit is considered as over washing and defects have arisen for this is known washing defects of over washing.

### Washing Damage

Garments damage in washing is called washing damage.

### Washing Spot

Creating a spot in washing is called washing spot defect.

### High pH Level

pH level crossed the level of higher pH limit. pH level is the most important factor in garments washing. For higher level, pH quality of garments may reduce.

### Poor Grinding

Because of improper grinding, more or less grinding than the requirement.

### Lycra Out

Damage Lycra or Lycra coming out in the washing of spandex fabric.

### Poor Sand Blasting

Improper sandblasting, more or less sandblasting than the requirement.

### High Abrasion Effect

Much abrasion effect than the requirement.

### Color Bleeding at Pocket Bag and Label

Generally, different fabric uses for a pocket bag and labels in any garments. Due to garments body, fabric and pocket bag fabric is different, color bleeding occurred frequently in pocket bag and label.

### Washing Mark

Garments marked in different washing stages, by the different washing machine, dryer. Long spot mark created in any process of washing is called washing mark defects.

### Poor hand Feel

If you find Rough hand feels after washing of garments then that considered as a poor hand feel defects of garments washing.

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)
Email: [email protected]

Bangladesh is now one of the developing countries in the world. Ready Made Garments (RMG) has a huge contribution to the economic growth of this country. The current condition of RMG – Ready Made Garments Export of Bangladesh seems good because there is a positive growth of export earnings. According to Export Promotion Bureau of Bangladesh (EPB), for the year 2017 to 2018 (July 2017 to April), Bangladesh Apparel Export is growing at the rate of 9% which seems a significant amount.

## RMG Export Growth Over the Year 2010 to 2018

Here you can see that the growth rate of RMG export is always fluctuating, the reason behind this is a change in market demand, increase in the cost of making, political condition, market competitiveness, and the exchange rate of USD to BDT.

 Year Total Export Million USD Growth 2010 14855 25% 2011 19214 29% 2012 19788 3% 2013 23501 19% 2014 24584 5% 2015 26603 8% 2016 28668 8% 2017 29213 2%

## Bangladesh RMG Growth for the Year 2017-2018

Ready Made Garments industry is growing at the rate of nine percent compared with the previous year. But in 2016-17 this growth rate was only 2%. So there is a significant positive change in the export.

 Total RMG Export Growth 2017-2018 Year Woven Knit Total Growth 2016-2017 10,785 10,144 20,929 – 2017-2018 11,513 11,321 22,834 9%

 Product Type Million USD Percent Woven 11,513 50.42% Knit 11,321 49.58% Total 22,834 100%

We mainly divide our apparel product into two broad categories. One is knit and other is woven.

### Monthly RMG Export Growth for the year 2017-2018

Although the growth of Ready Made Garments increased in every month there was an exception for the month of September 2017. It is not clear why suddenly growth rate reached to a negative figure.

## Main Apparel Export Items of Bangladesh for the Year 2016-2017

Bangladesh is mainly exporting Shirts, T-shirt, Trousers, Jackets Sweater among these Trousers and T-Shirt are exporting a huge amount, which is contributing at the rate of 29% and 28%. So these two products added significant value to the export earnings of Bangladesh.

 Item Million USD Percent Shirts 2108 10% Trousers 6027 29% Jackets 3547 17% T-Shirt 5862 28% Sweater 3362 16% Total 20905 100%

## Bangladesh RMG Export to the World 2017-2018

Most of our RMG is Exported to the European Union, where we export about 65% of our total export of apparel. Our second biggest client is the USA and the third one in Canada.

 Region Million USD Percent EU Countries 14735 65% USA 3929 17% Canada 713 3% Others 3457 15% Total 22834 100%

1. Germany
2. UK
3. Spain
4. France
5. Italy
6. Netherlands
7. Poland
8. Belgium
9. Denmark
10. Sweden

## Export of RMG by Bangladesh in European Union (EU)

Here look into this list that for the last 10 month EU countries is contributing 14734.69 million dollars. So there is no question of EU is the largest buyers of garments in our country.

 EU Countries Million USD Percent Germany 4205 28.537% U.K. 2847 19.322% Spain 1714 11.633% France 1328 9.012% Italy 1086 7.371% Netherlands 717 4.866% Poland 645 4.381% Belgium 534 3.626% Denmark 504 3.420% Sweden 395 2.679% The Czech Republic 352 2.386% Ireland 131 0.890% Slovakia 64 0.433% Portugal 50 0.338% Slovenia 44 0.298% Greece 40 0.270% Finland 22 0.152% Austria 22 0.147% Romania 13 0.086% Croatia 10 0.069% Malta 5 0.033% Bulgaria 2 0.013% Hungary 2 0.012% Lithuania 2 0.011% Cyprus 1 0.006% Estonia 1 0.006% Latvia 0.5 0.004% Total 14735 100%

RMG Export Market of Bangladesh Source: Export Promotion Bureau of Bangladesh, BGMEA

Written by

Md. Nahian Mahmud Shaikat

Email: [email protected]