Job Responsibility of IE in Apparel Industry

Before appointing an industrial engineer for the apparel industry, you have to keep in mind the Job Responsibility of IE in Apparel Industry. Here IE means Industrial Engineering. The world has limited resources but day by day we need to produce more and more product. The challenge is to increase productivity by using least amount of resources. Garments industry is very much competitive. So in this competitive industry, it is a big challenge for Bangladesh or any other country to survive. We are looking for a solution where we will get more productive technology with lower cost. Industrial Engineering is all about optimization of limited resources. Generally, Optimization, Planning, and Process Control is the core work in apparel for the industrial engineering department.

Job Responsibility of IE in Apparel Industry

Nowadays IE playing the key role in the apparel industry. Industrial Engineering Job is not an easy job, always engineers need to take the challenge and bring a complete solution. The person who is responsible for industrial engineering is considered as an industrial engineer. I made a list of industrial engineering activities in the apparel industry.

Job Responsibility of IE in Apparel Industry

Major Work of Industrial Engineering in Garments

Industrial Engineering deals with the following activities:

  1. Time Study, Motion study
  2. Taking the capacity study of full-line and line balancing for clean-up bottleneck area.
  3. Methods developments & analysis as a side of quality & quantity.
  4. Follow-up the low performing Operators.
  5. Operation breakdown, Operation Bulleting / Layout
  6. SMV calculation by time study.
  7. Operator skill Summery.
  8. Train up production staff on efficiency.
  9. Process-wise operator skill development.
  10. Nonproductive time (Loss Time) record and reduce.
  11. Hourly Production Monitoring & Achieve the line Target.
  12. Prepare Man machine report.
  13. 5s implementation, Training, and Auditing
  14. Work on 7 QC tools to minimize defect.
  15. Statistical analysis for continuous quality improvement.
  16. Production Planning and control, Planning Calculations
  17. Capacity Study
  18. Production Study
  19. PDCA Cycle
  20. 7 Wastage reduce
  21. Manpower Budget Planning
  22. CPM, CM Calculation
  23. Line Cost Calculation, Floor capacity calculation
  24. SPM, EPM, PCL Calculation
  25. Reduce WIP (Work in Process)
  26. Operator, Line and floor efficiency Calculation
  27. Follow up KPI (Key points indicator) and Report
  28. Inventory Control in all section
  29. Implementation lean manufacturing tools and Six Sigma
  30. Provide Incentive for operator and Production staffs
  31. Manpower requisition and set up
  32. Eliminating excess manpower
  33. Improving Productivity through detailed analysis of process by process
  34. Smooth supply chain management from raw material to output
  35. Helping to launch TQM (Total Quality Management) system in a factory
  36. Implement traffic light system on the floor & reduced sewing defect percentage
  37. Co-ordination with merchandising
  38. Fabric & thread consumption.
  39. Garments analysis & style development for reducing costing.

Please mention in the comment box if I missed any point.

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

Facebook: Amirul Islam Washim

Phone:+8801929643301
E-mail: [email protected]

7 QC Tools in Apparel Industry

7 QC (Quality Control) tools are very effective for apparel or any other types of the factory to solve almost every type of problem in a factory operation. These are the tools of troubleshooting quality issues, based on numeric value. 7 QC tools in apparel industry is a set of data analysis tools used to support continuous quality improvement efforts. If you can use these seven fundamental tools, then definitely quality control will be effective for your company.

7 QC Tools in Apparel Industry

  1. Histogram
  2. Check Sheet (Tally Sheet)
  3. Cause-and-Effect Diagram
  4. Pareto Chart
  5. Scatter Diagram
  6. Control Chart
  7. Stratification

7 QC Tools in Apparel Industry

Benefits of 7 QC Tools

  • Improve management decision making skills
  • Collect, present, Identify and analyses data
  • Implement Six Sigma
  • Control cost of poor quality
  • Reduce variations and improve quality
  • Reduce defects and improve production
  • Reduce cycle time and improve efficiency
  • Continuous quality improvement
  • Encourages teamwork and confidence
  • Enhances customer satisfaction through improved quality product

Explanation of 7 QC Tools for Apparel Industry

  1. Histogram

Histogram is also a bar chart. It is a graphical chart based on numeric value for showing frequency distribution of database. People become confused among Histograms and Bar Charts. A histogram is used for continuous data, where the bins represent ranges of data, while a bar chart is a plot of categorical variables. Some authors recommend that bar charts have gaps between the rectangles to clarify the distinction.

Histogram for Apparel Industry

Download: Histogram Template (excel 31kb)

  1. Check Sheet (Tally Sheet)

The Check Sheet/Tally sheet is a simple document that is used for collecting data in real time and at the location where the data is generated. The document is typically a blank form that is designed for the quick, easy, and efficient recording of the desired information, which can be either quantitative or qualitative. When the information is quantitative, the check sheet is sometimes called a tally sheet. A tally sheet to collect data on frequency of occurrences which custom designed by user.

Check Sheet or Tally Sheet

Download: Tally-sheet-template (excel 75kb)

  1. Cause-and-effect diagram (Ishikawa Diagram / Fishbone Diagram)

Cause-and-effect diagram is look like a fish that’s why it’s called Fishbone Diagram, also called Ishikawa diagram, herringbone diagrams or Fishikawa diagrams, a visualization tool for categorizing the potential causes of a problem in order to identify its root causes. Causal diagrams created by Kaoru Ishikawa that show the causes of a specific event. Dr. Kaoru Ishikawa developed the “Fishbone Diagram” at the University of Tokyo in 1943.To break down (in successive layers of detail) root causes that potentially contribute to a particular effect. This diagram is used in process improvement methods to identify all of the contributing root causes likely to be causing a problem.

How to Work on Fishbone

If you find a problem and want to make fishbone diagram. First need brainstorming about the defect to find out types of causes based on 6 basic things. These are:

  • Machine
  • Manpower
  • Environment
  • Method
  • Materials
  • Measurement

Brainstorm all the possible causes of the problem. Ask: “Why does this happen?” As each idea is given, the facilitator writes it as a branch from the appropriate category. Causes can be written in several places if they relate to several categories. For example you can see fishbone in the below:

Fishbone Diagram of QC Tools

Download: Cause and Effect diagram Template (excel 34kb)

4. Pareto Chart (80/20 Rule)

A Pareto chart is a bar graph. The lengths of the bars represent frequency or cost (time or money), and are arranged with longest bars on the left and the shortest to the right. In this way the chart visually depicts which situations are more significant.

The Pareto principle

The Pareto principle (also known as the 80–20 rule, the law of the vital few, and the principle of factor sparsity) states that, for many events, roughly 80% of the effects come from 20% of the causes. More generally, the Pareto Principle is the observation (not law) that most things in life are not distributed evenly. In apparel industry, you can see the data in the below that first 5 defects covered 50% of total defect. So 80-20 rules will not cover all-time 80% problem for 20% causes. It can mean all of the following things:

  • 20% of the defects number cumulate 80% of the total defects
  • 20% of the operator produce 80% of the defects
  • 20% of the customers create 80% of the revenue

Pareto for Apparel Industry

Pareto Chart of Cutting Defects

Download: Pareto Chart Template (excel 25kb)

5. Scatter Diagram

The scatter diagram graphs pairs of numerical data, with one variable on each axis, to look for a relationship between them. If the variables are correlated, the points will fall along a line or curve. The better the correlation, the tighter the points will hug the line. The scatter diagram Collect pairs of data where a relationship is suspected.

Scatter Diagram

6. Control Chart (Shewhart Chart)

Control charts, also known as Shewhart charts or process-behavior charts, are a statistical process control tool used to determine if a manufacturing or business process is in a state of control. A control chart shows how data frequency changes, defects trends and compares with previous time record. Control chart monitor process and hypothetical prediction. Apparel industry need to reduce defect frequency to get quality improvement.

Control Chart for Apparel

Download: Control Chart Template (excel 17kb)

7. Stratification (Divide and Conquer), can be alternative of flow chart or run chart

Stratification is a method of dividing data into subcategories and classify data based on a group, division, class or levels that helps in deriving meaningful information to understand an existing problem. The main purpose of Stratification is to divide the data and conquer the meaningful information to solve a problem. The visual nature of the chart makes patterns jump out.

Implementation of 7 QC Tools

To implement these tools in your industry, you must have to do Pareto, Fishbone for every section. Result publishes visibly in each line or area in board. People will be conscious to reduce defect. There improvement tracking on control chart also visible for each line/area. You have to find root cause from the root level for cause and effect diagram. Data and data collection must be accurate. Every section has to be taken corrective action based on quality data. Every section must do a quality meeting to take new decision for quality control at least once per month.

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

Facebook: Amirul Islam Washim

Phone:+8801929643301
E-mail: [email protected]

KPI Factors of Garments

KPI stands for Key Performance Indicator or Key Points Indicator. This is the era of competition and we have to survive with global challenge in apparel industry. If you carefully work with Key points that is KPI Factors of Garments then surely Garments business will flourish. Management team should focus on KPI for their industry. KPI report will help you to look into the actual condition of your garments.

KPI Factors of Garments

There are many KPI factors which are directly and indirectly related with garments, specially in factory operations.

KPI Factors of Garments

KPI for Garments Cutting

Cutting efficiency: Cutting efficiency one of the most important factor. If efficiency increase in cutting section, then production will increase by using minimum number of manpower.

Month Wise Cutting EfficiencyCutting Production: Cutting production is another important factor as like Cutting efficiency. Cutting production is related with Spreading, cutting, numbering and bundling.

Month Wise Cutting ProductionDHU (Defect per Hundred Units) in cutting: In cutting, there is no way to repair defect, must replace panel as per marker with shade matching. So if DHU is high, you will be needed to rework.

Cutting delay/Input delay in sewing line: Sometime cutting and sewing not start as per plan. Only two reason behind this. If PP/Size Set or pilot run sample fail to buyer QC to meet quality standard, apparel manufacturers have remake sample and submit again to buyer QC to pass sample and get cutting approval. Sewing can be delayed for Trims and accessories delay receive from supplier.

Month Wise Input Delay Status

KPI for Sewing

Line wise Sewing efficiency: Sewing make the whole garments, so sewing efficiency is an important factor for garments industry.

Efficiency calculation: An operator was doing an operation of SAM (Standard Allowed Minute) 0.60 minutes. In 10 hours day he produces 600 pieces. So according to the efficiency calculating formula, that operator’s overall efficiency is as follows:

Efficiency (%) = [Total minute produced by an operator/Total minute attended by him *100]

Efficiency (%) = [(Total piece made X SAM of the operation)/ (Total working hour X 60) * 100]
= [(400 x 0.60) / (10 X 60)*100%]
= 240/600*100%
= 40.00%

Last Month Sewing Efficiency

Production/Hour/Manpower/Machine

The ratio among production/hour/manpower/machine is to be optimal. Every factory has self study to reduce manpower, keeping less helper with best possible production outcome.

Month Wise Production Plan of Actual Sewing

Machine Trouble/Machine downtime: Because of Machine trouble production is stopped. Machine maintenance department have to do their best effort to reduce machine downtime. Electrical problem also can be cause of Machine trouble/machine downtime.

DHU in Sewing: Defects rate also key point in garments manufacturing. Factory has to rework for repairing defects. Defect generation reduces operator’s efficiency. Factory wants to keep defects as low as possible for per hundred units.

Absenteeism: Operator absenteeism hamper sewing production, create bottleneck. Every factory target employee absenteeism rate is zero % but sometimes it may not possible to keep this percent.

No. Style change: Style change effect on productivity, efficiency, and quality. So garments manufacturer wants big lot order more rather than small quantity order for any lot.

Plan vs Actual Production Ratio: All factories have planning department to make plan for cutting, sewing, finishing and shipment to meet buyer required shipment date. Gap between plan and actual production is the reason of not meeting on time delivery.

Idle Time/Machine: Idle time is also known as loss time. For any type of reason operators are not working is considered as loss time. Common reasons for idle time are; using new layout, machine trouble, no work etc.

Operator Wise Efficiency: The best way of efficiency calculation is to calculate individual operator efficiency every day, show report weekly and train up lower efficient operator for improvement which ultimately increase the operator efficiency.

Process improvement: Industrial engineering (IE) department do time study, motion study and work study to find out SMV (Standard Minute Value), to minimize unnecessary motion for sewing operations. By this way factory save SMV time for garments manufacturing.

Operator Turnover Rate: Since sewing is the key process of apparel, sewing operator turnover percentage is important. Turnover means the number of employees got fired or left from the job and replaced in work place by new operator. If turnover rate is lower in factory then it will be better for the company.

Monthly turnover % = (Employees separated/Average number of employees during the month) *100

Example, If Employees separated = 21, Average number of employees during the month= 950

So, Monthly Turnover % = (21/950) × 100 = 2.21%

KPI for Trims and Fabrics

Claim Amount vs. Recovery Amount: According to the buyer quality standard, garments manufacture has to reject fabrics, trim if there is any quality issue. So, maker must claim for compensation by replacing or giving back their money.

Claim and Recovery Amount

KPI for Finishing, Final Audit and Shipment

Cut to Ship Quantity: As PO wise buyer order quantity cutting department try to cut extra as much as possible. It could be from 2% to 5%. GMTS reject due to different quality issue. Below data will give idea about GMTS (Garments) production flow.

Cut to Ship Quantity

Month Wise Cut to Ship Percent

Reject percentage: For some critical quality problems like wash damage, measurement out of tolerance, work hole and unrepeatable problems GMTS rejected by finishing quality team.

DHU in Finishing: Defects rate also key point in garments manufacturing. Factory has to rework for to repair defects. Finishing team have to repair whatever defect come from sewing or finishing they found. Factory wants to keep defects per hundred units as low as possible. If too many products are defected then to rework the garments may add extra cost to the product which to totally unexpected.

Final Audit Pass rate: Final Audit pass rate is the number 1 KPI factor for Garments Quality. For some buyer final audit, if fail once any PO in final Audit, Factory has to give penalty for that. Any PO fail in final audit, factory has rechecked full quantity goods again. Could imagine how much cost need to recheck, and it also does hamper running production as well.

Month Wise Final Inspection Pass Rate

Finishing Production: Finishing is the last step of apparel manufacturing. On time delivery, sea or air shipment mainly depends on finishing of production.

Finishing Efficiency: Finishing efficiency is also very important key factory. If efficiency increases, production will increase with minimum manpower and ultimately it will increase profit for the company.

Last Month Floor Wise Average Finishing Efficiency Plan

Order and Ship Ratio: Order and ship ratio should be equal at least or ship quantity could be more than order quantity since cutting quantity is more than 2% or 3% of order quantity by reducing reject %.

Last Month Shipment Analysis

Year Wise Excess Shipment Quantity

Month Wise Order to Shipment Percent

Air Ship Quantity: Two reasons are cause for air shipment. One, If Garments maker cannot meet on time delivery date then maker have to ship goods by air at his own cost. GMTS suffer huge financial loss for air shipment because the rate is more for air shipment. Number two would be merchandising reason for not sourcing raw material on time.

Month Wise Air Shipment

Templates and KPI Dashboard Presentation

You may need to present your factory KPI data with Top management or may need to report them. Here I am sharing you a complete presentation and Excel database for your convenience for free. I hope these would help you to work with KPI smoothly.

  1. KPI Presentaion-Apparel and Garments (PowerPoint) (1mb)
  2. Summary of KPI report (Excel) (1.3mb)

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

Facebook: Amirul Islam Washim

Phone:+8801929643301
E-mail: [email protected]