Visual Management: A Tool of Lean Management for Garments Finishing Unit

‘Visual Management’ is an important part of lean manufacturing. It can carry up to 90% information in production floor. Visual management can convey message more effectively & easily understandable by all. Though It has positive impact, we sometimes overlooked this tool because of our ignorance or lack of knowledge. Visual management is a tangible way of communication to express rules, SOP, performance, standard, warning etc. It requires prior or less training to implement & follow. In this article it will be discussed how visual management is important for garments finishing unit. Garments finishing is one of the important step of completion of product life cycle. Finishing unit consist of garments checking, measurement follow-up, standard follow-up, trimming uncut threads, ironing, adding trims & accessories, wrapping, packing, weighting etc.

Steps of Visual Management

Visual Management: A Tool of Lean Management for Garments Finishing Unit

1. To Hang a Layout Diagram/Picture

It is good practice to use same layout for all lines in finishing unit. Here A layout showing every steps of garments finishing along with workstation orientation. There must include all physical variables, structures, length & width, substations, pathway etc. It is easy to make layout diagram in excel or AutoCAD by keeping measurement. Whenever a new employee or worker will see the layout, can easily understand the workflow. Language used in layout can be Bengali or English as per wish. It is helpful for any kind of technical or compliance audit also. A layout of your production or finishing floor can easily make first impression better when a new buyer visits your floor. It is an easy lean tool to make anyone understand about work activities & discipline.

Garments Finishing Layout picture

2. To Do Demarcation

Demarcation is the second step of visual management. Demarcation is fixing or identifying area for specific work. Do divide your finishing line is substations. Then fix the area by measuring & considering ergonomically standard work stations. You can take operators or workers view while dividing the area. It will add positive value & they will abide by the rules later. The question may be why this is necessary? It is necessary to fix work area to make sustainable discipline in finishing floor. No machine, table, man or accessories will move beyond your demarcation area. It is another way to eliminate process flow time by irregular flow. Demarcation can be done using color or different color tiles as per wish.

Zone alignment demarcation in garments factory

3. To Attach Identifier Board and KPI Board

After subdividing your work stations, the third step is to make visual boards or stickers for every workstation. Workstation identifier boards must be attached to every workstation. When you will follow it for every line in your finishing floor, it will look like an organized finishing floor. Anyone can understand process flow very easily. During any kind of buyer visit or audit, you will not have to follow them and show them the workstation by telling operation name. Well organized factories follow this visual management to reduce these kinds of micromanaging activities. Don’t think about the monetary value of identifier boards, implement them first & gradually you would see the result. KPI board need to be attached in front of the finishing line. You can add KPI list as per your factory standard. Finishing garments operation breakdown, DHU percentage, daily production & efficiency, attendance & leave status can be added in KPI board. It is good practice to include several departments activities in KPI board like HR, Quality, IE & top management. A well-organized KPI board can save minimum 1hour time. You want to know, how? At morning IE will fill up KPI board with efficiency or bottleneck status, QC will fill defect rate or top defect areas, HR will fill leave or attendance status, the production team will fill plan vs target status etc. These kinds of visual management will help top management to identify any line status at a glance. So why not you are applying it on your floor!

4. To Make Rules, Instructions, and Standardization for Sustain

It is necessary to make visual management sustainable. For this purpose, some rules & instruction can be visualized for standardization. It also helps to maintain discipline & in some cases have direct impact on productivity improvement & defect reduction. A proper set up of visual management is the first pre-requisite of lean manufacturing process. It helps to make audit successful, reduce defect label, maintain HR rules & regulations, workplace standardization & calm environment.

Visual Management A Tool of Lean Management for Garments Finishing Unit

Visual management helps to identify mistakes, improper orientation, mismanagement & irregularities. Not only for garments finishing unit, visual management is mandatory for all units like cutting, printing, sewing, washing, dyeing, warehouse etc. Office workstation can be properly visualized & it will make your organization a wonder land of lean based organization. Then why not approaching towards this small & continuous improvement? You can easily follow mentioned four steps for any kind of factory or organization from shop floor to workstation.

Written by

Sharmin Akther Diba

Industrial & Production Engineer

Rajshahi University of Engineering & Technology

Email: [email protected]

Linkedin: Sharmin Akther Diba

Necessary IE Terms of Apparel Industry

Industrial Engineering – IE is one of the popular term used in the apparel industry, where this work for optimization of complex process within the industry. Optimization is applicable to men, machine, materials, methods, and monetary resources. Here in this article you will have details of necessary IE terms of apparel industry with examples.

Necessary IE Terms of Apparel Industry

Necessary IE Terms of Apparel Industry

Needed Industrial Engineering (IE) Terms Mostly Used in Apparel Industry

Very basic apparel industrial engineering terms discussed with example for clear understanding. List of terms are:

  1. Standard minute value (SMV)
  2. Efficiency
  3. Line target
  4. CPM & CM
  5. CM/COM/MC
  6. Broad calculation of garments cm
  7. Conventional vs modern profit theory
  8. Cost of making (CM) rule
  9. Work study
  10. Time & motion study
  11. Line balancing

1. Standard Minute Value (SMV)

  • SMV defined as the term Standard Minute Value, is mostly used in the garments industry and it is a common measurement calculated by the Industrial Engineer. Generally, SMV indicates the time taken to make garments by the workers using the right types of machinery.
  • Suppose to complete an operation, a standard operator takes 1 minute.
  • We put 15% allowance (Men, M/c & Time)
  • SMV=1+(1×.15) Min
    =(1+.15) Min
    =1.15 Min
  • GMT SMV is the sum of SMV for all M/c & Manual operation to complete an item

Related Terms of SMV

  • Standard Operator: For a specific item & style, the potential operator who can give maximum output with the best quality & can improve productivity.
  • Let’s see an Example for better understanding,
  • Batsman faces 10 balls to score 5 Runs
  • Batsman faces 10 balls to score 12 runs
  • Batsman faces 10 balls to score 10 runs.
  • Obviously 2nd one is the potential batsman who uses his
  • Inputs (balls) to get maximum output (Runs)
Related Terms of SMV Standard Operator
  • Pre-defined Conditions: On time input arrival, single piece flow, running m/c conditions, defined quality status, etc. are called pre-defined conditions.
  • Basic Time: Actual time to complete an operation. In another word, basic time is the pick & drop time including an operation for quality output.

                        Basic Time= Pick time + Operation + Drop time;

                        Result , Input=Output with required quality

  • In a broad sense , a GMT SMV=Sum of all operation SMV, not SMV of GMT + allowance.

2. Efficiency

  • Efficiency defined as ’The comparison of what is actually produced or performed with what can be achieved with the same consumption of resources (Men, M/c, Material, etc. )’’
  • Efficiency = Earned Minute/Available Minute
  • Earned Minute = Production (Pcs) x SMV
  • Available Minute = Manpower (Helper + Operator) x Working Time (Minute)

Calculation of Efficiency Percent

  • Suppose any GMT item SMV is 5.5 (For any fixed style SMV always fixed)
  • We use 22 Manpower(Operator & Helper) to achieve 1500 Pcs for 10 hours working shift
  • Earned Minute = 1500× 5.5 or 8250 Min
  • Available Minute = 22× (10×60) or 13200 Min
  • Efficiency = 8250 Min/13200 Minute or 0.625
  • Efficiency is expressed as % ,Then Efficiency =(0.625 ×100)% or 62.50%
  • Efficiency is a ratio, not a number.
  • Efficiency varies with Lead Time and Quantity. More Lead time & Quantity Increase Efficiency, on the other hand, less lead time tends us to use more MP or time to get the required output, so efficiency reduces.

3. Line Target

  • Target= (total MP X WH X 60)/SMV
  • Suppose We have 22 MP for 10 hr .GMT SMV is 5.5
  • Target =(22 X10 X60)/5.5 =2400 PCs/Hr (That is 100% TGT)
  • For expected efficiency this 100% Target is multiplied by efficiency to fix Line Target
  • Line Target =(2400X.625) ; (Lets , we have expected efficiency of 62.5%)
    =1500 PCs or 150PCs/Hr

4. CPM and CM                   

CPM Stands for Cost Per Minute which means Cost of every minute of garments sewing operations. To offer the best competitive price to the buyer and make maximum profit on garments selling CPM cost need to be kept at a minimum level.

For Calculating of CPM you need to sum all direct labor cost and any other operational cost for a particular order or for a particular period.


  • Cost of Making (CM/COM)/Manufacturing cost(MC) have to calculate after calculating factory CPM.
  • CM = (SMV × CPM)/ Expected Efficiency%
  • Suppose , any GMT item SMV is 4.7, Expected efficiency = 65.8 % , CPM[let] = $0.0267
  • CM = (4.7 × .0267)/ .658
    = $0.19/PCs
    = ($0.19 ×12)/Dzn
    =$2.28 /Dzn

6. Broad Calculation of Garments CM

To calculate the Cost of Making of a garment you have to collect the following information:

  • First of all, you need to get the monthly information of factory rental expense, commercial expense, utility expenses (Electricity, Steam, Compressed Air, Water), transportation cost, repair & maintenance expenses, salary, and wages expense, etc. suppose for all these expenses the total cost is 70000 USD.
  • Secondly, the number of functioning machine for a particular month. Suppose the number of machines is 120. Cost associate in the first section is for this 120 machine.
  • You also need the number of machinery to do the layout for the particular item for which we are calculating the cost of making. Suppose the number of machines is 30.
  • By using the existing layout, the amount of target production per hour (excluding the alteration and rejection of garments). Suppose 250 pcs per hour production will be there.
  • The total number of working days for a particular month. This can be 26 days (30 days a month, 4 days of holiday in a month)

Cost of Making (CM) Rule

= {(Monthly total expenditure of the garments factory/ 26 days) / (Number of Functioning Machine of your factory for a particular month) X (Number of machine to complete the layout)} / [{(Production capacity per hour by using existing layout, excluding alteration and rejected quantity) X 8 working hours a day}] X 12 piece

= [{($70,000 / 26) / (120) X (30)} / {(250) X 8}] X 12

= [{2692.30 / (120) X (30)} / 2000] X 12

= (673.08 /2000) X 12

= .33654 X 12

= $4.04/dozen

7. Conventional VS Modern Profit Theory

  • Conventional : COST + PROFIT = PRICE
  • Modern : PRICE – COST = PROFIT
  • Price should be moderate to get maximum order!
  • Cost should be minimized to get maximum profit!

 9. Work Study                                   

  • A systematic study of methods of work to improve effectiveness & set standards
  • 2 stages:

1. Method study: study of current method & find out to implement the improved method

2. Work measurement: determine the standard time required to complete improved method

Benefits of Work Study

  • Productivity improvement
  • Efficiency increase
  • Improved workflow
  • Improved work layout
  • Improved standards

10. Time and Motion Study

  • Time study: a work measuring technique to calculate basic time by finding cycle time & adding allowance
  • Motion study: a technique to analyze operators motion & set a standard by eliminating unnecessary motion
  • Two different theory but need parallel running to improve system known as ‘method engineering’
  • Time & motion study is a conjugal technique to process control, improve dissimilar work performance & set standard goals
  • IE is a combined package to improve by time study, work study & motion study

11. Line Balancing

  • Line balancing is a manufacturing engineering function in which the whole collection of production-line tasks are divided into equal portions.
  • Well balanced lines avoid labor idleness & improve productivity
  • Line balancing is for keeping workload (theoretical mp/actual mp) as 1 or less than 1 by balancing work as per capacity & target
Line Balancing in Apparel Industry

Steps for Line Balancing

Steps of Line Balancing in Apparel Industry
  • Bottleneck’ (constraint m/c or mp or operation that reduces productivity) have to find out
  • Find same m/c / m/c condition such as gauge/pressure feet/device/thread etc.
  • Find same m/c / m/c condition such as gauge/pressure feet/device/thread etc.
  • Find same m/c / m/c condition such as gauge/pressure feet/device/thread etc.
  • Find same m/c / m/c condition such as gauge/pressure feet/device/thread etc.
  • Find same m/c / m/c condition such as gauge/pressure feet/device/thread etc.
  • Find same m/c / m/c condition such as gauge/pressure feet/device/thread etc.
Example of Line Balancing of T-Shirt

Written by

Sharmin Akther Diba

Industrial & Production Engineer

Rajshahi University of Engineering & Technology

Email: [email protected]

LinkedIn: Sharmin Akther Diba

Costing of Knit Garments

Costing of Knit Garments: During the consumption, it is good practice to use the measurement of middle size for calculation or the size which have most of the quantity. For example, If the style has 6 sizes then better to use size number 04 for consumption. Here we will show you the calculation consumption for the size “L”.

Costing of Knit Garments

  1. Body length of the garments in cm. Say it is – 73 cm
  2. Sleeve length of the garments in cm. Say it is – 19.5 cm
  3. Approximate stitching allowance at body hem, shoulder joint, sleeve hem joint (in cm). Say it is – 10 cm
  4. Chest width (1/2) in cm. Say it is – 52 cm
  5. Approximate stitching allowance at each facet seam (in cm). Say it is – 4 cm
  6. Fabric GSM (finish). Say it is – 160 gsm
  7. Approximate fabric wastage in various stage. Say it is – 10%

In this regard, fabric wastage depends on how many additional elements the garments have, which may change in any time. When there is rotary print in garments or enzyme stone wash than the amount of fabric wastage will be more than the normal level of wastage.

Knit Garments Costing Formula

Costing of Knit Garments, Knit Garments Costing

What need to know or do before start costing

Fabrication: Take clear idea regarding the fabrication before taking the order from the buyer/buying house. After then, you need to ensure that you have a strong a good source of fabric.

Size specification: You also need to ensure that there is a correct size specification with the measurement of all the sizes, which will be ordered. Most of the time we see that PO sheet has come with a new bigger size which was not included during costing.

Fabric color: Try to know that, how many colors the style has & also try to know that, color-wise order quantity ratio.

Quantity: Take information regarding approximate order quantity.

Shipment date: Asked buyer for the shipment date and check with your production department, whether they have enough space for shipped out the followings qty within the require ship date or tell you’re a possible date.
Test requirement: This will allow you to recognize the order need to any test or not.
L/C payments term: Take a copy from the respective party previously and discuss with your commercial people regarding all the terms along with payment terms.

Inspection: Get a confirmation from the buyer that, who will inspect the goods. If there involve third party then who will pay the charge.

GSP: Please confirm with the buyer that they need the GSP or not.

Calculating Fabric Consumption

Body Consumption: 

Calculate the body fabric consumption at first. If possible calculate it after making the pattern. Be confirmed regarding the dia. Calculate the consumption with adding + 5 gsm extra which fabric is sells in kg (s/j, pique, rib etc.). Or reduce 2” (in width) from the both side which are in yards (tricot, taffeta etc.). Moreover, if the garments are wash garments then make sure that, the pattern has the wash allowance.

Moreover, if clothes|the clothes} square measure wash garments then ensure that the pattern has the wash allowance.

Rib: Calculate the rib consumption carefully because sometimes the garments have a rib at cuff opening & bottom hem. Some individuals erroneously do the consumption considering one cuff.

Neck tape: Calculate the consumption of neck tape.

Applique & others fabric: Ensure that, you’re not missing any appliqué cloth.

Estimate the wastage: Normally we add 9% wastage for the knit items. However, it’s may vary depends on how many processes the garments have. If it is with only front chest print then 9% is ok but if with all-over /rotary print, with heavy wash etc. then you must increase the wastage. Moreover, if the garments with pigments dye then add minimum 25 to 30% wastage because in this pigment dye garments reject percentage is very high.

Others Item

Print: If the garments have print then make sure that you have a clear artwork of it. Check the print quality, dimension & placement. Send the artwork to your printers for a better price idea. Many times, we found that the buyer has asked for so many type/kind prints in the same body which is so difficult for production. Such as, if the buyer asked for Flock + discharge & foil print in at the same artwork then it is not possible for production.

Embroidery: Discuss with your embroidery provider concerning the embroidery & take quotation of price.

Wash: Take the washing cost from the washing factory.

Test: Confirm the charges of the test from the testing company.

Accessories and Trims

Sewing thread: Confirm that, which thread you need 100% cotton, spun polyester or filaments. Then you need to ensure the count 50/2 or 40/2 or any other denier. It’s may vary on fabrications. Regarding the pigment dye garments, we normally used cotton grey color cotton thread. Calculate the sewing thread consumption part by part & add require wastage percentage.

Labels: Take the quotation from your supplier for the entire woven & satin/paper label.

Tape: Calculate the consumption of tape if it has, such as Velvet, herringbone or canvas etc.
Elastic: Make sure which denier & width it need. Then take the quotation from supplier.

Zipper: If the garments have zippers then confirm that, from where you will purchase that. Many time the logo zipper need to import the mold from abroad. Make sure the zipper quality, such metal or nylon zipper. Check the zipper measurement from your production department and get prices from your zipper supplier.

Button: Take the button price from your supplier if the garments have it.

Inter lining: Calculate the inter lignin price if the garments need.

Patch or badge: Calculate the patch or badge or others metal item if the garments have.

Finishing item: Tissue paper, silica gel, hang tag, barcode sticker, backboard, h/tag string, scotch tape, security tag calculates the prices of these items.

Hanger: Take the quotation of a hanger.

Poly: Make the measurement of poly. Confirm the quality & with adhesive or not.

Carton: Find out the carton measurement & take the prices from carton supplier along with top, bottom & divider.

PP belt: Take the price quotation of pp belt if the buyer asked it.

Commercial Cost

Normally we add 3% of total purchase (Fabric cost+ other item cost + Accessories cost) as commercial cost if the L/C payments terms are as sight. If the L/C is 60 days deferred then you can add 7.5% additional cost of total price and it will be 15% for 90 days deferred.

CM (Cost of making)

Calculate the CM after finalizing CPM of the factory. It varies depending on Product SMV & Efficiency.

CPM (Cost Per Minutes) = (Direct Labor Cost + Operational Cost) of the month/ Usage Minutes (Available Minutes) of the month.

CM= (SMV × CPM)/ Expected Efficiency%

Price Break Down of Polo Shirt

Description: 100% cotton pique polo shirt with two buttons at front placket w/o any pocket. At first, we will calculate the consumption of body fabric from Size spec which we have got from the buyer.


i) The body fabric consumption is 5.10 kg / dozen

So, total yarn consumption will be = 5.10 + 9%

= 5.10 + 0.459

= 5.559 kg / dozen

ii) The current yarn price is $3.5.00/kg

iii) The current Pique knitting cost is $0.25/kg (Knitted by circular knit S/J M/c)

iv) Average color dyeing cost is $1.23 / kg

v) Normally Collar & cuff consumption is 60 gram/body (1 pc collar & 2 pcs cuff)

So, for 12 pcs it will be -0.06 X 12 + 9% = 0.78 kg / dozen

vi) Collar & cuff Knitting cost is $0.05 (knitted by flat knitting m/c)

Step: 1

Body fabric cost calculation:

Yarn price / kg = $3.50

Knitting cost /kg = $0.25

Dyeing cost / kg = $1.23

Finished fabric cost = $4.98

Step: 2

Collar & cuff cost calculation:

Yarn cost/Doz = 0.78 X $3.50 = $2.73

Knitting cost/Doz = $0.05 X 12 = $0.60

Dyeing cost = 0.78 X $1.23 = $.9594

Collar& Cuff cost / Doz = $4.2894

Step: 3

Total production cost:

Body fabric cost (5.559 kg X $4.98)  

= $27.68 / Doz

Collar & Cuff cost = $4.2894 / Doz

CM = $5.50 / Doz

Accessories Cost = $2.50 / Doz

Total production cost: = $39.97 / doz

Final Step

Fob pricing of per piece polo shirt:

Total production cost: = $39.97 / doz Commercial cost will be (3%) = $1.03 / doz (Except Cost of Making)

Profit will (20% of Cost of Making) = $1.10 / doz

Total FOB price (doz) = $42.1 / doz

Fob price per piece will be = $3.5083 / pc

Final quoted price for buyer = $3.51 / pc (FOB)

Written by

Sharmin Akther Diba

Industrial & Production Engineer, RUET

Email: [email protected]

Linkedin: Sharmin Akther Diba

Operation Breakdown SMV and Layout of Chino Short Pant

SMV indicates the Standard Minute Value, that is standard time required to make a particular garments. On the basis of SMV you can calculate your cost of your garments and planning to set target of production. Chino short pant SMV is 37.42 and 69 sewing machine will be needed. We shared operation bulletin of Chino long pant in past, now we are sharing Operation Breakdown SMV and Layout of Chino Short Pant.

Operation Breakdown, SMV and Layout of Chino Short Pant Manufacturing

Operation Breakdown SMV and Layout of Chino Short Pant Manufacturing

1O/L at fr.rise 0.30200
2Bone joint with fr part0.6790
3Corner cut 0.40150
4Tack at pkt mouth posn0.6790
5Top stt. At pkt mouth posn0.7580
6Coin pkt close 0.38160
7Safety tack at  pkt beg corner & W/b Side0.40150
8 Pocketing  matching0.50120
9Facing joint with Fr  pkting0.40150
10Pocketing attach at pocket mouth0.50120
11Front pocket mouth top stitch0.50120
12Tack at pkt mouth posn0.43140
13Fr pkt bag close by O/L0.60100
14pocket bag side tack0.60100
15Fr pkt bag 1/4 top stt0.60100
16Pockting & sheel body fab w/b side0.7580
17O/L at fr.rise 0.30200
18D/ply make & turn over0.40150
19S/ply & d/ply piping (use folder)0.40150
20S.ply att. +  1/8  top stt. 0.60100
21Zipper joint at s.ply0.50120
22J stt  with mark0.6790
23D. ply att with zipper 0.50120
24Fr zip 1/16″ top stt 0.60100
25High top stt0.60100
26Care label attach 0.60100
27Total  5.17
1Mark flap for making 0.60100
2Flap making (BK)0.40150
3Flap turn 0.6790
4Scissoring at flap0.6790
51/4 Top  stt at Bk pkt flap0.6790
6Mark at bk part fr dart & bone joint0.55110
7Dart making0.46130
8Top stt. At Dart posn0.40150
9Bk pockting o/l0.40150
10Bk pockting att. At bk part0.50120
11Bone making0.46130
12Mark at bone fr joint0.50120
13Bone & Flap joint0.6790
14Bone cutting1.5040
15Bone mouth inside tack0.7580
16Bone mouth top lower stt0.7580
17Facing joint at bk pockting(Bone side)0.55110
18Bone mouth top upper stt0.6790
19Facing joint at bk pockting0.55110
20Bk pkt close1.5040
21Tack at bk pocket upper side0.40150
22Back rise joint0.35170
23top stt at Back rise joint posn0.50120
24Total  14.45
1Fr to Bk part match0.48125
2Side seam0.50120
3Belt Contrast part fusing0.6790
4Belt piping (use folder)0.40150
5Chine stt. At w/b contrast part0.40150
6Two (LOGG & Size) lbl joint0.30200
7Main lbl joint at  w/b contrast part0.50120
8potty joint at w/b btn att posn1.0060
9Extra loop Iron0.30200
10Extra loop Att. At bk rise0.35170
11Belt match0.50120
12Waist belt iron ( use folder)0.50120
13Belt two part joint0.50120
14Body mark for loop att.0.40150
15Loop making0.40150
16Loop mark & cut0.60100
17Lbl joint at loop0.6790
18Loop attach lower side0.60100
19Belt joint ith body0.60100
20False tack at w/b 0.60100
21Top att at w/b lower side0.7580
22Name lbl & care lbl joint0.46130
23Mouth cut+  trim0.50120
24Mouth close in side0.7185
25Mark for zipper psn  + thread open at mouth0.7580
26Mouth close top side0.60100
28Inseam top stt.0.55110
29Elastic cutting & mark for joint0.6790
30Elastic Tack 0.6790
31Leg hem0.7580
32Loop attach upper side0.60100
Total 17.86
G TOTAL37.47
                  MANPOWER REQUIREMENT Number
Snap = 0
S/N    =52
O/L   =8
D/N   =3
F/O/A  =0
K/S   =0
C/S    =6
  HELPER   =20
IM   = 2
L/C   =1
S.VISOR  = 3

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)
Email: [email protected]

Linkedin: A.M. Amirul Islam

Standard Minute Value: SMV in Garments, Calculation, Importance

Standard Minute Value: SMV in Garments, Calculation, Importance

The term Standard Minute Value – SMV is mostly used in the garments industry and it is a common measurement calculated by the Industrial Engineer. Generally, SMV indicates the time taken to make garments by the workers using the right types of machinery. In garments factory, you may find that many people used to the SAM – Standard Allowed Minute which is same as SMV. SMV varies garments to garments, style to style, factory to factory. Management and buyers ask for SMV and it is the responsibility of the IE department to calculate SMV and give it to the respective parties. Here in this article, I will share details of Standard Minute Value: SMV in Garments, Calculation, Importance with a practical example.

Industrial Engineering is concerned with the design, improvement, and installation of an integrated system of men, machinery, and materials. SMV is one of the most important tools used by IE.

Standard Minute Value - SMV in Garments, Calculation, Importance

The prime objective of industrial engineering is:

  • To Increase Productivity
  • To eliminate waste and non-value added activities
  • To come up with the optimum use of scarce resources that would bring out the best results.

Importance of SMV in the Apparel Industry

The reason Why we use SMV in Garments Factory is given below

  • SMV is calculated for doing a costing of garments
  • It is used for calculation of target and set the right target
  • For Calculating the Efficiency of workers
  • SMV is calculated for making a plan and take effective factory production decision.

For Calculating SMV – Standard Minute Value in Garments you must have a proper idea of machine operating procedure and working process of workers. Close observation of Industrial Engineer is required to calculate the right SMV for a particular product or style in your factory.

Basically, SMV is the sum of the basic time requirement and allowance applicable to it. Normally allowance is given at the rate of 10% based on the efficiency.

Formulas of Calculating SMV

SMV in Garments Formula

Calculation of SMV in Garments

SMV = (Basic Time + Allocated Allowance)

The formula of Basic Time = Observe Time x Rating Factor

Basic Time: Basic time is the most likely time required to make garments considering observe time and applicable rating factors.

Observe Time: Time taken to do a work when an observer is observing closely and record the worker’s work speed.

Calculation of Observe Time = Total Cycle Time is divided by Number of Cycle

Cycle Time: Cycle Time is the time between starting a garments manufacturing and finishing of those garments.

Rating Factor: Rating factor is assigned based on an evaluation of worker performance which is conducted through eye judgment. A worker can be fast, slow and rating is on a scale of 100% to lower.

Costing SMV is calculated for sending SMV information to buyers. Normally 5% additional time is added with the actual SMV.

Costing SMV = Actual SMV + (Actual SMV x 5%)

Example of Calculation of SMV in Garments

Suppose for making a product the following assumption is there

  • Observe Time = 25 Minutes
  • Rating of Operator = 80%
  • Considering Allowance = 10%
  • Basic Time = 25minutes x 80% = 20 minutes
  • Allowance = 20 x 10% = 2 Minute

So, SMV = 20 minutes + 2 minutes = 22 minutes for making a particular garments product

Calculation of Capacity of Single Operator in Garments

  • If an operator works for 10 Hours a day
  • 30 minutes to make a product

Capacity = (1 operator x 10 hours x 60 minutes)/30 Minutes = 20 Pieces of Garments by an operator

If you assign 100 operators then your capacity will be = 100 operators x 20 pieces = 2000 pieces a day

Calculation of Efficiency Percent

  • SMV 22 Minutes
  • Working Hours 10 a Day
  • Number of Operators 100 person
  • Actual Production 2000 pieces

Efficiency (%) = (2000 pieces x 22 minute)/(100 operators x 10 hours x 60 minutes) x 100 = 73.33%

whereas the target was,

Target = (10 hours x 60 minutes x 100 operators)/smv 22 minutes = 2727 Pieces of garments

SMV of Different Types of Garments Manufacturing

Hopefully, you understand what is Standard Minute Value: SMV in Garments, Calculation, Importance of SMV in the apparel industry. If you have any confusion then please let me know. I will try to clarify farther in details.

Written by

Md. Nahian Mahmud Shaikat

Operation Breakdown, SMV and Layout of Blouse Manufacturing

Operation Breakdown, SMV and Layout of Blouse Manufacturing

A blouse is worn by the women in South Asian, it is worn in the upper part of a body. As per this sewing operation bulletin, total SMV is 4.73 and 25 sewing machine will be needed. Here also available downloadable excel sheet for your clarification. Hopefully, after reading this you will have a good idea of Operation Breakdown, SMV and Layout of Blouse Manufacturing.

Operation Breakdown, SMV and Layout of Blouse Manufacturing
1 Front Two part O/L 3T O/L 0.1 600 0.53 1
2 Front two-part joint S/N 0.15 400 0.79 0.5
3 Btn placket making mark & Make S/N 0.25 240 1.32 1
4 Ticken Mark at back part Helper 0.15 400 0.79 1
5 Ticken tack at back part S/N 0.16 375 0.85 1
6 Solder joint 5T O/L 0.15 400 0.79 1
7 Slv rolling S/N 0.25 240 1.32 1
8 Slv joint 5T O/L 0.3 200 1.59 2
9 Side joint 5T O/L 0.2 300 1.06 1
10 Hanger loop, Btn loop measure & Cut Helper 0.22 273 1.16 1
11 Hanger loop tack S/N 0.15 400 0.79 1
12 Btn loop Make & joint S/N 0.2 300 1.06 1
13 Neck tape joint with body S/N 0.45 133 2.38 2
14 Neck top stt. S/N 0.35 171 1.85 2
15 Front Hem tape joint with body S/N 0.5 120 2.64 3
16 Back Hem tape joint with body S/N 0.3 200 1.59 2
17 Back Hem tape Top stt. S/N 0.2 300 1.06 1
18 Front Hem tape Top stt. S/N 0.45 133 2.38 2
19 Tack at underarm S/N 0.1 600 0.53 0.5
20 Main lbl joint S/N 0.1 600 0.53 0.5
TOTAL     4.73 0.19 25 25
  GRAND TOTAL     4.73 0.19 25 25

Summary of Sewing Operation Bulletin of  Blouse Manufacturing

1 S/N 18
2 D/N
3 O/L
4 3T O/L 1
5 4T O/L
6 5T O/L 4
7 2T F/L (Chain)
8 Button Attach
9  F/L
10 F/O/A
11 Ironman
12 Helper 2
13 Chain stc
14 O/L (Chain)
15 Buttonhole


  • S/N Single needle lock stitch
  • D/N Double needle lock stitch
  • O/L Overlock machine
  • 3T O/L 3 Thread overlock machine
  • 4T O/L 4 Thread overlock machine
  • 5T O/L 5Thread overlock machine
  • F/L Flat Lock machine
  • F/O/A Feed of the arm

Operation Breakdown, SMV and Layout of Blouse Manufacturing

Blouse Operation Bulletin (excel)

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)
Email: [email protected]

Linkedin: A.M. Amirul Islam

Visual Management System in Apparel Industry

Visual Management System in Apparel Industry

Visual management is a part of lean manufacturing; an effective and standard method to communicate with every level of a factory with necessary information, a concept is to understand everything when a person visits manufacturing floor by visual data display system also include an important message for employees for learning, doing and achieve. Visualization boards applied in a factory for delivering information such as production status, production trend, Quality controlling status, delivery performance, and customer report. Visual controls are means, devices, or mechanisms that were designed to manage or control our operations (processes) so as to meet the purposes: informative, identification, instructional and planning. Here in this article, you will have an idea of what we can visualize, tools used, and advantages of Visual Management System in Apparel Industry.

Visual Management System in Apparel Industry

What are Generally Visualize in Garments Factory

  1. Hourly production board
  2. Efficiency graph, individual and line wise
  3. Quality DHU%, RFT
  4. Production and Quality target, Target vs Actual
  5. A counter sample for the sewing line
  6. Production Downtime & Performance Dashboard
  7. Delivery performance report
  8. All KPI reports
  9. Responsibilities of sewing operator
  10. Pareto analysis
  11. Kanban board
  12. Best sewing line names, best supervisors and operator
  13. Section wise safety assessment list and picture

Digital Visual Board in Garments Production Floor


List of Tools can be Used to Visualize Garments Factory

  1. Visual control boards
  2. Digital computerized board
  3. Visual workstation
  4. Signs, labels, name tags and direction
  5. Borders, lines; level scales
  6. Board, Shadow board, shadows, color codes and displays (i.e. Colour and shape)
  7. Graphs, info graph charts,
  8. Photos, films,
  9. Posters
  10. Mascots,
  11. Sketches
  12. Drawings
  13. Models
  14. Sticky
  15. Decision
  16. Trees,
  17. Kanban systems (cards, lights)

Advantages/ Benefits of Visualization in the Apparel Industry

  1. Increase effective communication and easy understanding for all
  2. For successful outcomes from the production floor
  3. Immediate assessment of the daily and weekly goals
  4. To motivate employees
  5. To familiarize or set the stage for a performance/event
  6. Absorb information quickly.
  7. Understand the next steps
  8. Share the insights with everyone
  9. It’s easy to understand and clarify
  10. Proper and regular updates
  11. Immediate Performance Information
  12. Evidence of actual achievement

This article also refers to

  • Visualize Garments factory
  • How to visualize Garments manufacturing key tools

Visual Management in the Apparel industry pdf

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)
Email: [email protected]

Linkedin: A.M. Amirul Islam

What is WIP, WIP Calculation, Reducing, Reporting in Garments Manufacturing

What is WIP, WIP Calculation, Reducing, Reporting in Garments Manufacturing

What is WIP? What does WIP mean in Apparel Industry? WIP means Work In-progress or In-process, an inventory system in the Garments manufacturing process in cutting, sewing and finishing but not for raw materials warehouse or finished goods warehouse. WIP for the manufacturing floor the quantity between input and output what backlogged in production. In this article we will see the details of What is WIP, WIP Calculation, Reducing, Reporting in Garments Manufacturing.

What is WIP, WIP Calculation, Reducing, Reporting in Garments Manufacturing

WIP Calculation of Cutting, sewing, Washing, and Finishing

  • Cutting WIP = Total cut quantity – Total quantity inputted to the sewing section

For example, Cutting section cut total 10,000 pieces for style# 5572819 and 7520 pieces have been inputted to the sewing department, then cutting room WIP will be =(10,000-7520) =2480 pieces.

  • Sewing Line WIP = Total pieces (GMTS Qty) inputted to the line – Total number of garments sewing output completed

For example, if a sewing Line totals 7520 pieces have been got input for style#5572819 and a total of 3500 pieces are produced from the line. Sewing line WIP is (7520-3500) = 4020 pieces.

Limiting washing WIP is very much important because most factories don’t have own washing facility. So they have to send Garments to another factory for washing. Delaying in washing can effect on time delivery.

  • Washing WIP= Total Garments sent to washing – Total Garments received from washing

Finishing, the last stage of Garments manufacturing, garments manufacturer challenge limiting washing and finishing WIP. Every factory especially follows up washing and finishing WIP to maintain on-time delivery to the customer.

  • Finishing sections WIP = Total Garments received from washing – Total packed quantity

WIP Report Format for the Apparel Industry

It is very easy reporting WIP, doesn’t need to make a format for checking WIP, you can keep WIP calculation in a production report. Here excel reporting format uploaded to download for all of you.

Cutting and Sewing WIP

Daily Production Report – Sewing
Line Name Style Order Quantity Al. Quantity Input Date Day Input Ttl Input Day Output Total Output Input Balance Output Balance Line WIP
A 808-8126 18211 19571 28-May-18 15401 1440 15300 4170 4271 101
A & B 808-8129 11897 12851 31-May-18 579 12413 1552 12407 438 444 6
B 834-4100 3000 3242 7-Jun-18 1263 3122 1208 2140 120 1102 982
C 808-2844 6570 6936 30-May-18 6714 925 6095 222 841 619
E 899-4241 30912 21278 22-May-18 2108 21278 1300 18330          – 2948 2,948
F 899-4241 30912 10444 4-Jun-18 2108 10444 1600 9590          – 854 854
G 808-8514 3060 3444 9-Jun-18 1099 305 305          –          – 794
H RM1005109 3202 3425 9-Jun-18 889 1996 600 600 1429 2825 1,396
I RM1020409 4115 4445 6-Jun-18 4384 1205 3540 61 905 844
J RM1020509 5854 6243 4-Jun-18 6174 1500 5961          –          – 213

Washing and Finishing WIP Report

Total Sent to Wash Day Receive from Wash Total Receive from Wash Work in Process in Wash
25401 7 25192 209
17234 61 17112 122
10082 54 10057 25
13065 33 13050 15
16154 44 16150 4
2173 82 2137 36
Total Wash Receive Day Poly Total Poly Poly Balance/Finishing WIP
79274 1200 3500 75774
19545 320 1850 17695
531 55 111 420
104 100 100 4
4664 1800 3855 809

Download WIP report format in excel chart

How to Limit excessive Work In-process (WIP) in Garments production Floor

  1. Reducing bottleneck and productivity improvement
  2. Adding machines and improving workforce
  3. Proper Layout and machine allocation
  4. Follow Kanban board in the production floor
  5. Keeping accurate production flow chart/ sequence
  6. Producing a good quality product and stopping re-work

Problems of Excessive WIP for Apparel Industry

  1. Transit areas become obstructed and blocked
  2. Garments gathering in the workplace
  3. Garments inadequate to maintain a good appearance
  4. Hamper normal production flow
  5. Poor housekeeping

This Content also has an answer of below points

  • How to find out WIP in the Apparel industry
  • Limiting WIP in the Apparel industry
  • WIP follow up in the Apparel industry
  • WIP calculation of Cutting
  • WIP calculation of Sewing
  • WIP calculation of Washing
  • WIP calculation of Finishing

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)
Email: [email protected]

Linkedin: A.M. Amirul Islam

Kanban Board in Garments Manufacturing Production Floor

Kanban Board in Garments Manufacturing Production Floor

What is Kanban? Kanban is a visual card or billboard; Japanese word which meaning Cards or board, a tool of lean manufacturing for visualization entire production teamwork to control production focusing on creating a production system more effective and efficient, focusing mainly in the production and logistics activities. Kanban is a visual system as ‘Signal card’ indicate what to do, items will put when needed, Kanban cards order necessary task, update with time and surely reduce wastage. In this article, you will have an idea of how kanban board in garments manufacturing production floor is used.

Kanban Board in Garments Manufacturing Production Floor

Types of Kanban System

Generally, two types of Kanbans or Kanban Cards used in the apparel industry:

Production Kanban

Production Kanban is the first step of Kanban implementation, production Kanban takes the place of standard production orders in material requirements planning (MRP) push.

Transportation Kanban

Transportation Kanban system is very important that carried on the trolley, containers that are associated with the transportation to move through the loop again.

Importance of Implementation Kanban Board in Apparel Industry

  1. Reduce idle time in a production process.
  2. Increase productivity, more effective and efficient production
  3. Visualize work and optimize the flow of the work
  4. Reduce WIP (Work in Process)
  5. Improve workflow
  6. Avoidance of over-production and limitation of stocks
  7. Higher availability of materials
  8. Reduce inventories
  9. Improve communication between management and operational staff

Garments Kanban Board Information Includes

  1. Backlog
  2. To do list
  3. Doing List/ work-in-process List
  4. Work completed List
  5. Plan list
  6. Lot name
  7. Process name

This content also have the answer of below points

  • Kanban system in Apparel manufacturing
  • Set up Kanban board in the production floor
  • Kanban board in sewing floor

If you have any confusion then please let me know.

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)
Email: [email protected]

Linkedin: A.M. Amirul Islam

Operation breakdown, SMV and Layout of Leggings

Operation Breakdown, SMV and Layout of Leggings

Leggings are tight fit bottom wear, typically preferred by the women but men can wear. Legging is high stretchable knitwear garments, wears with Kurti, very much comfortable, made by blended Lycra fabrics (Spandex). Leggings total sewing SMV is 4.64, 15 manpower needed approximately and 14 sewing machine will be needed. Here is the Operation breakdown, SMV and Layout of Leggings, hopefully, this will help you to know the SMV of Leggings.

Sewing Operation Breakdown, SMV and Layout of Leggings Manufacturing

Total Manpower 15
Number of Operators 13 60% 113
Number of A.O.P 2 70% 131
Number of IRON 80% 150
Sl Operation Description SMV Manual/ M/c M/C OP/ AOP Balancing Tgt/Hr Tot.Tgt/Hr Var. Operation Request
1 Care label cut & attach 0.2 SNL 1 0.5 300 150 136
2 Front rise join with sticker match 0.25 4OL 1 0.5 240 120 108
3 Back rise join 0.22 4OL 1 0.5 273 136 134
4 Inseam join 0.45 4OL 2 2 133 267 267
5 Waist belt Tape & Elastic open give steam & cut 0.3 MNL 1 200 200 200
6 Elastic ring make & mark 0.3 SNL 1 1 200 200
7 West belt make & mark 0.35 SNL 1 2 171 343 343
8 Elastic tk with belt 0.4 SNL 1 1 150 150 150
9 Body mark & tape attach with belt 0.3 SNL 1 1 200 200 200
10 West belt attaches at the waist 0.6 4OL 2 2 100 200 200
11 Label attach 2 0.25 SNL 1 0.5 240 120 118
12 Leg Hem 0.45 FL 1 1 133 133 132
13 Crosspoint BTK 0.12 BT 1 0.5 500 250 249
Total SMV 4.64 Total MP   14.5          


1 SNL Single Needle Lock Stitch M/c 6
2 4OL 4 Thread Over Lock M/c 6
3 FL Flat Lock M/c 1
4 BT Bartack M/c 1

Operation Breakdown, SMV and Layout of Leggings

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)
Email: [email protected]

Linkedin: A.M. Amirul Islam