Compliance Audit Checklist in Apparel Industry

Compliance Audit in Apparel Industry

A compliance audit is one kind of audit which is specially designed for auditing the compliance issues related with the apparel industry. Different regulatory authorities set different type of regulatory issues. And buyers of garments ask from the company whether they are following their required compliance or not. These issues are checked by the auditing process which is known as compliance audit. After a compliance audit, they provide/ issue certificate. From the Compliance Audit Checklist in Apparel Industry a garments makers will be able to know what are the things buyers may ask from the company.

Compliance Audit in Apparel Industry

Compliance Audit Checklist in Apparel Industry

Compliance Audit is very important for garments manufacturing factory. To get an order from the buyer, your company must have to pass social Compliance Audit. Buyer may cancel the order if your company fails to pass the Compliance Audit. In this article, I am giving a checklist for any buyer Compliance audit preparation.

Compliance Audit Checklist in Apparel Industry

Areas/Categories of Garments Compliance Audit

  1. Licenses, permits and Facility Information
  2. Child and under-aged worker
  3. Forced labor and Discrimination
  4. Freedom of Association and collective bargaining
  5. Right of worker
  6. Disciplinary Practice
  7. Working Hours
  8. Wages, Benefits & Compensation
  9. Workplace Safety
  10. Occupational Health & Welfare
  11. Environment Management
  12. Management Practice & Sub-contractor /supplier control
  13. Training records
  14. Company Policies

Licenses, Permits and Facility Information

  • Factory profile
  • Architectural & Structural Drawing Approval
  • Soil Test Report Approval
  • Trade license
  • Factory license
  • Fire license
  • Boiler license
  • Generator permission
  • Electrical permission/ Sub-station permission
  • TIN certificate
  • Export registration certificate and Import registration certificate
  • Export promotion bureau certificate
  • Bond license
  • Rent agreement

Child and under-aged worker

  • Child labor remediation process
  • Recruitment policy
  • Personal file
  • Agreement with the service provider/sub-contract

Forced labor and Discrimination

  • Any harassment or discrimination issues
  • Policy on a prohibition of forced labor
  • Awareness/Training register
  • Job responsibility of security guard

Freedom of Association and Collective Bargaining

  • Policy on freedom association
  • Awareness/Training register
  • Formation procedure of worker association/trade union
  • Meeting minutes of worker participatory committee
  • Register for complain /Suggestion
  • Grievance handling procedure

Right of Worker

  • Personal file of worker
  • Service book
  • Employee ID card

Disciplinary Practice

  • Policy on disciplinary practice or rules
  • Leave Record
  • Orientation training on factory code of conduct & legal requirement
  • All kind of policy
  • Disciplinary action log & record
  • Awareness/training register
  • Final settlement
  • Others legal facilities

Working Hours

  • Working hour Approval
  • Working hour record for all section
  • Overtime hour record
  • Attendance Register
  • Declared holiday list
  • Manpower list

Wages, Benefits & Compensation

  • Wages/payroll sheet (last 1 year)
  • Overtime wages sheet (last six months)
  • Payslips (last 1 year)
  • Wages Increment record
  • Maternity Benefit register & Record
  • Group Insurance with manpower update list
  • Policy on wages, overtime, payment date, calculation method, leaves & holidays etc.

Workplace Safety

  • Sub-soil/Geological investigation report
  • Building structural plan/approval
  • 3rd party assessment report
  • Firefighting training record
  • Fire drill record
  • Firefighting team
  • Firefighting equipment list
  • Fire safety plan
  • Personal file of Fire Officer
  • Electrical & Mechanical Equipment periodical checklist
  • Competency certificate of Electrician
  • Competency certificate of Boiler Operator
  • Chemical Handling Training
  • Health checkup record
  • Chemical list
  • Safely machine operating training register
  • Needle stock register, Broken & Missing Register
  • Sharp tool policy
  • Emergency evacuation diagrams
  • Emergency exit doors
  • Building structure safety
  • PPE (personal protective equipment) use
  • Aisle or Stairway

Occupational Health & Welfare

  • Personal file of Welfare officer
  • Drinking water test report
  • First aid training & List of the first aider
  • Medical agreement
  • Competency certificate of Doctor
  • Competency certificate of Nurse
  • Personal file of care governance
  • Childcare register
  • Canteen committee

Environment Management

  • Environmental risk assessment as per section
  • Emergency procedure to reduce risk
  • Environmental clearance certificate
  • Waste disposal agreement /procedure
  • Wastewater test report in-house and outside
  • Energy survey/ Assessment record

 Management Practice & Sub-contractor /Supplier Control

  • Awareness training record for new & old workers
  • Mid Management training record
  • Internal Audit record
  • Policy on Sub-contract control
  • Sub-contract control procedure & record

Training Records

  • Emergency evacuation & fire drill record
  • List of firefighters trained by fire service/BGMEA
  • Disciplinary Rules communication
  • First Aid training record
  • Chemical Training record
  • Machinery safety training record
  • Health and safety training record
  • Training on KIABI compliance

Company Policies

  • Child Labor Policy
  • Child labor Remediation Policy
  • Disciplinary Rules/Policy
  • CSR Policy
  • Anti-Corruption/Bribery policy
  • Sub-contractor/Supplier Monitoring
  • Grievance Procedure
  • Environmental Policy
  • Energy efficiency plan
  • Environment emergency procedure
  • Deduction for late/after lunch assentation

Compliance Audit Checklist in Apparel Industry

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)
Email: [email protected]

Linkedin: A.M. Amirul Islam

Trainee Merchandiser Job Description

Trainee Merchandiser Job Description

A trainee merchandiser post is an entry-level post of a merchandiser. A trainee merchandiser will be promoted as a merchandiser and then senior merchandiser. Sometimes a trainee merchandiser is known as a junior merchandiser. The post title varies from company to company. Before recruiting a trainee merchandiser, the recruiter must disclose what will be the job responsibilities for that position. Although a trainee merchandiser will do all merchandising task as they are junior, their job responsibilities will be less than the senior post. If you want to be a merchandiser for apparel industry then you must know trainee merchandiser job description so that you can have an idea of your future responsibilities.

To become a trainee merchandiser, you are not required to have a textile engineering degree. You can work as a merchandiser if you are from a marketing background also. In real life, you may find people came from a different background but working in the apparel industry as a merchandiser. There is nothing wrong to become surprised because if you have the qualification of merchandiser then you can be a successful merchandiser, your degree does not matter in this case.

A trainee merchandiser or junior merchandiser works as a probationer where he/she will get on the job training. Step by step they will learn how a merchandising process is going on a normal basis and how to manage all the tasks.

Remember one thing that at the early stage of merchandising career you will have to go through many tough situations as you are to work will all the responsibilities of merchandiser but the extensity of responsibility will be lower.

Trainee Merchandiser Job Description

Now come to the point of the job description of trainee merchandiser or junior merchandiser or garments merchandiser or merchandiser.

Merchandiser Job Description

As a garments merchandiser, your job description may include the following responsibilities.

  1. Search for a new buyer
  2. Communicate with existing buyers
  3. Costing of Garments
  4. Negotiate with buyers/customers
  5. Develop Sample
  6. Take an Order
  7. Follow up order status
  8. Make liaison among factory and exporter
  9. Regular Factory Visit
  10. Look for Sub Contractor
  11. Maintain and update Buyers Database
  12. Promoting Products
  13. Market Study and Demand Forecast
  14. Supply Chain Management
  15. Support Senior Merchandisers

The job responsibilities of apparel merchandiser are not limited to these but there may have many more tasks assigned by the managers or your supervisors.

Search for New Buyer

As a trainee merchandiser, your boss may ask you to look for a new buyer. So that company can enlarge their buyer basket. Although it is a challenging task to get new buyers from the competitive market. But sometimes a trainee merchandiser can manage new small buyers. Take it as a challenge and as well as opportunities.

Communicate with Existing Buyers

A good merchandiser always plays an active role in communicating with the buyers. If buyers have any queries, then you need to give them the information. If you do not have the answer, then definitely you need to talk with your seniors or supervisor. Basically, for foreign buyers, communication is done through a phone call or through email.

Costing of Garments

This task is one of the main tasks. As a merchandiser, you need to know all the basic costing related to garments and accessories, so that you can calculate the offering price for a particular product to the buyer. Costing may include; fabric costing, trims and accessories costing, knitting cost, washing cost, dyeing cost, printing cost, garments cost of making etc. For calculating cost you may use formulas and textile and garments conversion factors.

Negotiate with Buyers/Customers

A proper price negotiation may help to satisfy both maker and the buyers. It is your responsibility, first, do the costing of final garments and then negotiate with the buyers to offer a competitive price.

Develop Sample

Before placing an order, it is required to develop a sample for the buyers. Based on the sample garments if it meets the buyer’s requirements then they place an order. So, as a merchandiser, you need to work on developing a sample according to the buyer’s specifications.

Take Order

When garments buyers are satisfied with your sample garments, they will place an order and as a merchandiser, it is your responsibility to take an order on behalf of a company.

Follow up Order Status

After receiving an order, you have to follow up order status from time to time with the buyer’s so that they can have a proper idea of what actually going on. This will help to ensure the on-time delivery of the product.

Make Liaison among Factory and Exporter

It is merchandisers responsibility to ensure a proper liaison among factory/garments maker or exporter if you are working in a buying house, they do not have any factory of their own.

Regular Factory Visit

Whether you work in a buying house or garments factory, you are required to visit the factory regularly just to check the garments production status which must be as per the specifications of the buyers.

Look for Sub Contractor

If your company does not have enough capacity to make all the order garments then you must look for sub-contractor those will work for making your garments. But this will be a challenging job for a merchandiser to choose a right sub-contractor who will offer a better price with the best quality product.

Maintain and Update Buyers Database

Every garments export maintains their buyer’s database so that they can evaluate and prioritize their buyers according to their values. It is merchandisers responsibility to maintain proper record of buyers and update database time to time.

Promoting Products

Your sales will depend on the promotion of your products. You know the demand for fashionable garments is increasing worldwide. As a trainee merchandiser if you are targeting a large number of future buyers then you must work for promoting your products.

Market Study and Demand Forecast

Merchandising job is one of the challenging jobs in apparel industry because to become successful in merchandising career you must collect market data, study and analyze the data and forecast accordingly so that you can be prepared for the future challenges.

Supply Chain Management

Now a day’s properly managed supply chain is one of the success factors of the garments industry. The reason behind this is, an effective supply chain management will help you to minimize your product cost. Your supply chain will help you to source your product from least cost sources and deliver your product through least cost channel.

Support Senior Merchandisers

As a trainee merchandiser or junior merchandiser, you need to support your seniors if they require your support. On time support will increase your companies operating efficiency.

After these discussions hopefully, you understand what can be the responsibilities of merchandiser and what may include in trainee merchandiser job description. If you have still question then you may ask through a comment.

Merchandiser Job Description pdf

Written by

Md. Nahian Mahmud Shaikat

What is Merchandising

What is Merchandising?

Merchandising is a process of selling goods and services. The process of merchandising starts with identifying target customers, setting a price for a particular product, do negotiation and finally deliver the product to the customer. I asked the question what is merchandising to several people who are involved with the apparel industry just to hear from them how they actually define merchandising. Most of them said that all the activities to sell a product is merchandising. So, the scope of the job merchandising is not limited to how we define merchandising is rather than all activities are related to selling is merchandising.

As a process of merchandising in the apparel industry, wholesaler/manufacturer use merchandiser to communicate with the buyer of garments or to bring new customer, negotiate with them and make them induce to place an order. So, in this case merchandising is related to wholesale of merchandise (garments).

What is Merchandising

Example of Apparel Merchandising

Suppose H & M buy different types of garments from Epyllion and those people responsible for communicating, placing the order, bargaining, receiving an order, sampling etc. are merchandiser and all together these tasks are merchandising.

So, the process by which a merchandiser sells their products to the target customer is called merchandising. Merchandising is a commonly used term, mostly applicable in the apparel industry. Every year in apparel industry many merchandisers are recruited for the purpose of merchandising.

The demand for merchandising is increasing for-profit motive organization but the question is who will deal with merchandising for the organization. A person deals with the selling of products who is known as a merchandiser. Remember one thing that it is not necessary to involve merchandising for an export purpose it also can be used for local business.

There are basically two forms of Merchandising

  1. Retail Merchandising
  2. Visual Merchandising
  • Retail merchandising is mainly applicable to a retail store. The scope of retail merchandising is broad because we can use it for every type of products sold in the retail store.
  • On the other hand, visual merchandising is another form of retail merchandising where the main stimulating factor is visualizing the product and service to create attraction and interest and ultimately selling of products.

Recently Another two forms of Merchandising are visible from the functional characteristics of merchandising. These are:

  1. Virtual Merchandising (Online Selling)
  2. Wholesale Selling (Merchandising on behalf of Wholesaler or manufacturer)

Garments Merchandising

Garments merchandising is both applicable for wholesale and retail merchandising in the apparel industry, Where merchandisers work for manufacturer, wholesaler and retail store. Garments merchandising is also known as apparel merchandising. Garments Merchandising is one of the popular forms of merchandising because of its extensive use in the apparel industry. Merchandising process make it easier to meet the buyer’s requirement through time to time follow up and ensuring on-time delivery of garments items.

Garments Merchandiser

Garments merchandiser is the person who is responsible for merchandising of garments products and services. Merchandising is the core function of a merchandiser. A garments merchandiser need to have several qualifications to become a successful merchandising. Garments merchandiser basically contact with garments buyers, negotiate with them, take orders, manage samples and send it to the buyers, take the order and finally, ensure the delivery of the product to the buyers at the right time.

Difference Between Merchandising and Marketing

Many people become confused about whether marketing and merchandising are similar or different. There is a difference between merchandising and marketing. Marketing is a broad area of business where merchandising is a part of marketing activities, which deals with the selling of goods and services.

Finally, briefly, we can define merchandising as a set of activities we (Merchandisers) do to sell our product and services to the target customers for the purpose of generating revenue and satisfy our customer.

Merchandising is a set of activities for selling products, merchandise, service to the target customer with the help of merchandiser.

What is Merchandising pdf

Written by

Md. Nahian Mahmud Shaikat

Sample Quality Check List for Apparel Industry

Sample Quality Check List for Apparel Industry

The sample represents bulk garments, for any type of quality check, the quality control manager chooses garments as a sample basis rather than checking of the whole amount. Sampling plays a very important role in the garments manufacturing. By approving sample, buyer approves to start bulk production of garments. Sample quality checking is mandatory functions required by the customer (buyer) for the apparel industry. Every factory has a sample section to make sample garments. Sample quality has to be the best product as much as possible because based on sample garments buyers will place an order. A checklist follows for checking sample quality of garments. For your better understanding, I made a Sample Quality Check List for Apparel Industry. Hope this will be helpful for you to do a quality check of your sample garments.

Garments Sample

You may also like: PP Meeting checklist of the apparel industry

Key Points of Sample Quality Check List of Garments

  1. PO sheet
  2. Approved trim card
  3. Approved sample
  4. Production PDM
  5. Measurement
  6. Defects
  7. Visual outlook

Sample Quality Check List for Apparel Industry

Quality Check List for Apparel Industry

Order Details/QA Style File

  1. PO Sheet
  2. Production PDM/Bulk PDM
  3. Approved Sampling
  4. Approved Trim Cards
  5. Body Fabric
  6. Trim/Contrast Fabric
  7. Pocketing Fabric
  8. Twill Tape/Drawstring

Approved Label

  1. Main Label/Heat Seal Label
  2. Size Label
  3. Care Label
  4. Cargo pocket Label

Approved Trims

  1. Fusible Interlining
  2. All Sewing Thread
  3. Button
  4. Zipper
  5. Velcro


  1. Embroidery
  2. Print
  3. Rhinestone

Approved Ticketing/Finishing Trims

  1. UPC
  2. Size Stripe
  3. Billboard
  4. Hang Tag
  5. Marketing Tag
  6. Hanger/Sizer

Wash Verification Report

  1. Approved Wash Standard/V-Code
  2. Shade band/ Leg Panel
  3. SHADE (B – base color) Light or dark
  4. A- (abrasion) Less or heavy
  5. T- (Tint) Heavy or less
  6. C- (coverage all dry process)
  7. H- (Hand feel) Hard or soft

Lab Test Report

  1. Button Pull Test Report
  2. Button Torque Test Report
  3. Garments Test Report
  4. In-house Lab Test Report

Finishing, packing, and Folding

  1. Ironing/Pressing
  2. Folding & Packing
  3. Polybag
  4. Folding Method
  5. Review Summary
  6. Top Defects

Download: Sample Quality Check List for Apparel Industry (excel)

Sample Quality Check List for Apparel Industry (pdf)

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)
Email: [email protected]

Linkedin: A.M. Amirul Islam

10 Future Challenges of Apparel Industry

Future Challenges of Apparel Industry

The demand for garments is increasing day by day with the increase in world population. Bangladesh, India, China, Vietnam are contributing a huge amount to the production of garments which increase their market share to the apparel industry. Textile and garments always had challenges and now still has challenges and in future, more challenges will come. Those are involved with the apparel industry will need to carefully manage future challenges to stay in the line of success, otherwise, they will have to either bear monetary loss or decrease their business growth or decrease their market share. From my experiences right now, I can see there are 10 Future Challenges of Apparel Industry with which we have to deal with. If you are aware of these challenges, then hopefully you will be the gainer by planning for the future.

10 Future Challenges of Apparel Industry

10 Future Challenges of Apparel Industry

  1. The increase of Utility Cost
  2. Special Skilled Manpower
  3. Political Instability
  4. Higher Demand for Specialized Garments Items
  5. Adaptation of Automation
  6. An increase of Labor Cost
  7. Extreme Competitive Pressure
  8. Worker Turnover
  9. Extra Pressure from Environmental Regulatory Authority
  10. Obtain Low-Cost Leadership

Challenges of Apparel Industry

The Increase of Utility Cost

Utility cost will likely to increase by a significant amount within next few years. In a textile and garments factory, four types of utilities are commonly used; Electricity, Water, Steam, Compressed Air. Among these, electricity is the main part of utility because electricity can be used to get other three. Normally there are two types of a generator is used to generate electricity in the garments factory in Bangladesh or any other country. One is Gas Fuel and other is Furnish Oil/Diesel Generator. The cost of Electricity generated by Gas Generator is lower. But if you use diesel generator then the cost of electricity production will increase by two to three times. Here in Bangladesh, we have a very limited source of natural gas. Soon or later our natural gas will be finish then we will not get natural gas for industrial electricity generation purpose, so we have to rely on the diesel or any other renewable energy source. If we can not get a solution for lower cost electricity generation then this will increase our overall garments production cost.

The solution to this problem is the government can provide electricity to the industry with the power distribution authority. To do this first of all government need to ensure high capacity power plant across the country. The Bangladeshi government is already taken initiative for the nuclear power plant, although it has a high risk for the environment if an accident takes place.

Special Skilled Manpower

To make some innovation it is required to get some skilled manpower. Through special skills, special and specific tasks can be done effectively and efficiently. Special skills like; handling CNC machine, Design PLC, use of CAD etc. For the garments sector, most of the garments works are not well educated, it is not easy to get and manage especially skilled manpower. So, this will be a big challenge for apparel industry owners.

The solution to this problem is, adapt more skill development program, like SEIP- Skilled Employment Investment Program taken by the Bangladesh Government under Finance Ministry. This program is designed in such a way that people will get training then development and also ensure related job placement. This development is a role model that can be followed by other countries those are in the development stage of the apparel industry.

Political Instability

One of the main problems for Bangladeshi entrepreneurs is political instability. A democratic government is required where the will be political stability which is a pre-requisite for the positive growth of the industry. The country which experiences frequent strike on the transport system will face the problem of a delay in shipment. And a delay of shipment can be the reason for canceling the shipment, or monetary loss or losing the valuable customer. So, for positive garments business require a positive political condition. Near future, Bangladesh is at high risk of political instability. It is the time of thinking by the owner of the garment’s how they will deal with this challenge.

The easiest solution can be taken by the ruling government to ensure a stable political condition for their country.

Higher Demand for Specialized Garments Items

The main target market for apparel export is for USA, Europe. As their living standard is higher and becoming more higher, they were concerned about fashion and will more concerned about a special fashionable dress. So, it is a huge challenge to industrially make fashionable garments at low cost. To deal with this future challenge of the apparel industry, garments owners have to think about it and invest in research and development of fashionable clothing.

To minimize the risk of a demand for diversified fashionable garments, lots of creative fashion designer and industrial engineer will be required to make specialized garments item.

Adaptation of Automation

Advanced technology helping us with the adaptation of automation in every industry. Lots of innovation already has been done by which many garments already increased their productivity, where fewer men power is used. Men power is replaced by the advanced technology; this means the machine is replacing the human being. Although automation is not possible for every section of the textile and garments industry some of the section of garments can be automated which will not only increase the effectivity of the resources but also increase the effectiveness of overall operations. As an industrialist, you will face this challenge if you do not have enough knowledge of technology and how and from where you can adapt automation for your industry.

To deal with this challenge you must invest in developing skilled mechanical and industrial engineer who will be responsible for bringing automation to your factory. They will design and make a customized machine for the different section of your factory.

An Increase of Labor Cost

We have found that worldwide labor cost is increasing year after year. China and India are facing these challenges much compared with other countries. As garments industry is more labor-intensive industry, this industry requires more men power. So, this challenge is unavoidable challenges. This is the reason why Chinese companies are shifting around the world, they are choosing Africa, Bangladesh for their suitable investment region.

To deal with this increased labor cost challenge, garments industry should work with increasing the productivity of the workers which will reduce the per unit manpower cost. Another thing is, proper training and development plan must be adapted so that you can ensure disruption-free production.

Extreme Competitive Pressure

You know, competition is always there for you, it does not matter where you do your business. The apparel industry is a very lucrative investment opportunity for business personnel because it brings a huge profit for them. But it is not easy to gain a huge amount from this competitive industry, the first condition is you need to offer a competitive price for their product.

To deal with this challenge, all you need to do, first analyze the market, analyze the sourcing of materials and your export market and then target accordingly. If you conduct a proper analysis you will definitely find a market for your product from which you can generate enough revenue for your company.

Worker Turnover

Worker Turnover or employee turnover is one of the common problems and it is a challenging task for textile and garments owners because as long as they are unskilled they will like your job but when they become skilled, they try to switch one company to another company. The problem is, you provide training to the unskilled worker to make them skilled but after becoming skilled they are not always promised to give their valuable output to your company. It is something like you are extracting juice from lemon but cannot take the juice on your own. You are losing your skilled worker, losing your invested money and also opening scope your competitors to steal your best workers. I personally consider this problem as the biggest challenge for the apparel industry.

But the question is, how to get rid of this problem? The easiest solution is; you need to provide a competitive benefit to your workers. First, understand their needs and provide their needs, it can be a monetary or non-monetary benefit.

Extra Pressure from Environmental Regulatory Authority

In the apparel industry, the textile is producing a huge amount of waste, especially chemical is used for dyeing, printing, washing which is ultimately dumped into the river water. A huge quantity of water is used for garments washing and there is no efficient scope for reusing this water. Because of the apparel industry, our water is not only polluted by the industrial waste but also underground water level is dropping. This is the reason why environmental regulatory authority is now more concern about environmental pollution. Garments buyers are now also concerned about the environmental effect of dumping of garments waste. Now it is mandatory to have ETP-Effluent Treatment Plant in textile and garments factory so that effluent can be treated before dumping into the river. Here the challenge is to set up an effluent treatment plant and manage it according to the guidelines of respective authorities which is a costly operation.

To get rid of this challenge, as a garments owner, you need to find a solution from three different types of an effluent treatment plant and choose which is least costly for you.

Obtain Low-Cost Leadership

Nowadays, low-cost leadership is a challenging task because everyone related with apparel industry trying to get the best solution where they will get low-cost leadership. As a part of low-cost leadership, they choose decision among make or buy decision. In addition to this, they are always working for setting good supply chain management for their garments resources.

So, as an industrialist how you can ensure low-cost leadership? All you need to do recruit a good financial analyst. Let him understand your business and its process properly. After doing a proper analysis, he will help you to decide which one is the best option for you. Another thing you can do is always ensure that you are well informed about what is going on in the industry and how trends are moving forward. If you are aware enough and take the right decision, then you must be able to obtain low-cost leadership in the apparel industry.

After these discussions, hopefully, you understand what can be the future challenges for the apparel industry and how you need to move forward to stay in the right path of your business which may help you to generate enough revenue for your company.

10 Future Challenges of Apparel Industry

Ready Made Garments Export of Bangladesh

The condition of RMG Ready Made Garments Export of Bangladesh 2018

Bangladesh is now one of the developing countries in the world. Ready Made Garments (RMG) has a huge contribution to the economic growth of this country. The current condition of RMG – Ready Made Garments Export of Bangladesh seems good because there is a positive growth of export earnings. According to Export Promotion Bureau of Bangladesh (EPB), for the year 2017 to 2018 (July 2017 to April), Bangladesh Apparel Export is growing at the rate of 9% which seems a significant amount.

RMG Export Growth Over the Year 2010 to 2018

Here you can see that the growth rate of RMG export is always fluctuating, the reason behind this is a change in market demand, increase in the cost of making, political condition, market competitiveness, and the exchange rate of USD to BDT.


Total Export Million USD

2010 14855 25%
2011 19214 29%
2012 19788 3%
2013 23501 19%
2014 24584 5%
2015 26603 8%
2016 28668 8%
2017 29213 2%

Export Growth of Ready Made Garments (RMG) of Bangladesh

Bangladesh RMG Growth for the Year 2017-2018

Ready Made Garments industry is growing at the rate of nine percent compared with the previous year. But in 2016-17 this growth rate was only 2%. So there is a significant positive change in the export.

Total RMG Export Growth 2017-2018
Year Woven Knit Total Growth
2016-2017 10,785 10,144 20,929           –
2017-2018 11,513 11,321 22,834 9%

Broad RMG Export Category of Bangladesh

Product Type Million USD Percent
Woven 11,513 50.42%
Knit 11,321 49.58%
Total 22,834 100%

We mainly divide our apparel product into two broad categories. One is knit and other is woven.

Ready Made Garments Export of Bangladesh

Monthly RMG Export Growth for the year 2017-2018

Although the growth of Ready Made Garments increased in every month there was an exception for the month of September 2017. It is not clear why suddenly growth rate reached to a negative figure.

Monthly Ready Made Garments Export Growth 2018

Main Apparel Export Items of Bangladesh for the Year 2016-2017

Bangladesh is mainly exporting Shirts, T-shirt, Trousers, Jackets Sweater among these Trousers and T-Shirt are exporting a huge amount, which is contributing at the rate of 29% and 28%. So these two products added significant value to the export earnings of Bangladesh.


Million USD

Shirts 2108 10%
Trousers 6027 29%
Jackets 3547 17%
T-Shirt 5862 28%
Sweater 3362 16%
Total 20905 100%

Bangladesh Main RMG Export Product Type

Bangladesh RMG Export to the World 2017-2018

Most of our RMG is Exported to the European Union, where we export about 65% of our total export of apparel. Our second biggest client is the USA and the third one in Canada.


Million USD

EU Countries 14735 65%
USA 3929 17%
Canada 713 3%
Others 3457 15%
Total 22834 100%

Bangladesh RMG Export to the World

Top 10 European Union (EU) Countries Bangladesh Export their RMG

  1. Germany
  2. UK
  3. Spain
  4. France
  5. Italy
  6. Netherlands
  7. Poland
  8. Belgium
  9. Denmark
  10. Sweden

Top European Union Ready Made Garments (RMG) Buyers of Bangladesh

Export of RMG by Bangladesh in European Union (EU)

Here look into this list that for the last 10 month EU countries is contributing 14734.69 million dollars. So there is no question of EU is the largest buyers of garments in our country.

EU Countries Million USD Percent
Germany 4205 28.537%
U.K. 2847 19.322%
Spain 1714 11.633%
France 1328 9.012%
Italy 1086 7.371%
Netherlands 717 4.866%
Poland 645 4.381%
Belgium 534 3.626%
Denmark 504 3.420%
Sweden 395 2.679%
The Czech Republic 352 2.386%
Ireland 131 0.890%
Slovakia 64 0.433%
Portugal 50 0.338%
Slovenia 44 0.298%
Greece 40 0.270%
Finland 22 0.152%
Austria 22 0.147%
Romania 13 0.086%
Croatia 10 0.069%
Malta 5 0.033%
Bulgaria 2 0.013%
Hungary 2 0.012%
Lithuania 2 0.011%
Cyprus 1 0.006%
Estonia 1 0.006%
Latvia 0.5 0.004%
Total 14735 100%

RMG Export Market of Bangladesh Source: Export Promotion Bureau of Bangladesh, BGMEA

Written by

Md. Nahian Mahmud Shaikat

Email: [email protected]

Mold Prevention in Apparel Industry

Mold is a type of fungus. Mold can grow on almost all organic material as long as moisture and oxygen are present. Mold eventually cause structural damage to the building, building materials and manufacturing product of a garments industry. To control mold you need to have a good idea of how mold prevention in apparel industry can be applied.

Mold Prevention in Apparel Industry

Due to molding in garments, apparel manufacturer gets a big amount of financial claim from customer. So it’s very necessary to adopt a control measure to prevent mold from garments.

Molds can be Grown on the following Materials

  • Wood
  • Paper
  • Carpet
  • Food
  • Insulation
  • Cotton
  • Fabric
  • Leather
  • Any organic surface

Mold Prevention in Apparel Industry

Causes of Mold in Apparel Industry

  1. Humid house
  2. Improper storage method / conditions
  3. Unsealed packaging
  4. Incorrect procedure to operate the vacuum system of pressing table.
  5. Poor storage of anti‐molding materials before packing.
  6. Poor ventilation of finished garments.
  7. Poor storage of finished garments.
  8. Wrong vacuum system setting of pressing table.
  9. Wrong timing to pack pressed garments
  10. Poor loading environment
  11. Minor and major roof leaks
  12. Dark space in factory indoor also create a mold
  13. Leaking in roofs
  14. Leaking or condensing water pipes, especially pipes inside wall cavities or pipe chases.
  15. Leaking fire protection sprinkler systems.
  16. Landscaping gutters and downspouts that direct water into or under a building.
  17. High humidity (60% or more relative humidity) and condensation.

 Mold Preventive Action for Garments

  1. Set mold prevention policy or SOP for workplace
  2. Staff training, awareness creation
  3. Develop humidity control system for every section
  4. Keep good general housekeeping
  5. Daily checks humidity level and keep records accordingly
  6. Good Storage condition of incoming materials & finish products
  7. Good shipping condition of finish products and checking the delivery container
  8. Ensure section cleanness
  9. Use ultraviolet light; mold cannot grow under ultraviolet light
  10. Maintain relative humidity (RH) less than 55% or 60%
  11. Maintain temperature 70-72° F
  12. Ventilation or dehumidifiers system should be there.
  13. Improve general housekeeping system.

Mold Preventive Areas in Garments Factory

  1. Raw material and finished goods warehouse
  2. Garments manufacturing workplace
  3. Finishing and packing section

Mold Prevention in Garments Warehouse/Store

  1. Keep your warehouse organized
  2. No sign of mildew on the wall, floor in the warehouse and conduct mold check weekly basis.
  3. All packed cartons (for trim & finished garment) must be loaded on the wooden/plastic pallets and at least about one meter away from walls & windows. (Nonwooden pallets is better).
  4. Maintain relative humidity of about 55% and humidity is to be measured daily basics and maintain proper records.
  5. Protect all trims, fabric, and garment by storing them in polybags or cartons.
  6. Empty cartons must be placed on pallets and well covered by poly sheets or clothes before use.
  7. When there is any doubt, then you need to measure the moisture content on carton by “moisture meter machine”. The reading should be less than 8%.
  8. Apply First in First out (FIFO) method for all raw materials.

Mold Prevention in Factory Workplace

  1. Apply vacuum function correctly on pressing table. Leave the garments on vacuum table for 5 seconds more after steaming (in order to remove moisture from the garments)
  2. The pressing table must connect with steam ducts to remove the vapor out from the building.
  3. Increase air ventilation by using big fans in the finishing areas.
  4. Garments cannot be piled up too high right after pressing. Quantity can be 20 pcs for denim products and 30 pcs for non‐denim products.
  5. Garments cannot be packed until they are exposed to open environment at least 12 hours.
  6. Anti‐molding materials (e.g. silica gels) must be stored in the original packing material until they are required to put into the polybags/cartons.
  7. Measure the garment moisture content by “moisture meter machine” for each Shipments (especially during the high humid season). The max reading is 8%. If garments are failed, dry them in the de‐humidifying room for about 1 day before re‐
  8. Measure the relative humidity in the finishing and packing area at least twice per day. Max reading is 55%. Walls show no sign of mildew. Conduct mold checks in every week and keep a record.
  9. Avoid placing the garments directly on the floor, placing them at least one meter away from the wall/windows.
  10. Good pressing table maintenance. No water leakage foam steam pipe. Keep the cloth and foam clean and dry by changing it at least once per week. 

Mold Prevention in Garments Shipping Container

  1. Check container before loading to ensure that there is no hole/leakage on the container wall.
  2. Container floor must be dry and clean.
  3. Loading the goods under a sheltered roof.
  4. The container must be fully loaded.

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)
Email: [email protected]


Technical Audit in Apparel Industry

Technical Audit (TA) is a very crucial task of garments manufacturing. Every buyer (Customer) do a technical audit before placing an order to any garments factory. In this article, I am going to talk about what is a technical audit in apparel industry and how we can use and for what purpose technical audit fulfill. Many garments buyer have their own technical audit checklist, Audit must be done routine wise time to time. Through Technical Audit, auditors actually assurance of ability to make export quality garments of garments maker. Technical audit checklist can vary buyer to buyer.

Technical Audit in Apparel Industry

Technical Audit in Apparel Industry

Objectives of Garments Buyer Technical Audit

  1. Ensure the QMS is effectively
  2. Audit quality control system
  3. Ensure compliance with customer quality standard
  4. Ensure customer manufacturing and process control requirement
  5. Apply best practice in garments manufacturing.
  6. Ensuring effectiveness, efficiency, improvement and customer satisfaction.
  7. To get excellence & sustainable results in the long run of customer product quality and as a supplier.

Types of Technical Audit (TA)

Internal Audit/ 1st Party Audit

Performed by factory internal Auditor assigned by factory management. Internal auditor report for factory management, management evaluates the report and take corrective action. Here supplier has a scope of improvement as per customer quality and technical requirement by their own (internal) audit system.

Customer Audit/ 2nd Party Audit

Performed by customer/ buyer own self, report to their supplier and ask for corrective action, available scoring or rating system to classify supplier. Customer audit is very important for the supplier.

External Audit/ 3rd Party Audit

Third party audit is external independent audit performed by a party hired or approved by the customer to verify their process standard and requirement. 3rd party is a contracted organization work on behalf of the customer, make a report or certify supplier for a certain period.

Technical Audit Categories/Sections for Apparel

  1. Factory Warehouse (Incoming Goods Storage)
  2. Trims & accessories area
  3. Fabric Inspection
  4. CAD
  5. Cutting
  6. Pre-Production
  7. Fusing
  8. Sewing
  9. Finishing
  10. Final Inspection
  11. Quality Control
  12. Packing/ Finished Goods

Technical Audit Criteria for Garments

Factory Warehouse

  1. Product identification, FIFO-LIFO, storage items tracking system and inventory
  2. Mold prevention system, relative humidity %, and controlling system
  3. Trims, accessories and fabrics storage using pallet or rack
  4. 5S implementation effort

Trims and Accessories Inspection

  1. Approved trim card for every running style
  2. Inspection procedure and lighting
  3. Rejected items isolation and keeping an isolated area
  4. Third party or supplier internal test report of all Trims and Accessories.
  5. Complain against the failed product to the supplier and replace, show documents.

Fabrics Inspection and Procedures

  1. Fabrics inspection system, procedure, and Report (Follow 4 point or 10-point system)
  2. Shrinkage test accuracy
  3. Lightbox for shade evaluation
  4. Color evaluation, shade grading as per customer requirement


  1. Pattern Library and E-pattern library
  2. Marker calibration, verification (pattern or dies, bundles, direction) and Report
  3. Making separate pattern as per shrinkage variation


  1. Grainline/notch indication, cut mold, stripe & check matching indication
  2. Pattern measurement for verification
  3. Process sequence of fabric cutting
  4. Fabric relaxation procedure and report documentation
  5. Spreading quality control- Table marking –Ends-Leaning-Tension-Narrow Goods-Remnants-Counts-Ply High-Marker placing-Fabric Flaws
  6. Cutting quality control- Miss cut –Rugged Cutting –Notches-Matching Plies and pattern check
  7. Bundling and numbering separation, its accuracy and proper report to sewing
  8. Cut panel inspection
  9. Preventive Maintenance system and report
  10. 5S implementation effort
  11. Using all types of personal protective equipment. Cutting safety materials: Hand gloves, musk,

Sampling and Pre-production

  1. Pre- Production meeting for very style and keeping document
  2. Sampling and pattern correction before bulk start


  1. Proper sewing allowance vs. machines and making before wash measurement spec
  2. Needle Control Policy; Sharps tools and Staples control
  3. Preventive Maintenance system and report
  4. Roaming QC Audit system
  5. Overclock machine fabric trimming check, keep guide for maintain proper seam allowance
  6. Approved trim card and approved sample for each running style
  7. In-process quality checkpoint, defects type record, and alteration
  8. Mockup (with written instruction) or JQS (job quality standard) for every sewing operation
  9. Checking garments for construction, seam quality, and overall garments appearance.
  10. Garments measurement and construction checking comparing with approved sample and customer provided spec
  11. Seam puckering, SPI, stitch tension, needle mark and all others stitching quality
  12. Approved lighting condition in all QC checkpoint, customer required lux and checking report
  13. 5S implementation effort


  1. Interlining bonding strength, temperature, time and pressure


  1. Pull test of snap and shank button and pull tester machine calibration
  2. Quality inspection system and report
  3. Metal and needle detection in place and effectiveness
  4. Garments measurement procedure as per customer requirement
  5. Preventive Maintenance system and report
  6. Excessive WIP, dumping garments in finishing workplace
  7. Approved lighting condition in all QC checkpoint, customer required lux and checking report
  8. Pressing system. (Temperature, steam, Iron shoe and head)
  9. Show approved sample or customer provided data for attaching finishing sticker and folding.
  10. Garments AQL Audit
  11. 5S implementation effort

Carton Warehouse

  1. Carton keeping system
  2. Mold prevention system, relative humidity %, and controlling system
  3. Packing, inventory and delivery/shipment system
  4. Moisture percentage checking in garments
  5. Carton weight report, scan and pack system

Final Quality Audit Room

  1. Location of Audit room, separated from production area or not
  2. Available necessary for final Audit; approved sample, trim card, inspection table.
  3. The customer required a light source

Documentation to Show During Technical Audit

  1. Complete own Quality control manual of a factory
  2. Quality inspectors training and evaluation exam
  3. Quality management system and their activities
  4. All section SOP separately as following
  1. Analysis with section quality result and setting target
  2. Factory performance report from customer end
  3. Factory layout, evacuation, management, and quality organogram
  4. All machine calibration report attaching with the machine by the supplier, 3rd party or own calibration system
  5. Quality analysis and control report
  6. ISO, ASQ or any other international certificate
  7. Quality tools calibration report. E.g.: Measurement tape

 Audit CAP and Follow up Improvement in Garments

End of an audit, auditing party make a report with their comments where requirement does not meet as per standard or customer requirement. Audit result by the scoring system by marks (Performance rate) or classify Good, alert and risk. Supplier takes corrective action as per 3rd party auditor or customer recommendation for their customer requirement.

CAP Report Includes

  1. Audit observation/findings
  2. Auditor recommendation/Comments
  3. The corrective action plan of supplier
  4. Estimated completion date
  5. Progress status
  6. Follow up improvement 

Follow up Improvement of Audit

As per audit checklist report by an auditor, a supplier has to fill up customer requirement by a certain time. Customer follows up improvement of CAP in every week or month. If the number of CAP decrease after every month, supplier improving towards customer requirement. Anytime or after certain period buyer audit again.

This article also refers to few headlines as following

  1. Garments manufacturing best practice
  2. Benchmark apparel manufacturing industry
  3. Garments quality management system (QMS)
  4. Export garments quality control system
  5. Garments factory standardization
  6. Technical Audit checklist in the apparel industry
  7. Technical checking points in garments buyer audit

Download PDF: Technical Audit in Apparel Industry

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)
Email: [email protected]


Garments Defects Identification

Garments Defects Identification:

Garments defect is one of the curtail factors of apparel manufacturing industry because it creates a negative effect on actual productivity. If you have no idea of garments defects identification then it will be a tough job for you, but if you know it properly then it is an easy task to identify defects. So must know all types of Garments defects if you are involved with the apparel industry. It is the responsibility of the garments manufacturers to maintain a required Garments quality standard for each and every product they are offering or delivering to the buyers. After reading this article you will have the idea of all types of garments sewing defects and finishing defects. For your better understanding, I also add pictures of each type of defects. All commonly visual garments defects are included here. The quality management team will be required to train quality inspectors and quality controller by making a presentation so that they can visualize easily. I am hopeful that, this article would be helpful for any person who works in the quality department in the apparel industry.

Garments Defects Identification

How you can Identify Garments Defects

For visualizing and identifying any garments defects you need to learn about all defects with its visual characteristics first then you can simply see the product and identify defects accordingly.

List of Garments Defects Which You Can Visualize

  1. Brand Logo Mistake
  2. Broken Stitch
  3. Button Half Stitch
  4. Bartack Missing
  5. Damage
  6. Down Stitch
  7. Eyelet Hole Missing
  8. Fabric Fault
  9. Foreign Yarn
  10. Incomplete Stitch
  11. Incorrect SPI
  12. Joint Stitch
  13. Needle Cut
  14. Needle Mark
  15. Non-Functional Zipper
  16. Number Mistake
  17. Pleat Bottom Hem
  18. Puckering
  19. Raw Edge
  20. Reject
  21. Sewn Caught
  22. Shading Parts
  23. Short Stitch
  24. Skip Stitch
  25. Spot
  26. Tension Loose
  27. Un-Cut Thread
  28. Up Down Parts
  29. Velcro Missing

Here is the picture of all garments defects which we can identify visually. You may find the name of each defect at the bottom of each picture.

Bartack Missing

Bartack Missing

Brand Logo Mistake

Brand Logo Mistake

Broken Stitch

Broken Stitch

Button Half Stitch

Button Half Stitch


Defect by Damage

Eyelet Hole Missing

Eyelet Hole Missing

Down Stitch Defects of Garments

Down Stitch Defects of Garments

Fabric Fault

Fabric Fault

Foreign Yarn

Foreign Yarn

Incomplete Stitch

Incomplete Stitch

Incorrect SPI

Incorrect SPI

Joint Stitch

Joint Stitch

Needle Cut

Needle Cut

Needle Mark

Needle Mark

Non-Functional Zipper

Non-Functional Zipper

Number Mistake

Number Mistake

Pleat Bottom Hem

Pleat Bottom Hem



Raw Edge

Raw Edge



Sewn Caught

Sewn Caught

Shading Parts

Shading Parts

Short Stitch

Short Stitch

Skip Stitch

Skip Stitch



Tension Loose

Tension Loose

Un-Cut Thread

Un-Cut Thread

Up Down Parts

Up Down Parts

Velcro Missing

Velcro Missing

You also can see this article:

  1. Quality Improvement Techniques in Apparel Industry
  2. Garments quality standard
  3. Types of Garments defect

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

Facebook: Amirul Islam Washim
E-mail: [email protected]