Mold Prevention in Apparel Industry

Mold is a type of fungus. Mold can grow on almost all organic material as long as moisture and oxygen are present. Mold eventually cause structural damage to the building, building materials and manufacturing product of a garments industry. To control mold you need to have a good idea of how mold prevention in apparel industry can be applied.

Mold Prevention in Apparel Industry

Due to molding in garments, apparel manufacturer gets a big amount of financial claim from customer. So it’s very necessary to adopt a control measure to prevent mold from garments.

Molds can be Grown on the following Materials

  • Wood
  • Paper
  • Carpet
  • Food
  • Insulation
  • Cotton
  • Fabric
  • Leather
  • Any organic surface

Mold Prevention in Apparel Industry

Causes of Mold in Apparel Industry

  1. Humid house
  2. Improper storage method / conditions
  3. Unsealed packaging
  4. Incorrect procedure to operate the vacuum system of pressing table.
  5. Poor storage of anti‐molding materials before packing.
  6. Poor ventilation of finished garments.
  7. Poor storage of finished garments.
  8. Wrong vacuum system setting of pressing table.
  9. Wrong timing to pack pressed garments
  10. Poor loading environment
  11. Minor and major roof leaks
  12. Dark space in factory indoor also create a mold
  13. Leaking in roofs
  14. Leaking or condensing water pipes, especially pipes inside wall cavities or pipe chases.
  15. Leaking fire protection sprinkler systems.
  16. Landscaping gutters and downspouts that direct water into or under a building.
  17. High humidity (60% or more relative humidity) and condensation.

 Mold Preventive Action for Garments

  1. Set mold prevention policy or SOP for workplace
  2. Staff training, awareness creation
  3. Develop humidity control system for every section
  4. Keep good general housekeeping
  5. Daily checks humidity level and keep records accordingly
  6. Good Storage condition of incoming materials & finish products
  7. Good shipping condition of finish products and checking the delivery container
  8. Ensure section cleanness
  9. Use ultraviolet light; mold cannot grow under ultraviolet light
  10. Maintain relative humidity (RH) less than 55% or 60%
  11. Maintain temperature 70-72° F
  12. Ventilation or dehumidifiers system should be there.
  13. Improve general housekeeping system.

Mold Preventive Areas in Garments Factory

  1. Raw material and finished goods warehouse
  2. Garments manufacturing workplace
  3. Finishing and packing section

Mold Prevention in Garments Warehouse/Store

  1. Keep your warehouse organized
  2. No sign of mildew on the wall, floor in the warehouse and conduct mold check weekly basis.
  3. All packed cartons (for trim & finished garment) must be loaded on the wooden/plastic pallets and at least about one meter away from walls & windows. (Nonwooden pallets is better).
  4. Maintain relative humidity of about 55% and humidity is to be measured daily basics and maintain proper records.
  5. Protect all trims, fabric, and garment by storing them in polybags or cartons.
  6. Empty cartons must be placed on pallets and well covered by poly sheets or clothes before use.
  7. When there is any doubt, then you need to measure the moisture content on carton by “moisture meter machine”. The reading should be less than 8%.
  8. Apply First in First out (FIFO) method for all raw materials.

Mold Prevention in Factory Workplace

  1. Apply vacuum function correctly on pressing table. Leave the garments on vacuum table for 5 seconds more after steaming (in order to remove moisture from the garments)
  2. The pressing table must connect with steam ducts to remove the vapor out from the building.
  3. Increase air ventilation by using big fans in the finishing areas.
  4. Garments cannot be piled up too high right after pressing. Quantity can be 20 pcs for denim products and 30 pcs for non‐denim products.
  5. Garments cannot be packed until they are exposed to open environment at least 12 hours.
  6. Anti‐molding materials (e.g. silica gels) must be stored in the original packing material until they are required to put into the polybags/cartons.
  7. Measure the garment moisture content by “moisture meter machine” for each Shipments (especially during the high humid season). The max reading is 8%. If garments are failed, dry them in the de‐humidifying room for about 1 day before re‐
  8. Measure the relative humidity in the finishing and packing area at least twice per day. Max reading is 55%. Walls show no sign of mildew. Conduct mold checks in every week and keep a record.
  9. Avoid placing the garments directly on the floor, placing them at least one meter away from the wall/windows.
  10. Good pressing table maintenance. No water leakage foam steam pipe. Keep the cloth and foam clean and dry by changing it at least once per week. 

Mold Prevention in Garments Shipping Container

  1. Check container before loading to ensure that there is no hole/leakage on the container wall.
  2. Container floor must be dry and clean.
  3. Loading the goods under a sheltered roof.
  4. The container must be fully loaded.

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)
Email: [email protected]

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Technical Audit in Apparel Industry

Technical Audit (TA) is a very crucial task of garments manufacturing. Every buyer (Customer) do a technical audit before placing an order to any garments factory. In this article, I am going to talk about what is a technical audit in apparel industry and how we can use and for what purpose technical audit fulfill. Many garments buyer have their own technical audit checklist, Audit must be done routine wise time to time. Through Technical Audit, auditors actually assurance of ability to make export quality garments of garments maker. Technical audit checklist can vary buyer to buyer.

Technical Audit in Apparel Industry

Technical Audit in Apparel Industry

Objectives of Garments Buyer Technical Audit

  1. Ensure the QMS is effectively
  2. Audit quality control system
  3. Ensure compliance with customer quality standard
  4. Ensure customer manufacturing and process control requirement
  5. Apply best practice in garments manufacturing.
  6. Ensuring effectiveness, efficiency, improvement and customer satisfaction.
  7. To get excellence & sustainable results in the long run of customer product quality and as a supplier.

Types of Technical Audit (TA)

Internal Audit/ 1st Party Audit

Performed by factory internal Auditor assigned by factory management. Internal auditor report for factory management, management evaluates the report and take corrective action. Here supplier has a scope of improvement as per customer quality and technical requirement by their own (internal) audit system.

Customer Audit/ 2nd Party Audit

Performed by customer/ buyer own self, report to their supplier and ask for corrective action, available scoring or rating system to classify supplier. Customer audit is very important for the supplier.

External Audit/ 3rd Party Audit

Third party audit is external independent audit performed by a party hired or approved by the customer to verify their process standard and requirement. 3rd party is a contracted organization work on behalf of the customer, make a report or certify supplier for a certain period.

Technical Audit Categories/Sections for Apparel

  1. Factory Warehouse (Incoming Goods Storage)
  2. Trims & accessories area
  3. Fabric Inspection
  4. CAD
  5. Cutting
  6. Pre-Production
  7. Fusing
  8. Sewing
  9. Finishing
  10. Final Inspection
  11. Quality Control
  12. Packing/ Finished Goods

Technical Audit Criteria for Garments

Factory Warehouse

  1. Product identification, FIFO-LIFO, storage items tracking system and inventory
  2. Mold prevention system, relative humidity %, and controlling system
  3. Trims, accessories and fabrics storage using pallet or rack
  4. 5S implementation effort

Trims and Accessories Inspection

  1. Approved trim card for every running style
  2. Inspection procedure and lighting
  3. Rejected items isolation and keeping an isolated area
  4. Third party or supplier internal test report of all Trims and Accessories.
  5. Complain against the failed product to the supplier and replace, show documents.

Fabrics Inspection and Procedures

  1. Fabrics inspection system, procedure, and Report (Follow 4 point or 10-point system)
  2. Shrinkage test accuracy
  3. Lightbox for shade evaluation
  4. Color evaluation, shade grading as per customer requirement

CAD

  1. Pattern Library and E-pattern library
  2. Marker calibration, verification (pattern or dies, bundles, direction) and Report
  3. Making separate pattern as per shrinkage variation

Cutting

  1. Grainline/notch indication, cut mold, stripe & check matching indication
  2. Pattern measurement for verification
  3. Process sequence of fabric cutting
  4. Fabric relaxation procedure and report documentation
  5. Spreading quality control- Table marking –Ends-Leaning-Tension-Narrow Goods-Remnants-Counts-Ply High-Marker placing-Fabric Flaws
  6. Cutting quality control- Miss cut –Rugged Cutting –Notches-Matching Plies and pattern check
  7. Bundling and numbering separation, its accuracy and proper report to sewing
  8. Cut panel inspection
  9. Preventive Maintenance system and report
  10. 5S implementation effort
  11. Using all types of personal protective equipment. Cutting safety materials: Hand gloves, musk,

Sampling and Pre-production

  1. Pre- Production meeting for very style and keeping document
  2. Sampling and pattern correction before bulk start

Sewing

  1. Proper sewing allowance vs. machines and making before wash measurement spec
  2. Needle Control Policy; Sharps tools and Staples control
  3. Preventive Maintenance system and report
  4. Roaming QC Audit system
  5. Overclock machine fabric trimming check, keep guide for maintain proper seam allowance
  6. Approved trim card and approved sample for each running style
  7. In-process quality checkpoint, defects type record, and alteration
  8. Mockup (with written instruction) or JQS (job quality standard) for every sewing operation
  9. Checking garments for construction, seam quality, and overall garments appearance.
  10. Garments measurement and construction checking comparing with approved sample and customer provided spec
  11. Seam puckering, SPI, stitch tension, needle mark and all others stitching quality
  12. Approved lighting condition in all QC checkpoint, customer required lux and checking report
  13. 5S implementation effort

Fusing

  1. Interlining bonding strength, temperature, time and pressure

Finishing

  1. Pull test of snap and shank button and pull tester machine calibration
  2. Quality inspection system and report
  3. Metal and needle detection in place and effectiveness
  4. Garments measurement procedure as per customer requirement
  5. Preventive Maintenance system and report
  6. Excessive WIP, dumping garments in finishing workplace
  7. Approved lighting condition in all QC checkpoint, customer required lux and checking report
  8. Pressing system. (Temperature, steam, Iron shoe and head)
  9. Show approved sample or customer provided data for attaching finishing sticker and folding.
  10. Garments AQL Audit
  11. 5S implementation effort

Carton Warehouse

  1. Carton keeping system
  2. Mold prevention system, relative humidity %, and controlling system
  3. Packing, inventory and delivery/shipment system
  4. Moisture percentage checking in garments
  5. Carton weight report, scan and pack system

Final Quality Audit Room

  1. Location of Audit room, separated from production area or not
  2. Available necessary for final Audit; approved sample, trim card, inspection table.
  3. The customer required a light source

Documentation to Show During Technical Audit

  1. Complete own Quality control manual of a factory
  2. Quality inspectors training and evaluation exam
  3. Quality management system and their activities
  4. All section SOP separately as following
  1. Analysis with section quality result and setting target
  2. Factory performance report from customer end
  3. Factory layout, evacuation, management, and quality organogram
  4. All machine calibration report attaching with the machine by the supplier, 3rd party or own calibration system
  5. Quality analysis and control report
  6. ISO, ASQ or any other international certificate
  7. Quality tools calibration report. E.g.: Measurement tape

 Audit CAP and Follow up Improvement in Garments

End of an audit, auditing party make a report with their comments where requirement does not meet as per standard or customer requirement. Audit result by the scoring system by marks (Performance rate) or classify Good, alert and risk. Supplier takes corrective action as per 3rd party auditor or customer recommendation for their customer requirement.

CAP Report Includes

  1. Audit observation/findings
  2. Auditor recommendation/Comments
  3. The corrective action plan of supplier
  4. Estimated completion date
  5. Progress status
  6. Follow up improvement 

Follow up Improvement of Audit

As per audit checklist report by an auditor, a supplier has to fill up customer requirement by a certain time. Customer follows up improvement of CAP in every week or month. If the number of CAP decrease after every month, supplier improving towards customer requirement. Anytime or after certain period buyer audit again.

This article also refers to few headlines as following

  1. Garments manufacturing best practice
  2. Benchmark apparel manufacturing industry
  3. Garments quality management system (QMS)
  4. Export garments quality control system
  5. Garments factory standardization
  6. Technical Audit checklist in the apparel industry
  7. Technical checking points in garments buyer audit

Download PDF: Technical Audit in Apparel Industry

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)
Email: [email protected]

Linkedin

Garments Defects Identification

Garments Defects Identification:

Garments defect is one of the curtail factors of apparel manufacturing industry because it creates a negative effect on actual productivity. If you have no idea of garments defects identification then it will be a tough job for you, but if you know it properly then it is an easy task to identify defects. So must know all types of Garments defects if you are involved with apparel industry. It is the responsibility of the garments manufacturers to maintain a required Garments quality standard for each and every product they are offering or delivering to the buyers. After reading this article you will have the idea of all types of garments sewing defects and finishing defects. For your better understanding, I also add pictures of each type of defects. All commonly visual garments defects are included here. Quality management team will be required to train quality inspectors and quality controller by making a presentation so that they can visualize easily. I am hopeful that, this article would be helpful for any person who works in the quality department in the apparel industry.

Garments Defects Identification

How you can Identify Garments Defects

For visualizing and identifying any garments defects you need to learn about all defects with its visual characteristics first then you can simply see the product and identify defects accordingly.

List of Garments Defects Which You Can Visualize

  1. Brand Logo Mistake
  2. Broken Stitch
  3. Button Half Stitch
  4. Bartack Missing
  5. Damage
  6. Down Stitch
  7. Eyelet Hole Missing
  8. Fabric Fault
  9. Foreign Yarn
  10. Incomplete Stitch
  11. Incorrect SPI
  12. Joint Stitch
  13. Needle Cut
  14. Needle Mark
  15. Non-Functional Zipper
  16. Number Mistake
  17. Pleat Bottom Hem
  18. Puckering
  19. Raw Edge
  20. Reject
  21. Sewn Caught
  22. Shading Parts
  23. Short Stitch
  24. Skip Stitch
  25. Spot
  26. Tension Loose
  27. Un-Cut Thread
  28. Up Down Parts
  29. Velcro Missing

Here is the picture of all garments defects which we can identify visually. You may find the name of each defect in the bottom of each picture.

Bartack Missing

Bartack Missing

Brand Logo Mistake

Brand Logo Mistake

Broken Stitch

Broken Stitch

Button Half Stitch

Button Half Stitch

Damage

Defect by Damage

Eyelet Hole Missing

Eyelet Hole Missing

Down Stitch Defects of Garments

Down Stitch Defects of Garments

Fabric Fault

Fabric Fault

Foreign Yarn

Foreign Yarn

Incomplete Stitch

Incomplete Stitch

Incorrect SPI

Incorrect SPI

Joint Stitch

Joint Stitch

Needle Cut

Needle Cut

Needle Mark

Needle Mark

Non-Functional Zipper

Non-Functional Zipper

Number Mistake

Number Mistake

Pleat Bottom Hem

Pleat Bottom Hem

Puckering

Puckering

Raw Edge

Raw Edge

Reject

Reject

Sewn Caught

Sewn Caught

Shading Parts

Shading Parts

Short Stitch

Short Stitch

Skip Stitch

Skip Stitch

SPOT

SPOT

Tension Loose

Tension Loose

Un-Cut Thread

Un-Cut Thread

Up Down Parts

Up Down Parts

Velcro Missing

Velcro Missing

You also can see this article:

  1. Quality Improvement Techniques in Apparel Industry
  2. Garments quality standard
  3. Types of Garments defect

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

Facebook: Amirul Islam Washim
E-mail: [email protected]