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Combed Yarn

The combed yarn is a yarn which is produced by the combing process. This yarn is finer than carded yarn. Generally combing produced 60 counts or more than 60 count yarn. But sometimes 32 counts or 40 counts yarn also produced by combing process. It is high-quality yarn and it is more expensive compared with carded yarn because its combining process is time intensive.

Combed Yarn

Functional steps of Combed yarn manufacturing process

Functional steps related with this manufacturing process are blown room, carding, pre-comb drawing frame, lap frame, combing, post-comb drawing frame, simplex, and finally ring frame.

Functional steps of Combed yarn manufacturing process

Combed Yarn Manufacturing Process

Features of combed yarn

There are several features of combed yarn can be identified these are given below shortly:

  1. Higher count yarn
  2. Combed Yarn is finer than carded yarn
  3. Produced excluding short fiber
  4. Regular yarn
  5. High-quality yarn
  6. Uniform yarn
  7. Smooth yarn
  8. Good water absorbency
  9. Less hairy
  10. Normally naps free
  11. Costly Production
  12. High price
  13. Higher breaking strength
  14. Lustrous

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

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Enzyme Desizing

Enzyme Desizing

Enzymatic desizing is a traditional desizing procedure of degrading starch size on cotton fabrics using enzymes. Enzymes are multipart organic, soluble bio-catalysts, created by living organisms that catalyze chemical effect in biological process. Enzymes are quite specific in their act on a particular material. A small amount of enzyme is able to decompose a large quantity of the material.

enzyme desizing

Why enzyme desizing is popular?

  • No hydro-cellulose is formed, fabric strength remain changed.
  • The process is continuous and speedy.
  • The desizing capacity is more.
  • Less floor space is required.
  • Weight loss of fabric is less.

Description of continuous enzyme desizing process:

Normally when malt extract is used as the designing agent it takes about 3-4 hours for complete desizing to occur, but when stronger solutions of the extract are used to reduce the time within 5 minute.

continuous enzyme desizing process

Continuous Enzyme Desizing Process

In this case impregnated fabric has to put in the required pit the length of the floor of the pit should be equal to delivered impregnated cloth in 5 minute, so enzyme impregnated cloth, pit and washing machine should be synchronized with each other.

Written by

Engineer Sheikh Nurja

B.Sc engineer of textile

Merchandiser at buying house

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Call Option

Call Option

A call option is an option to buy financial instruments at a specific price after a certain period. A call option is an option for the buyer to exercise not an obligation to perform. There can be an agreement between the buyer and seller for the purpose of exchange of financial instrument; here buyer gets the right to buy stock/bond or other financial securities if buying is beneficial for him/her.

In a call option basically, a buyer makes an agreement with the seller if he thinks that there is a potentiality of positive change of instrument price in the market. So to get this opportunity a strike price is set for which securities will be exchanged and this contract is valid for a fixed period of time.

A question may arise that why seller of stock/bond or other financial securities want to make contact with the buyer although he knows that this contract will exercise only if the stock price is higher than the strike price. The main reason is that seller assumes that future price of this security will less than the strike price so that he will be the gainer.

For example Call Option

Suppose Mr. Jhon makes a contract with Mr. Sparrows to exercise a call option where they fixed a price (strike price) of an instrument is 80 Dollar i.e. Mr. Jhon will purchase this instrument only if the instrument price is higher than the strike price.

At the maturity of the contract the price of the stock is 100 Dollar, so Mr. Jhon will buy the stock at 80 dollars which will help him to make a profit of 20 dollars.

On the other hand, if this stock price is 79 dollar or less than this then this option will not be exercised.

The process of developing a call option:

  • Buy a call option with the expectation of an increase in market price
  • If market rate appreciates compared with a strike price
  • Call option of yours will create value for you
  • At the expiry date if the market price is higher than strike price then you will exercise the call option which will generate profit for you.
call option

The process of Call Option

Call options is an agreement (a written contract which is enforceable by law) between buyer and seller to buy and sell financial instruments with a fixed price determined earlier if the price of the instrument is higher than the market price then this contract will be exercised.

Written by

Md. Nahian Mahmud Shaikat

Student of MBA

Institute of Business Administration (IBA)

Jahangirnagar University

Email: [email protected]

Facebook: Ördïnärÿ Böÿ

Classification of Desizing

Classification of Desizing

Desizing

Desizing is the first chemical process in wet process. Desizing is the term usually restricted to the process of removal of starch (of the size) from the cloth. De-sizing processes can be controlled by desizing process can be controlled by desizing liquor shorter time process. There are several methods for desizing and these can be classified as follows-

classification of desizing

Classification of Desizing

Objectives of Desizing

From the definition of de-sizing you know that it is a chemical process in wet processing. For this importance there is several objectives of desizing that can be identified. These are:

  • To remove starch from fabric desizing is done.
  • To improve absorbing capacity of the fabric.
  • To make ready for the next process scouring, bleaching etc.
  • To improve absorbing attain of chemicals.
  • Increase luster of dyeing and printing.

Written by

Engineer Sheikh Nurja

B.Sc engineer of textile

Merchandiser at buying house

If you like this article please do not forget to share on facebook and put your valuable comments.

Flow Chart of Apparel Manufacturing Process

Flow chart of apparel Manufacturing Process /Garments Manufacturing Process

Garments manufacturing process is related with several process that starts with the receiving of order and make shipment to the ultimate buyer. The process flow chart is based on the type of product and it can be different from one another.

Flow chart of apparel/garments manufacturing process consists of design/sketch, pattern design, sample making, production pattern, grading, marker making, spreading, cutting, sorting/bonding, sewing/assembling, inspection, pressing/finishing, final inspection, packing and finally dispatch to the buyer.

flow chart of apparel manufacturing process

Flow Chart of Apparel Manufacturing Process

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

Facebook: Amirul Islam Washim
E-mail: [email protected]
Cell : +8801929643301

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Gas Singeing

Description of Gas singeing

As I mentioned earlier to write about gas singeing today I am going to discuss about Gas singeing method and also going to share a comparison study of Plate singeing, Roller singeing and gas singeing

Gas Singeing Machine

This machine consists of one or more burners giving continuous flat or vertical flames, produced by mixture of compressed air and gas. When fabric passes over the flame and singeing is done as require.

gas singeing

Gas Singeing Process Sketch

There are various types of machines depending on burns design. The speed of machines 72-90 m/min depending on cloth varieties. The machines are attached with water tank to save the fabric from any damage. Now a day’s various improved have been done in the machine design. Improper singeing may be lead to as much as 75% tensile strength loss in the warp directions.

Why gas singeing method is popular than other methods?

  1. Better singeing and projecting fibers of interstices is burned by the processes.
  2. Uniform singeing can be maintained.
  3. Smoothness and evenness of the fabric is increased.
  4. Groove is produced in other singeing machines but gas singeing machines is saving from that problem.
  5. Gas flame can be changed according to fabric with.
  6. Production is height than other machines.
  7. Both side of the fabric can be singeing.

Due to the above facilities this gas machine more popular than other machines.

Difference among Plate singeing, Roller singeing and Gas singeing

Plate singeing

Roller singeing Gas singeing
Inter stitches fibres not burned. Same as plate. Inter stitches fibres are burn out.
Due to mental plate friction surface become smooth and luster. Same as plate singeing. Extra luster is not produced.
Fabric moves plate stationary. Both move opposite direction.  Fabric moves only.
Even temperature maintaining is problem. Better than plate singeing. Burning is used.
Metal plate is used. Metal roller is used. Gas flame is used.
Speed:150-250 yards/min. Less than plate singeing. Speed250-400 yards/min.
One side is signed. One side is signed. Both sides are signed.

Written by

Engineer Sheikh Nurja

B.Sc engineer of textile

Merchandiser at buying house

If you like this article please do not forget to share on facebook and put your valuable comments.

 

Classification of Textile Testing

Classification of Textile Testing and Quality Control

Textile Testing & Quality control (TTQC)

TTQC is an important factor in textile and garments sector. Everybody want qualitative goods. Textile testing and quality control related to each other and this ensure production and supply of good quality.

textile testing

Textile testing

Textile testing

Textile testing means the test of textile materials. It refers quality standard.

Quality control

Quality control means improving product standard. Quality control depends on customers demand. With different textile, process quality can be control.

textile testing and quality control

Textile Testing and Quality Control

Objectives of Textile testing

  • Monitoring product quality.
  • To know the product standard.
  • To research & development product.
  • Checking quality.
  • To know performance at every stage.
  • To know product specification 7.To Qualify every product.

Types/ Classification of Textile Testing

classification of textile testing

Classification of Textile Testing

Routine process testing: a Routine process for checking quality in the running of process or after a process.

Quality Record testing: Quality record testing to record test result for different purpose and activities in future.

Textile testing & Quality control also classified as given below:

Two kinds of TTQC:

  • Online process control
  • Offline process control.

Online process control: In running a process or after a process, testing called online Textile testing & quality control.

Offline process control: Textile testing after finishing all production process called offline Textile testing & Quality control.

There two types of offline process control:

  1. Physical test: To determine physical properties and calibration.
  2. Chemical test: To know chemical properties using chemical

Testing of Fibre, Yarn, and Fabric: In the case testing of fibre, yarn and fabric generally following properties are made to check

For Fibre

  • Identification of fibres
  • Grading
  • Color of fibres
  • Fibre length
  • Fibre strength and elongation
  • Fibre fineness
  • Fibre Maturity
  • Trash
  • Naps
  • Short fibre index(SFI)
  • Short fibre content(SFC)
  • Immature fibre content(IFC)

For Yarn

  • Warp Yarn count
  • Weft Yarn count
  • Twist per unit length
  • Single yarn strength
  • Lee strength and elongation
  • Appearance
  • Evenness and regularity.
  • Hairiness

For fabric

  • Number of ends per inch
  • Number of picks per inch
  • Fabric strength and elongation
  • Width
  • Thickness
  • Weight
  • Design and construction of cloth
  • Shrinkage
  • Air permeability
  • Crimp
  • Stiffness, handle, drape
  • Crease resistance and recovery
  • Abrasion
  • Thermal properties
  • Water absorbency
  • Pilling
  • Color fastness

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

Facebook: Amirul Islam Washim
E-mail: [email protected]
Cell : +8801929643301

Working Flow Chart of Textile Industry

Working Flow Chart of Textile Industry

Textile industry produces textile materials. Different sectors of this industry are spinning, weaving, knitting, dyeing, and garments. Basically the working flow chart of textile industry consists of getting a buyer order, understanding buyer requirements, brought raw material, set program, start production, processing step by step, finishing (if need), testing product, qualified product according to buyer requirement and finally make delivery to buyer according to the buyer requirements. I made a common flow chart to show how they work which is given bellow:

working flow chart of textile industry

Working Flow Chart of Textile Industry

  • Buyer requirement refers which process will be done, how to do that, Quality of the product. Everything they provide with the order. They control manufacturing process.
  • Raw materials are relative word. Spinning raw material is textile fibre, for weaving yarn, for wet processing Grey fabric. So feed material is raw material any kinds of textile production.
  • Industry has to provide to buyer the latest update of their production order in proper time.

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

Facebook: Amirul Islam Washim
E-mail: [email protected]
Cell : +8801929643301

How to Take Share Buy Decision

How to Take Share Buy Decision

Share

Share is the small proportion of the capital of a company. Both private and public limited companies have share capital. But the only public limited company can issue their share in public through IPO (Initial Public Offering) to raise their share capital. Basically, the shares of the public limited company are traded in the stock market. Buyers and sellers are involved with this market through brokers (commission agent). There are thousands of millions of investors investing a large amount of money in the capital market. It is an investor’s responsibility to choose right share of a right company so that they would get a benefit (capital gain and dividend) from investing.

Question is what are the things an investor should consider before investing in the capital market through purchasing share/stock or how to take share buy decision?.

how to take share buy decision

Share/Stock Buy Decision

There are several factors/things that need to consider before investing in the capital market/stock market through purchasing share/stock of a company. These factors are:

  1. Calculate the present value of all future benefit. If the present value is more than the current price then buy the stock/share. On the other hand, if the current market price is more than the calculated present value then definitely sell the stock.
  2. To reduce the risks of investment do not forget to choose a company from a different industry. So that you can diversify your investment also make sure that you pick the right company stock
  3. Check the growth rate of the company in which you want to invest. You can get growth-related data from the annual report or in the stock market/capital market
  4. Choose stock/share which company has a lower price-earnings ratio
  5. You can also choose stock which provides higher EPS (Earnings per Share) compared with other companies
  6. If you have financial knowledge then check the financial statement (cash flow statement, income statement, balance sheet) of the companies over the period of time. Cash flow will help you to check the cash inflow and outflow. And from other financial statements, you will get profit/loss, assets & liabilities related information. It is your responsibility to check ever information that may have an impact on the future earnings of the stock/share
  7. You also need to consider the current market rate and the current economic condition of the country
  8. Never buy share without knowing anything or if anyone influences you to buy a share

These are the some of things that you can consider before investing. If you analyze properly and invest in the capital market then there will be less chance to lose your investment. Never try to gamble in the market, although many people think that buying and selling a stock is one kind of gambling.

Written by

Md. Nahian Mahmud Shaikat

Student of MBA

Institute of Business Administration (IBA)

Jahangirnagar University

Email: [email protected]

Facebook: Ördïnärÿ Böÿ

Classification of Singeing

Singeing

Singing is a process of burn out the projecting fibre to increase smoothness and evenness of the fabric.

Objective of Singeing

  1. Burning of projecting fibres from yarn/fabric surface.
  2. Fabric/Yarn surface become smooth, even and clean.
  3. Maximum Luster is produced by mercerizing.
  4. Help to create smart design by printing.
  5. Save from uneven dyeing & printing.

Classification of Singeing

There are three types of singeing. They are

classification of singeing

Classification of Singeing

Plate Singeing

In plate singeing open fabric is passed upon the copper plate. To maintain ever speed some guide roller and draw roller are used. The temperature of singeing plates are heating but problem is the plate temperature vary. The process speed vary 135-225 m/min.

plate singeing

Plate Singeing

Advantages of plate singeing

Due to friction between cloth surface and copper plate fabric surface become smooth.

Disadvantages of plate singeing

Copper plate not to be evenly so uneven singeing is performed.

Roller Singeing

  • Some defects of plate singeing machine are overcome in roller singeing machine.
  • In roller singeing machine there is used rotating cylinder instead of stationary curved plate as plate singeing machine. It may be made of either copper or cast iron and provided with internal firing system.
roller singeing

Roller Singeing

  • In this machine the surface temperature of the cylinder is more uniform at all places.
  • The rotation of the cylinder is opposite to the fabric movement, so raise the nap ensuring efficient singeing.

Gas Singeing 🙁 Will discuss in my next article as it is so important types. Stay with us.)

By

Engineer Sheikh Nurja

B.Sc engineer of textile

Merchandiser at buying house

If you like this article please do not forget to share on facebook and put your valuable comments.