What is a Bond

What is a Bond?

Question may arise in your mind that what is a bond. A bond is a financial instrument used by the government or corporations to collect money from the market. It provides a fixed benefit to the bondholders periodically and also at the time of maturity. Although the use of bond as a financing instrument used in developed countries and is very popular around the world. But in Bangladesh the use of the bond not getting enough popularity yet.

By selling a bond, borrowers make a contract with the buyer to pay interest and principal at the time of maturity. All provisions, terms & conditions are written in the bond indenture. A bond indenture is the written document where all terms are clearly mentioned which actually helps to ensure the right of the bondholders.

Basically, a bond pays interest semi-annually to the bondholders at the specific rate which is mentioned in the bond indenture.

Bonds with the maturity of 10 years or more are considered as long-term bond. The interest of bond is set on the basis of market interest rate. Every bond has coupon rate (except zero coupon bonds), maturity date, and face value (basically Tk 1000). Some may have call provision and convertible features.

There is an inverse relationship between interest rate (market interest) and the price of the bond. Higher the interest rates lower the price of the bond and vice versa. We get the price of the bond by discounting the cash and capital gain received from the bond by the required rates of return. Normally large companies issue a bond for the purpose of collecting long-term funds from the market.

Basic Characteristics of Bond

what is a bond

Characteristics of a Bond

From above-mentioned issues we can draw some basic characteristics of a bond, these are:

  • Bond is a long-term financial instrument issued by the large companies to collect long-term funds.
  • Every bond must have a face value, maturity value, and coupon rate and maturity period.
  • It provides periodical benefit to the holders (basically for an interval of six months).
  • The terms and conditions are written in the bond indenture.
  • Zero coupon bonds do not provide any coupon/interest. It provides benefit at the maturity where the bond is issued at discount.
  • There is an inverse relationship between interest and price of the bond.
  • The callable or convertible feature is common for a bond.

Actually, the characteristics of a bond are depended upon the types of a bond which is being issued and where it is issued. Country to country the type and features of the bond vary.

How to Become Successful in Textile Sector

How to Become Successful in Textile Sector

Whether you are a textile engineer or a student of textile going to be graduated soon, you may have many confusions in your mind that from where you can start your career. The expectation of getting a job for developing career varies from person to person. But remember one thing; you can start your career by joining any department of textile sector. After that, you can rotate your career and enrich your knowledge of different departments.

how to become successful in textile sector

There are lots of people who didn’t have any educational background in textile but they are doing well. Question is how they are doing better day by day; you can get the answer if you observer their motive of working, they have the capability of learning through working. Positive motive towards work actually brings success in career. So why are you waiting for? You can read get the core knowledge of textile. All you need to keep patience learn & apply your knowledge, one day you will get what you are looking for.

Some basic qualifications you should have to work in the textile industry

  1. Confidence
  2. Technical skills
  3. Management skills
  4. Interpersonal skills
  5. Problem-solving capability
  6. Knowledge of IT and numerical calculation
  7. Communication skills
  8. Capability to work in a team

You can find that some textile engineers initially work as a production manager and their core responsibilities are

  1. Supervising and motivating a teamwork
  2. Maintain thing as of SOP(Standard operating procedure)
  3. Responsible for ensuring effective production cost
  4. Make sure that products are produced on time with good quality.
  5. Monitoring the production process
  6. Being responsible for the selection and maintenance of equipment
  7. Reviewing worker performance and identifying training needs.
  8. Working with managers to implement the company policies and goals.

If you like this article then please do not forget to leave your valuable comment in the comment box.

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)
E-mail: [email protected]
Cell : +8801929643301

Calculation of Weaving Cost and Profit

Calculation of Weaving Cost and Profit

There are lots of weaving factory in our country. So, it’s very important to know about the calculation of weaving cost calculation. So, today I am presenting a sample calculation of weaving cost and profit.

calculation of weaving cost and profit, Weaving Fabric in a Loom

Weaving Fabric in a Loom

Cost for following fabric construction


Twill 100% cotton fabric.

  • Per yard cost for warp yarn: 45 BDT (for example)
  • Per yard cost for weft yarn: 24 BDT

So per yard yarn cost: (45+24) = 69 BDT
Weaving charge: 18 Tk/yard
Total- 87 taka.

  • Dyeing wastage: 5%m

So, for dyeing wastage: 5% of 87

= 4.35 taka
So, including dyeing wastage cost is : (87+4.35)=91.35tk

  • Dying charge: 32 taka/yard

So, including dying cost total cost is – (91.35+32) =123.35tk/yard

  • If desired Profit is: 15%

So profit = 15% of 123.35 taka

= 18.50 taka

  • So overall price (you have to sell): (123.35+18.50)  = 141.85 BDT/YARD

= 1.89$(us)/yard (Here 1$ = 76.68)

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)
E-mail: [email protected]

What is Knitted Fabric

What is knitted fabric?

Knitted fabric

Knitted fabrics provide comfortable wear to almost any garment. For making comfortable wear we first think about knitted garments. Though it has an open structure so most of the knitted garments contour to the body’s silhouette. That’s why knitted garments are so much popular as inner-wear, bodywear, and sportswear.

what is knitted fabric

A nice comfortable wear made by knitted fabric

Types of knitted fabric

There are basically two types of knit fabrics.

  1. Weft knits
  2. Warp knits

Weft knits

Weft knitting is the simplest method of converting a yarn into fabrics. In weft, knitting loops are made in a horizontal way from a single yarn. In this way, inter-meshing of loops take place in a circular or flat form on a crosswise basis. Most of the weft knitting is of tubular form.

Weft Knitting

Weft Knitting

Warp knits

In warp knits yarn zigzag along the length of the fabric. In warp knits the number of stitches in a row is equal of the number of separate strands of yarn. It is almost done by machine, not by hand.

Warp Knitting

Warp Knitting

Written By

Engineer Sheikh Nurja

B.Sc engineer of textile

Folders in Apparel Industry

Folders in Apparel Industry

A folder is an attachment to a sewing machine for bending and folding the fabric previous to sewing. It belongs to the category of work aids (Additional devices that can be added to basic sewing machines)generally used in situations where fabric must be fold prior to sewing. Can be used for folds ranging from simple to complex. Different types of folders available in different size and thickness. The thickness of the folder is selected depends on the type of fabric.

  1. Light folder (0.15mm to 0.25mm thickness) – silk, synthetic materials, poplin, shirting, bed sheet
  2. Medium folder (0.27mm to 0.40mm thickness)–single jersey knit, flannelette, Oxford
  3. Heavy folder (0.45mm to 1.5mm thickness)–twill, corduroy, rib knit, interlock knit, denim
Folders in Apparel Industry

Folders in Apparel Industry

Features of a Folder in the Apparel Industry

There are some basic features of a folder, these are-

  1. It helps to improve the productivity.
  2. Improve or maintain quality standards.
  3. Reduce training time of operator.
  4. Reduce fatigue of the operator.

Different Types of Folders Used in the Apparel Industry

  1. Belt loop folder
  2. Binding folder
  3. Tape folder
  4. Hemming folder
  5. Collar setting folder
  6. Cuff setting folder
  7. Waistband folder
  8. Piping folder. etc

These are some types of folders used in the garment industry.

Hemming Folder

It is excellent for continuous hemming on automatic sewing operations. It’s suitable for double needle lockstitch machine. Used to make narrow hems, on prior to ruffling, curtains, and other straight hemming operations. Output piece seam line diagram is shown in the image.

hemming folder

Hemming Folder

Sleeve Attaching Folder

It is used for sleeve attaching operation by using a single needle lock stitch machine. Output piece seam line diagram is shown in the image.

sleeve attaching folder

Sleeve Attaching Folder

Piping Folder

It is used for preparing piping seam by using a single needle lock stitch machine. Output piece seam line diagram is shown in the image.

piping folder

Piping Folder

Belt Loop Folder

It is used for preparing belt loop by using a single needle lock stitch machine. Here stripe of fabric inserted on the folder. Output piece seam line diagram is shown in the image.

belt loop folder

Belt Loop Folder

Bias Binding Folder

It is used for cover the raw edge by using a single needle lock stitch machine. Here stripe of fabric inserted on the folder. It binds the fabric edge evenly. Output piece seam line diagram is shown in the image.

bias binding folder

Bias Binding Folder

Waist Band Folder

It is used for attaching waistband by using double needle lockstitch machine. It binds seam on the waistband. Output piece seam line diagram is shown in the image.

waist band folder

Waist Band Folder

Article by

P. Sivakumar

P. Sivakumar

The author is currently an undergraduate student at the Department of Fashion Technology of Angel college of Engineering and Technology, Tirupur. His area of interests includes standardization, Lean Manufacturing.

Tamil Nadu.

Email: [email protected]

If you like this article please do not forget to share on facebook and put your valuable comment.

How to Get a Merchandiser Job

How to Get a Merchandiser Job

Many people ask how to Get a Merchandiser Job, to answer their question I am sharing my own experience so that you can have some idea.

General thinking about getting a job as a merchandiser

For getting a job in as merchandiser we must have a special reference, thinking so is not true. Definitely, you are thinking why am I saying this so confidently? I am saying this so confidently from my experience.

how to get a merchandiser job

How I got my first job as a trainee merchandiser?

After passing BSc engineering from textile I have been also disappointed, I was scared of thinking about my career. Most of my friends already joined on the job but I did not have a job yet.

I also wanted to get help from anybody. But in reality, I have found nothing is going well for seeking my job. Then I have taken a decision that I will not go to anybody for getting a job. I started to prepare myself by meaning that if any interview call will come; I will not let the chance to go. And I started an online application for a job and continue my study for the interview preparation.

After a few days, I have got an interview call from a company for trainee merchandiser. I present myself so confidently in the interview board and answered all questions so confidently. And I found they were so satisfied with my answers. Although there was a long list of candidates I was confident to get that job. And happens also so.

How I got my job in buying house as assistant merchandiser?

I was always eager to do the job as a merchandiser in a buying house. I told to my senior person about this. He told me don’t worry; you can apply for buying house only through this is your dream. Then I have started for applying for buying house job. And in a few days, I have got a call for assistant merchandiser job in a buying house. I never stopped my study and acquiring knowledge.

On the day of the interview, I found a lot of candidates for this post only. Female & male both were there for one post only. Whatever after finishing my interview I was so happy because I was able to answer all questions in a good manner. I was satisfied with my interview and confident also to get this job. Next day I got a call from this office for re-interview next week.

In such a way I faced three times interview for this job and I was doing well confidently. On the last day from four candidates, I was selected and got a confirmation letter. After joining here I heard that there were more than eighty candidates for this post and they found me the best one. This word makes me feel someone special for my sector.

This is my story about my job getting experience. Believe me, there is nothing better than knowledge and smartness in own sector for profession carrier. If anybody can start his/her professional carrier with his/her own way it brings so much satisfaction and confidence which happens to me.

What should you need to do to get a job as a merchandiser?

So, don’t worry if you don’t have any special reference. Avoiding wasting time to find out a reference, try to learn more and more. Read newspaper & magazine, follow up renowned blog & website and try to solve out your problem by exploring. And those are the student now; you should try to prepare your assignment very attentively. And don’t forget to practice frequently speaking English. No competition in the job sector is very high. So make yourself prepare for this competition in a proper way.

how to achieve your dream

I am sharing my story of getting a job as a merchandiser for making you motivated for study. If you have any alternative idea about getting a job then please do not hesitate to share with us. If you have any question please put your question as a comment below the post. In future will try to write about which types of question you will face on the interview board for the post of merchandiser from my experience.

If you like this article please do not forget to share on facebook and put your valuable comment

Written By

Engineer Sheikh Nurja

B.Sc engineer of textile

Flow Chart of Spinning

Flow chart of spinning

In this article, you will have details idea of a spinning process because we present all the process sequence in a visual flow chart of spinning.

Input Process/ Machine Output

flow chart of spinning

lap carding sliver

sliver draw frame sliver

(Lap former is needed only for combed yarn)

mini lap comber roving

twist complete yarn


Cone Winding Machine

Written by

Mohammad Saifur Rahman

B.Sc. Engineer of Textile

E-mail: saifuro[email protected]

Facebook: SaifurRahman

How to Calculate PV Using Excel

How to Calculate PV Using Excel

Sometimes students ask that how to calculate PV using excel. I have made this tutorial to show you calculation of pv using excel is very easy. All we have to do put the right value to the right place.

Simple formula for calculating present value is:

how to calculate pv using excel

Present Value Formula

Calculation of present value is done for the purpose of making financial decisions. Because of passes of time, the value of money is decreasing, for this reason we have to know the current value of benefit.

This video will show you the procedure of calculating pv using excel, and for this we use following data:

For Example:

Receive 100000 after 10 years where Required rates of return is 8% then what is the present value of 100000.

Different Types of Button for Clothes

Different Types of Button for Clothes

Button: Buttons are one of the oldest and most widely used types of a fastener. Buttons are generally consisting of a disk, ball, or dome-shaped fastener. They are generally attached to one piece of fabric and joined to another piece of fabric by being drawn through a hole or loop.

In modern fashion, design buttons are used for both ornamentation and objective purpose. People started to use a button from the Bronze Age. Before Renaissance age buttons were used as ornamentation purpose only. After the invention of buttonholes in the age of Renaissance, button became functional and 1830-1850 is considered as the golden age of buttons.

ornament button

The button is used as ornamentation purpose in fingerless mittens

Classification of Buttons

Depending on the attachment way

There are basically two types of a button depending on how they are attached to a piece of material.

  1. Flat or sew-through (Hole button)

    1. Two hole button
    2. Four-hole button
Flat button

Flat Button

The thread is making to pass through the holes and the material to bind the button in place. They are made to attach with fabric by machine and hand sew also.

2. Shank Button

They have a connector to the back part of the button that is attached to the material with thread.

Shank button

Shank Button

3. Stud Button or Snap Button

They are mostly used in denim clothing such as jackets, pants etc. Fabric goes to the middle of the top and bottom part of a snap button and they are attached by creating pressure.

picture of button shirt

Snap Button

Classification of Button Depending on Raw Materials

By which material buttons are made, depending on this factor there we will find different types of buttons. Here I am going to present some types name of them.

  1. Plastic button
  2. Seashell button
  3. Fabric button
  4. Coconut shell button
  5. Wooden button
  6. Pearl button
  7. Glass button
  8. Horn button
  9. Leather button
  10. Ceramic button
  11. Bakelite button
  12. Polymer clay button
  13. Vegetable ivory button etc.

Written By

Engineer Sheikh Nurja

B.Sc engineer of textile

Basic Types of Risk

What are the Basic Types of Risk?

We know that future is uncertain, because of uncertainty; involvement of risk can be traced to our every part of life. When we talk about any investment we have to think about risk and return, higher the risk higher the rates of return and lower the risk lower the rates of return. Our life is directly related with economic activities where risk is the considerable element that cannot be overlooked.

To minimize the risk people go for savings and some people take the help of insurance companies/ agencies by paying insurance premium. Risk can be categories into different perspective but here we only discuss about the business risk.

Before discussing the types of risk, let’s have some idea of risk. Risk is the deviation between the actual outcome and expected outcome. Some risk can be minimized and some risk cannot be minimized. Some risk arisen from the micro economic factor and some from macro economic factors.

Basic types of risk that we may found are:

Basic Types of Risk

Basic Types of Risk

Unsystematic Risk

Unsystematic risk is that portion of risk which can be minimize through diversification of the investment by forming portfolio. If we form a portfolio using the negatively correlated investment securities then it would be possible to minimize the risk at lower level. This types of risk is known as diversiable risk Theoretically it is possible to eliminate the portion of unsystematic risk but in real sense it is not possible to eliminate the risk through diversification.

Systematic Risk

Systematic risk is that portion of risk which cannot minimize through diversification of the investments. Systematic risk is mainly arisen from the macro economic variables which are beyond our control. Beta is the measure of the systematic risk. Sometimes this risk is also known as systematic market risk. Sources of systematic risk are given below with short explanation.

Business Risk

Business risk is the risk which mainly arise when a firm or business organization unable to generate sufficient revenue to maintain its operating expenditure through providing service or selling products, that is risk is directly related with the operation of the firm.

Financial Risk

When a firm is unable to pay off its fixed financial obligation then this type of risk may arise. This type of risk is involved with the levered firm which uses debt capital for business. In some cases this risk can lead a lead a company to bankruptcy.

Liquidity Risk

This risk is involved with the marketability of a security or investment that is the capacity to generate asset into cash as much quicker as possible. If an investment is takes less time to convert into cash then it is liquid asset or investment.

Country Risk

Unstable political condition of a country is responsible for this type of risk. If this risk is more than an economy definitely fall, so does business. In our Bangladesh this type of risk is higher.

Exchange Rate Risk

Exchange of currency is required when a country is involved with import and export. For importing product or services foreign currency basically dollar is used. So if there is more fluctuation of the exchange rate frequently then a business may incur loss. This probable loss is the risk for the business.

Although every economic activity is involved with risk, we need to be more cautious to minimize the risk. If we can minimize the risk of doing business then it will be possible to generate profit for the company/ business organization.

Written by

Md. Nahian Mahmud Shaikat

Student of MBA

Institute of Business Administration (IBA)

Jahangirnagar University

Email: [email protected]

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