Sweater and Lingerie: Two Growing Subsections of RMG Sector of Bangladesh
Sweater – A growing sub-section of RMG sector in Bangladesh: Sweater production and export is the promising subsection of Bangladesh RMG sector. As per a report from the Dhaka Tribune, With the technological up-gradation of this sector, it contributes to the western business market expanding with fulfilling winter season demand. During an interview with the Dhaka Tribune, Mohammed Nasir, Vice President of Bangladesh Garment Manufacturers and Exporters Association (BGMEA) said that “Sweater manufacturers upgrade their machinaries from manual to automatic, for this reason productivity of workers and overall factory production increases.” Due to global climate change, winter & summer become two major seasons. Winter becomes a season of fashion & styles. In this regard, the sweater becomes trendy with fashionable accessories &fusion design. As per the report of Export Promotion Bureau (EPB), in the fiscal year 2017-2018, Bangladesh earned from sweat export worth $3.67 billion, whereas in the fiscal year 2016-2017 it was $3.37 billion, a rise of 9.22% within a year. This sector has a share of 12% to the total RMG exports of $30.61 billion of the fiscal year 2017-2018. People from this industry hope that by 2021 this sector annual worth will be $8 billion.
Sweater Export Growth of Bangladesh
A significant number of Bangladeshi sweater factories have enhanced their production capacity or set up new manufacturing units to cope with the growing demand for sweaters from global apparel buyers. SQ, Dragon, Tupa, Starlight and Diganta Sweaters are some of the major sweater manufacturing in Bangladesh, expanded their capacity at least once recently. Walmart, Marks, and Spencer (M&S), GAP, Tesco, H&M, JC Penney, Zara etc. are the top foreign buyers of Bangladesh sweater section.
a look over the export growth of Bangladesh Sweater section, it has seen that
it obtained an improvement steps of stair. Though we have same complicacy of
port & logistics system, on contrary we have a goodwill of our quality
& trendy sweater products. Meanwhile competition Chinas product diversification
is another chance for our sweater section to grab global orders. Saif Ahmed, deputy
general manager of Mohammadi Group, which exports nearly three million pieces
of sweater in a year, said that work orders shift from China to Bangladesh is
another factor for the higher shipment. Hopefully in near future this section
will lead as like as knit or woven section.
Lingerie Export of RMG from Bangladesh
Lingerie: Another growing sub-section
of RMG sector in Bangladesh: Once upon a time, lingerie
was an intangible part of fashion, but with the change of fashion & style
it becomes a part of fashion & fashion industry. Bangladesh lingerie
industry also developing with times after steeps in global market from 2008. As
per International Trade Centre (ITC) report, global lingerie export worth is
around $23 billion. China leads the market of lingerie exporting countries with
37%share, while Hong Kong and Sri Lanka leads as second and third with 8.78%
and 5.65% of worth respectively. Bangladesh is the 4th largest lingerie
exporter with 5.23% share in the global market. Vietnam, India, France, Germany,
Cambodia, and the Netherlands are also in the list. Top foreign buyers of
Bangladesh lingerie items are H&M, Hunkemöller, Women’secret, Ostin, Ariela-Alpha.,
M&S, Victoria’s Secret etc. Asif Zahir, director of Ananta Group said that,
“Lingerie is an upcoming sector, this is a big market.”
Lingerie Export Growth of Bangladesh
As per the Apparel story, among a wide variety of intimate apparel items, bra dominates global market with more than half of the total share of worthwhile briefs represent around 33% and corsetry 10%. According to Analysts of Technavio, an international research company, within 2021 global lingerie market will grow at a CAGR of 4.30%. After realizing the global market trend, so many apparel icons of Bangladesh expanded their lingerie unit or established new unit. Top lingerie item exported from Bangladesh are: bra, penty, corset, shapewear, girdle, swimsuits and braces. Ms. Sandamali, Head of Marketing of SQ Birichina, said that “Lingerie manufacturing is a critical task, so not all are interested in this business keeping the number of players limited in the market, thus it gives advantages to the manufactures in terms of competition. While buyers generally tend to switch from one supplier to another on price issue in case of basic apparel items, such scene is less likely in undergarment business because factories skilled and equipped to manufacture this complex product are not too many in the market.” In the fiscal year 2017-18, the export worth of lingerie items – women’s innerwear and nightwear reached $1.15 billion, the rise of 7.84%from the previous fiscal year 2016-17 worth $1.07. As per the financial express, Md Syful Alam, manager, merchandising and marketing, Yunusco Bangladesh Ltd said that “Lingerie is a complicated and technical product that needs a sophisticated design with right fabric and tailoring to yield a good and satisfactory fit”. ” This is the reason why we require the items IE-Industrial Engineering in Garments,” he added.
Lingerie Products Exported from Bangladesh
per, Apparel Resources News-Desk, M Ghulam Faruq, Chairman of SQ Birichina,
said that, “To be honest, Bangladesh is still not doing much to produce the premium
segment of lingerie items.” He thinks that lingerie is an item that needs continuous
changing of fashion with taste change. “You need continuous innovation in
fabric design and product design to stay competitive in the lingerie market. It
is a difficult business,” he quoted. Manufacturer starts investing on this
growing section of RMG sector in Bangladesh. Bangladesh need strong R&D as
well as design & innovation team for the development of this sector. In
coming future, it will be indeed a great sector of GDP earning as like as knit,
woven or denim.
A QC file is quality control file in garments manufacturing also known as Trim Card or Garments swatch card, have all items what used in garments, Fabrics-trims for specific color and style, instruct what color and code number thread/label/zipper will be used for specific style and color. A trim card help Garments QC and production team using correct fabrics and trims in every style what exact fabrics and trims want garments buyer, consider as an important document. Generally store QC/ merchandiser make trim card, approve by buying house merchandiser. Factory merchandiser is responsible for on time QC file making, taking approval from buying house and delivering to production department. A QC file is such an important part in garments manufacturing, size set sample cannot be cut without its approval from buying house.
A complete QC file includes; trim card, PDM and PO sheet, documents for QC team what needed to attach with garments, operational requirements given in PDM with specific product sketch. Without the QC file, garments quality team cannot perform their job perfectly.
Uses of Trim Card in Garments
Store– to check trims and accessories by
store QC after in-housed in store
Sewing– to check attaching sewing trims
and accessories when production running in line
Finishing– to check finishing accessories
weather attaching correct or not
Final inspection Room– Buyer QC checks
whole garments items with trim card.
A pilot run
is a precautionary manufacturing process of Garments manufacturing after PP
meeting and before starting bulk production. Pilot run is also called as Trial
run in Garments manufacturing, generally done in bigger lot (3000+
quantity), manufacturer cut 200-250 pcs for pilot run. Pilot run done in bigger
quantity than size set. Main purpose of pilot run is to fix garments
measurement within tolerance limit .After passing PP sample, Garments
manufactures go for pilot run to ensure Measurement and Garments construction correction
is okay, most of times pilot run sample also have measurement deviation, so
pattern adjustment is applied for bulk. If Pilot run cannot be passing to
buyer, bulk cutting cannot start, buyer procedure doing pilot before bulk.
Why Need to do Pilot Run Before Bulk Production
mistake risk of bigger Garments lot
measurement after correction on PP sample pattern to ensure bulk garments
Garments sewing quality, ensure successful removal of size set sample defects
sewing line and smooth production for bulk
production in small portion to minimize error.
Pilot Run Meeting Activities
Checking pattern, adjustment history and review
Pilot run meeting generally coordinate by concern
buyer QC or Factory quality head
Review Pilot Run sample and compare quality with
Checking measurement and compare improvement with PP
Taking all precautions for bulk production
Risk Analysis of all critical operations
Checking washing appearances, shade with approved standard,
Pilot Run Meeting Checklist
QA Style File
Production PDM/Bulk PDM, Styling Check with Updated PDM & seal sample, Check the specification
Before Wash Spec by CAD
Approved sample Comments
Approved Trim Cards, Trims Placement check with updated PDM
All Sewing Trims Approval
Body Fabric (Approved Dye Lot)
Approved Wash Standard/V-Code
Shade band- Leg Panel
Shrinkage Test Report
Distortion Test Report
Tube Test/ Cross Stain Checking Blanket
Button/ Rivet Pull Test Report & mock up
Home Laundry for Heat Seal LBL/Button/Care LBL/Leather Patch/Rhinestone
Fabric & Trims Inventory Report
Fabric & Trims Inspection Report
Vendor’s Internal PP Meeting & Evaluation Report
Pattern checking, Change Log
Washing T- (Tint) Heavy or less, (abrasion) Less or heavy (coverage all dry process), H- (Hand feel) Hard or soft
therefore, are strips of silk, cotton or other fabric that fall on the chest.
It is an aesthetic accessory that is worn on the shirt to camouflage the
characteristics and uses of the neckties were varying throughout history.
Nowadays, they are mostly used by men when wearing a shirt and a suit. Neckties
are used in formal contexts: At work level, in a marriage, in a judicial
Neckties: Types, Names, Uses and Fabric
For the tie to be
hung from the chest, it should be adjusted to the neck with a knot, after
making a loop in which to “stick” the head. The knot is made in the
neck area and allows to adjust and unadjusted the loop, making the tie longer
When the person
wants your tie to stay straight and don’t move, you can use a tie pin. This
accessory allows you to fasten your tie to your shirt.
Types of Neckties
Straight Tip neckties
the name says, the standard tie model is the traditional/standard. It is wider
and originally made of silk, ideal for a classic look and for all occasions.
Guys of different ages and physical types can use the standard without fear, it
is very versatile and easy to match.
to use? In traditional events: weddings, ceremonies, graduation, among other
necktie models are trendy and have fallen into the taste of young people. The
name also says everything about this type: It has cutting thinner, modern and
stripped. Suitable for lean guys, as the chubby and bullies get the unbalanced
look with the slim tie, looking like a risk in the middle of the chest – many
stylists do not indicate.
to use? In relaxed situations and not necessarily with shirt or suit. It can be
combined with plaid shirt, chino pants or jeans, among other alternate and
tie is also classic and very well known, ideal for Gala attire and special
occasions. It is versatile and democratic, and as everything in fashion
reinvents, many young people go beyond and use this type in casual look. Some
are very original, others with questionable taste, but it all depends on the
Straight Tip Neckties
lot of strange people with a straight-tipped tie. In fact, she’s not popular,
so she spent a lot of time missing from the market. Currently, however, some
stylists have brought this accessory back to the fore. Among its
characteristics are the knitting fabric and the thin shape, similar to that of
combines with flat shirts, plaid shirts and a look that eliminates the use of
the suit. For the fat ones, there are models of a wider straight tie, which
combine better with the biotype.
to use? Working meeting, informal occasions.
How to Use and Combine
is considered the main point of a necktie, which most draws attention – quite obvious, isn’t it? Therefore, it is essential to have common
sense when choosing the ideal necktie tone for each occasion.
gold tip is about texture, pattern and shape. The exaggeration is never
good, as much as you love daring looks. In the case of necktie models, it gets
even more evident and takes you more to the error than I hit.
More Tips for Using and Combining Necktie
The shirt should always be in a lighter
tone than the tie. You have a face that doesn’t care about it and makes your
own style, but then it’s going to break you or not the pattern making your look
Try to leave the proportional combination
considering color, texture and pattern, both in a casual and alternative look
and a formal.
White and blue flat shirt are key pieces
that fall well with virtually all models of necktie! In doubt, choose these
see tips for every occasion:
Tips to Wear Tie in Different Occasions
classic neckties and discreet colors. Watch out for the invitation and, in
doubt, talk to the bride and groom.
The bowtie is always the alternative in these events. Do not try to dare and
draw attention with types of modernists.
Alternative and casual Look:
bow tie in different textures, slim tie and even the straight end, depending on
Day to day and work:
discrete tie models. Dark and traditional colors have no error.
Dinners: If it’s
a business dinner, prefer something conservative and classic. With friends or
romantic, vary in medium tones and even warm colors.
Guide to the Most Common Types of Necktie Fabrics
you can wear a tie with almost all sorts of clothes, the accessory that was
once a symbol of the dour and old-fashioned man ended up migrating to other
combinations that do not necessarily need a suit or blazer to justify the use
of it and ended up gaining Stylish man’s piece status. However, knowing the
types of fabrics for neckties is important to achieve the desired visual
effect, because small differences in texture and brightness of each material
can change the face of your look.
Types of Fabrics for Neckties
the classic jacquard to the unglued crochet there are neckties for all tastes,
some more formal, others totally detached. Meet the types of fabrics for
neckties and know which fit best in your style:
be silk (more expensive and noble) or synthetic fabric (such as polyester,
cheaper), the look is classic and extremely suitable for those who will go for
a more casual look but do not want to get too relaxed or for those who do not
open the suit or custom, especially at work and in formal events.
Suitable for: who
enjoys a classic and elegant look, complemented with tailoring pieces, even if
not the full social clothing?
skinny ones are very current and they look great with jeans and shirt, the
prints are the most diverse, but it is worth paying attention to the Poi, small
floral and Vichy type chess. Can you wear it with a suit? It does, but it will
roll a downgrade in the seriousness of the costume, so avoid on very formal
Suitable for: those
who like clothes lined up, but not afraid to mix styles and get something new.
It’s not as classy as the Jacquard tie, but it also maintains elegance.
They give a more
European and wintry touch the combination, thanks to its versatility can
accompany a formal or casual look, but are not indicated for a wedding, for
example, because they are not as very classy as the jacquard. Tartan or Prince
of Wales chess prints are the most successful in this case, in addition to the
Winter looks of anyone who enjoys more full-bodied and heavy clothing. It goes
well with a cardigan, a pea coat or a tweed blazer.
They are the most
casual in my opinion, adding a good texture to the look and completing even the
stripped combos with an elegant twist. It is usually smooth or striped, but can
also be found with poi (whites with dark background). Looks great with a
cardigan and plaid shirt, for example. In the social attire works well as long
as you are not in an environment with very conservative dress code.
Suitable for: who
likes casual and relaxed looks and wants something different in everyday life.
It was already considered a tie of a puppy, today is regarded as modern and
used by detached people.
Rarer, can be made
with jeans or make a mistake with Chambray, which, visually practically gives
the same. It is very detached and relax, needing careful not to leave the
combination relaxed beyond the account on certain occasions. Some count, even,
with clearer washes, working well in casual summer looks.
suitable for: Those
who want a professional look, but maintains a certain irreverence in the way of
dressing, without, however, seem exaggerated or childish. It blends well with
plaid shirts and denim trousers in another shade and twill coats.
As you can imagine,
its fabric is rustic and can combine very well with a casual look, with jeans
and a cooler shirt, but not so it stays out of the combinations for the colder
days, especially the ties that mix flax with other fibers, preventing the piece
from crumpled easily.
suitable for: build
a totally casual combo, including other pieces in linen, or for those who fancy
the look aligned, but like to put a contrasting accessory to give style.
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Heat Transfer Operation
and Guidelines of Garments Manufacturing
Heat Seal Label: In garments manufacturing it’s called heat seal or heat transfer label which shows the company’s brand logo or other important messages. Heat seal label is very attractive to a customer so its quality should be first class and label attaching process is very sensitive. Label attach by pressure and heat that’s why it’s called heat transfer Label. In this article we will have detail discussion of Heat Transfer Operation and Guidelines of Garments Manufacturing.
Parameters Influence the Fastness of Heat Transfers
Design / placement of artwork
Quality of glue
Work requirement before and after
heat transfer operation
Guidelines for Heat Transfers
Storage of Heat Transfer Label
Transfer must be stored in a cool and dry place, away from direct sunlight below
24 C (75 F) and humidity below 70 %.
all heat transfers have a shelf life, it is recommended to use heat seal
transfer within 12 months from the date of production.
Requirements of the Application
Equipment / Heat Transfer Presses
Only automatic pneumatic machines which are
able to apply transfers piece by piece must be used.
Roller transfer press machines and manual presses are not
accepted, as they cannot guarantee correct and consistent application.
Transfer Presses must have the following features:
operated with adjustable time, temperature and pressure.
microprocessor controller for time and temperature accuracy.
controlled operation and programmable print settings.
timer, adjustable which shows time countdown on readout, beeps after elapsed
time, and resets when handle is raised.
fully adjustable pneumatically pressure control, with pressure range of at
least 0 – 7 bar (0 – 100 psi / 0 – 7 kg / cm2)
temperature range of at least 70 – 230 C (160 – 455 F)
Time Range of at least 0 – 180 seconds
plate should be made of metal and Teflon coated to prevent soiling which could
contaminate the garments.
plate must be made of silicon rubber or can be a fleece platform with
sufficient resilience to ensure close alignment with the upper heat press
platen. A fleece platform is recommended to use for the application of 3
dimensional heat transfer.
size should be at least 38 x 38 cm (15” x 15 “)
should be bigger than artwork.
transfer presses must be adjusted in a way that the operator has an
unobstructed view of the application area and is able to quickly identify any
Calibration of the Heat Transfer
should be calibrated daily to obtain a reliable and consistent result.
Required Tools Calibration of the
Heat Transfer Presses
Thermocouple or Thermo-labels
A Stop watch, Cleaning cloth, Machine Calibration Check Log
and base plates of the heat transfer presses must be inspected for damage &
contamination. The plates must be clean and smooth without any adhesive
rubber base plates must be replaced, if it becomes distorted or hard.
Heat Sealing Machine Calibration
Pressure and Time must be controlled and documented at a style level.
that the heat is allocated evenly across the platen and the temperature meter
(input temperature) matches the actual output temperature.
Start the machine and set the Temperature at 160 C, time 30 seconds and Pressure at 3 bar (45 PSI).
Place 5 Thermo-label set onto the base plate at the upper right, upper left, center, lower left and lower right position.
Swing the machine onto the position and run a press cycle with time of 30 seconds.
Remove the thermos-labels and review the darkened labels. Each darkened label represents a temperature that the equipment successfully reached.
Record the highest temperature reached for each location in the Heat Transfer Machine Calibration Check Log.
Instead of Thermo-labels, also a Thermocouple can be used to check the temperature.
A temperature tolerance of +/- 3 C is acceptable.
Contact the manufacturer for service if the equipment failed.
The use of a
digital temperature control is recommended to have an accurate temperature
Pressure Balance Check
pressure between the upper and lower plate of the machine
4 paper strips in same size on top of the base plate.
the machine to press the strips in between
the strips sideward with equivalent strength to feel the pressure.
case the pressure is uneven and strip pulled out, replace the whole silicon or
fleece platform or contact the manufacturer for checking.
The use of pneumatic
pressure is recommended to give a stable pressure.
the time of the machine to 30 seconds.
the machine into position and press the start buttons & at the same time
start the stopwatch.
the time for the machine to carry out its cycle.
the time in the calibration log and repeat until 5 cycles are completed.
the average and compare log and compare the value to 30 seconds.
result should be +/- 0.5 seconds
outside this, contact the press manufacturer to reset the timer.
the result in the Heat Transfer Calibration Check Log.
be calculated from the moment of contact between application head and heat
Heat Seal Transfer Application Procedure and Maintenance Operation Check
operation refer to the heat transfer specifications from the supplier for
detailed application directions i.e. Time & Peel Instruction.
sure that the machine has been calibrated before operation start.
sure that the press platens are clean and free of any residue.
the machine and set the temperature, pressure and time which are given by the
Heat Seal Transfer supplier application instructions. Allow correct time to
heat for newly start machine (morning and after breaks) before bulk production.
the fabric panel over the base plate and place the heat transfer on the desired
location of the panel.
sure that the fabric is smooth but not stretched tight.
a release paper on top of the fabric to avoid direct contact of the heat platen
with the fabric.
the press for one application cycle.
special heat transfer qualities require a second heat pressing process on the
reverse side of the fabric. It is crucial to follow exactly the Heat Transfer
the fabric panel from the press and peel off the transparent backing paper as
per the application instructions either immediately while the transfer is still
hot or after cooling down.
not stack panels until they have fully cooled.
Transfer machines must be checked every 2 hours during print application for
correct temperature, pressure and time.
positions of the application platform, middle and outer edges should be
checked. Result must be documented at the Heat Transfer Application Check Log
and displayed at the machine.
Heat Transfer Quality Tests Prior to Production
transfer must be applied and tested on the intended bulk quality. This is to
ensure that the die migration, strength of attachment, color change/staining, damage/defects
and elasticity can be correctly assessing.
Sample Wash Test
transfer prints on samples must be applied according to the given application
instruction. Garment supplier must wash one sample at 40 C (Tumble Dry) to
determine problems at early stage. In case the heat transfer on the washed
garments shows ay negative appearance regarding color change or peel off,
garment supplier must inform heat transfer supplier and immediately discuss
further actions. The washed sample and wash test report must be archived by the
garment maker and keep for two seasons.
Heat Transfer Supplier Quality Test on Bulk Fabric
As soon as
the bulk fabric is available in the factory, garment supplier must send one
yard in darkest fabric color to the Heat Seal Transfer supplier for testing.
fabrics are delayed, it is the responsibility of the garment maker to inform
the Heat Transfer supplier about the fabric code. In that case, the Heat
Transfer supplier can arrange the fabric directly from the fabric supplier.
The heat transfer supplier must test on the bulk fabric to identify and confirm the correct application process. Once the washing tests, colour fastness, and migration tests are PASSED, the heat transfer supplier must inform the garment maker supplier about the recommended application instruction.
Garment Supplier Quality test on Bulk Fabric
As soon as the garment supplier receives the confirmed application instruction from the Heat Transfer supplier, garment supplier must apply for the transfer on the bulk fabric in all colorways and arrange the following quality checks.
10 times washing cycle at 40 C tumble dry
Color migration test (applied on polyester fabrics)
Hand Stretch Test to check the peeling off, cracking problems, removing of application.
must be done on all heat transfer machines which are intended to be used for
production. All quality tests must be done after samples are cooled down for at
least 24 hours after application. The washing test can be done by the garment
supplier if accredited by Buyer. Test can be done by a laboratory which is
accredited by Buyer.
In case one
of the above test fails, garment supplier must notify immediately the
respective heat transfer supplier for further action to solve the problem. The
original pass test reports and print swatches (before and after washing) must be available as reference
sample at the respective machine print production.
Heat Transfer Quality Check on Printed Panels
check of the printed panels.
quality check, allow printed panels to cool down.
all edges and corners for solid bond
melting of glue
for color staining / bleeding on the test samples.
any print defects like cracking or peeling-off problems.
bulk output every 2 hours
If you have any confusion then please let us know, we will discuss further.
Major Social, Technological and Environmental Contributions of RMG Sector in Bangladesh
sector is one of the important sector which has so many contributions in social,
technological & environmental development of Bangladesh. In this article,
some major social, technological & environmental contributions of RMG
sector is described. It will be helpful to know the condition, impact, ways of
development, future scopes of RMG sector in our country for various
upon a time woman were likely to spend inhouse activities like child
upbringing, cooking, taking care of relatives etc. No-a-days from educated to uneducated
women, this thinking has been changes a lot. This contribution mostly goes to
RMG sector. According to a survey of Center for Policy Dialogue(CPD), released
on Mar’18, among garment worker 60.8% are female & 39.20% are male. The
survey was conducted on 2270workeers in 193 factories in Dhaka, Gazipur,
Narayanganj & Chottogram. These large portions of women are mostly less or
uneducated. Rather than this, they are likely to contribute family income.
Women earn to make better their livelihood, pay children educational expenses,
make savings and overall, they are not anymore, a burden for their family. In
apparel sector there is a lot of work scope for women. They work in quality
section, sewing section & finishing section mostly.
sector provides adequate safety, payments, rest breaks, medical facility,
insurance facility, motherhood vacation, children scholarship programs etc. for
women workers. According to a report published in The Daily Star in Jul’18,
2018, many female workers leading trade unions in various factories. Some
female worker is divorced of single parent & still managing their families
very well. In many cases it has seen that their children upbringing is so well
that they become highly educated. Some
women then pursuing their career in their own tailor shop, they become
Not only less educated or uneducated women, but educated women are also most likely to work in this sector. There are so many Industrial Engineer & Textile Engineer in recent & there is a significant number of women in them. They are giving their best for the development of the RMG sector. They are working in Industrial engineering department, Planning department, research & development department, merchandising department, technical department, human resource department, Training & co-ordination sections etc. In some case they are best choices for employer as they have good analytical abilities, manpower handling capabilities, dealing capabilities, representation capabilities etc. Some of them are work in production sector equally with man & flourishes this sector with their knowledge & capabilities. Working women are blessing both for their family & organization. Many of them are indirectly involved in RMG sector with their research work, social work and so on.
cases, female worker is most preferred for their cool-headed decision rather
than male. For example, in garments quality section it needs smooth
observation, in sewing it needs immense accuracy or in costing or merchandising
it needs precision or dealing capabilities. These types of qualification are
born nature of women hence they are major choice for these section now-a-days.
There is considerable presence of foreign professionals in different section
including merchandising (20.30%), Production planning (37.30%), sewing,
knitting, washing, quality, industrial engineering, research & innovation,
supply chain. Along with continuous development of RMG sector hopefully very
soon these places will be taken by local expertise & there will be
remarkable number of women also.
empowerment in RMG become an example for foreign country like India, China,
Myanmar, Vietnam, Ethiopia, Jordan etc. These country apparel experts are
interested to hire women worker as well as professionals. Women from RMG sector
sometimes leads a community or group to achieve their demands. They are
twinkling example of how to start from zero & how to be valuable star in
their own life. Women struggles beside man to earn livelihood & supporting
husbands also. Educated women entering garments sector in different fields
& they are not likely interested in bank job or teaching professions as
previous. They started thinking out of box. For example, Swapna
Bhowmik, country manager of M&S, was the first Bangladeshito
become country manager
of the British retailer. Women are equally a great part of management system in
Child Labor Rationalize
The Harkin Bill placed at the US Senate entitled “The Child Labor Deterrence Act of 1993” which called for the elimination of child labor in the export-oriented manufacturing and mining industries. After that in our country so many garment industries stop hiring child labor & arrange a better life for them some of the organizations provide monetary help, some set up training schools, some got help from the government. International Labor Organization, BGMEA, UNICEF started so many projects to stop child labor. According to the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics report, in 2003 there were 42.40 million children of age group 5-17 was working directly or indirectly involved in this sector. Out of those 35.10 million were age group of 5-14 & 7.30 million were 15-17 age group. Out of the total estimated child population aged 5-17 years, about 22.70 million were boys & 19.70 million girls. There were so many reasons like poverty, a family force for income, avoiding early marriage, not interested in study etc. In 1995, a project was initiated by BGMEA along with ILO and UNICEF based on a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU). The key elements were a fact-finding survey to determine the extent of child labor in the garment industry, education programme establishment, monitoring, and verification system establishment, stipend income compensation (300 Taka at that time). BGMEA spent mostly 600,000 $ for the project. There was positive impact on child labor & gradually its number decreased. Now there are so many national & international organizations who are working in this sector to eliminate child labor. Apparel sector is now aware of this section & strictly avoid child labor force. So many social & audit organizations are working for the proper implementation of labor laws in Bangladesh.
Population problem is the major
problem for a developing country like Bangladesh. Employment opportunities for
women is creating positive impact on the family planning and population control
of a country. Working women are interested to family planning & keeping
small family. They feel the necessity of proper upbringing for their children
hence they plan for one or two children. Early age marriage also reduces
because of women empowerment. Average age at marriage for girls working in RMG
factories tend to be higher than the national average. In this regard
government takes so many family planning programs, builds hospitals &
clinics, free supply of family planning facilities & products and some of
private organizations also working several projects.
Social Welfare Programs
There are several projects to keep
worker rights as per ILO rules or local rules. Some of those activities are:
BGMEA Healthcare Activities for Workers:
Establishing healthcare & medical facilities. Most prominent was 150-bed modern hospital at Mirpur,
Dhaka, which is equipped with burn and emergency units. Approximately 10.96 core spent for the project.
BGMEA-UNFPA-GOB Project: In 1998 & 2003-2005
there were two mixed projects of United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) &
BGMEA, for family welfare & reproductive health education among garments
worker. In last project BGMEA provided 430000$ & UNFPA provided 290000$ for
this project to be successful.
Workers’ Health Check-up Project: BGMEA & BRAC
provide health check-up facility based on charged premium health care facility.
Up to 9000 workers were provided this facility.
Non-formal educational programme: Under this component of the Child
Labor Elimination Project, 8200 students were enrolled in 336 schools, run by
two local NGOs, Bangladesh Rural
Advancement Committee (BRAC) and Gono
Shahajya Sangstha (GSS). There are so many programs currently running,
in Dhaka there is 92 schools.
Earn and Learn Programme: There are so many
programs under this banner. BGMEA, BKMEA, BRAC, WORLD BANK, Bangladesh Finance
ministry runs so many programmes. Skills for Employment Investment
Program(SEIP) is one most popular training program for youth that can is very
helpful to create skillful employee.
Organizational & self-safety program: There is
mutual program of Bangladesh Fire Service and Civil Defense Department along with BGMEA & BKMEA to
train garment sector employee & worker to train about fire
&firefighting equipment, awareness building on fire prevention, first aid,
proper electric wiring and evacuation facilities.
garment project: Along with the project of Government of people’s republic of
Bangladesh to convert village in city, BGMEA wants to set up garments &
apparel infrastructure in those area.
Major Technological & Environmental Contributions of RMG Sector in Bangladesh
Introducing New Technologies
With the improvements &
developments of modern technology, our RMG sector also developing. People are
focusing on adopt new technologies, machines, methods, materials etc. From yarn
making to logistics services people are using modern methods & technologies
to make it quicker, accurate & user friendly as well as quality full. Now
we can produce various types & parameters of fabric, digital & rotary
printing, weaving more complex fabrics, producing in house trims &
accessories, finish fabrics as per buyer requirements, sewing fancy items,
wrinkle free items etc.
In modern industrial revolution of
methods & technology we are planning for every minute capacity, doing
forecasting, inventory controlling, material requirement planning, managing
supply chain flow, follow total productive maintenance (TPM), total quality
management (TQM), brainstorming session, automation, standardization,
innovation etc. This trend is running in other manufacturing sections also.
Changing Fashion Trend
Fashion trend also change with
continuous improvement of this sector. People are more likely to wear fusion
dresses. Women want dresses, saris, salwar kameez, tops with a mix trend of
desi & western. Now-a-days fashion designers are in a fix to make custom
made products. Many national & international fashion houses established in
Bangladesh to satisfy customer demand. Men & women want classy styles like
renowned international brands. There is so many first-class grade replica shops
also found for this demand. People following foreign models & hence trying
to copy their outfits. It’s a positive cultural change in one sense. But we
should not let go our own culture & try to modify them in a dignified way
so that our culture doesn’t get harm.
With growing textile sector, there
are educational changes also. People are interested to higher education in
Textile technology or Textile engineering, Industrial & production
engineering, fashion designing etc. Along with public universities there are so
many private universities which make resourceful graduates. After completing
graduation, they also take so many professional trainings, PGD degrees etc. So
RMG sector has a great impact on educational development of our country.
Though small, but there is cultural
change also. Some foreigners come to our country, marry here & get
children. People also like to have international foods. In Bangladesh so many
Srilankans, Pakistani, Indian, Vietnami, philipinos, Japanese, Americans lives
because of their job sector in RMG. In some cases, their food habits also
influencing us, their cultural beliefs influencing us & fusion occurs here
also in a small extent.
Loops or loops of one or more threads when bound with each other, either by interlacing, interloping or intralooping or combination of those when sewing fabric and each unit of such configuration is considered as stitch.
Some Terminology Related with Stitch
During stitching when one
loop of one thread passes over another loop of another tread is called
During stitching when loop
of one thread passes through the loop of another thread is called interloping.
When a loop one thread
passes through the loop of same tread during sewing is called intralooping.
Types of Stitch Used in Garments Sewing
There are about 70 types of stitches are available and among them, 18-20 types of stitches are widely used in garments industries, also,2 to 3 types of stitches are used in making of garments for lailoring and domestic purpose.
British standard 3870:
part1:1991 have been classified according to ISO 4915:1991 into six basic types
class 100: Chain stitch
class 200: Hand stitch
class 300: Lock stitch
class 500: Over edge stitch
class 600: Covering chain stitch
Stitch Class 100: Chain
Stitches are formed by intralooping.
Each loop is inter connected with same thread.
There is no lower thread.
The needle carries the thread through the fabric and looper holds
the thread to enter as it descends for the next stitch.
Security of stitch is very poor, in case of breakage of one
stitch, it unravels very easily.
One or more needle thread is used for stitch formation.
From opposite sides it looks different.
Application of Chain Stitch
stitching (e.g. basting) or for blind stitching.
for button holing, button attaching, hemming.
Stitch Class 200: Hand Stitch
Originally made by hand, now can be formed by machine.
Looks like domestic hand stitch.
It is produced from single thread passed from one side of the
material to the other side with each successive penetration of the needle.
This type of stitch is formed by special type of needle and
Needle is double pointed with Centre eyed.
Uses Hand Stitch
Lapel of jacket, coat and expensive clothes.
stripe of cloth is part of the front of the jacket or coat.
Disadvantages Hand Stitch
Time consuming process.
Speed of sewing m\c is very slow.
Rare in use.
Stitch Class 300: Lock Stitch
Lock stitch requires at least two threads to form a stitch, a
needle threads that feeds from the top & a lower thread that feeds from the
Needle threads are passed through the fabric & are
interlaced by the bobbin threads.
A rotary hook catches the needle threads loop as it passes
around the bobbin & interlocks the two threads.
Appearance of the lock stitch is similar in both sides of the
fabric; it is a special feature.
Fine yarn is preferable for this type of stitching.
Stitches are secured and security of stitches can be increased
by back tacking at starting and finishing ends.
Abrasion resistance of lock stitch is better because the
stitches are embedded in the fabric.
Uses of Lock Stitch
of facing, collar, pocket & other parts.
for top stitching.
for domestic and industrial purposes.
Class 400: Multi Thread Chain Stitch
Multi-thread chain stitch requires one or more needle that form loops as they pass through the fabric and interloop with the looper thread on the underside.
Threads are bound tighter by interlacing & interlooping.
It looks lock stitch at the top side & double chain at the
Looper thread is supplied from cone.
Need not back tacking at the starting & finishing ends.
Uses Multi Thread Chain
for long length sewing, heavy fabric sewing such as denim, attaching lace,
Stitch Class 500: Over Edge
Stitches are formed by two or more group of threads.
Formed from one or two needle threads with looper thread.
At least one group of threads pass around the edge of the
Width of the fabric may vary from 3-5 mm.
Prevents the fabric from fraying.
They have high elasticity.
They cannot be unraveled easily.
of Over Edge Stitch
used for knit fabric.
for decorative purpose.
of side seam, armhole of a shirt.
out-seam of a pant.
Stitch Class 600: Covering Chain
Stitches are generally formed with three groups of threads.
One thread is needle thread, other is the looper thread &
another is the top cover threads.
Stitches of this class are the most complex of type it may
need upto 9 threads.
Covering chain stitches are often called flat lock or flat
‘Layout’ is simply the orientation of product or process flow. From our day to day life it has so many significant impacts. In the RMG sector, every section has a specific kind of layout system as per work standard. Garments finishing is the last stage among top three stages (Cutting>Sewing>Finishing). Whether it is knit, denim, woven, sweater or lingerie, finishing unit has some style of line layout as per company or space or product. This is called conventional way of Finishing layout, which is widely used. But this conventional system reduces finishing efficiency. As finishing efficiency has direct impact on CMT cost (Cut, Make & Trim), now it’s time to reshape our layout from conventional to ‘Rail-line layout’ system. In this article, it will be discussed about rail-line layout system, how to implement it & its advantages for garments finishing unit. Though we are going to discuss about finishing layout system, you can implement this kind of layout system in your sewing floor also.
What is Conventional Layout System and Rail-Line Layout System?
Conventional layout system is the
layout system which we mostly use in our finishing floor. We have fixed
finishing lines of fixed length & width with aisles among them. We put Trimmer
(Manual or auto), specification checker, visual checker, iron man, keep
operator for trims & accessories adding, Final checkup, folding (Manual or
auto), wrapping & packing etc.
On contrary, rail-line layout system contains all the process from above, same manpower, same space, just need a rail line system with hanger. This rail-line may be a hollow steel or plastic pipe hanging up little bit arch where hanger can be moved easily. Or it may be a moving conveyor with hanging garments attachment. A Conveyor system is used for sewing line mainly.
Conventional Layout Vs Rail Line Layout System of Garments Finishing Unit
Structure of RailLine Layout System
starts at the point of hanger box keeping table, yellow marked. On same side,
there is input rack or trolley. From there Garments loader will bring &
hang garments in hanger to start the flow. You can see turning we mention 0.5
manpower. That means if you make the rail-line layout system in your floor such
a way that two parallel lines share side by side input point; then one person
can be used for two lines for garments turning. We keep this turning in
finishing line to do manpower optimization. But in conventional way we use
turning helper in sewing & most of the case use one person.
best use of this layout is adding accessories in finishing line. Here button
attach shown in finishing line. By this way hook & bar, buckle, snap button
can be attached in finishing to avoid destruction or breakage while
transportation or washing. Garments loader will flow the hanger to the assistant
operator for button positioning (It may be avoided as per garments type or
requirement); after that button attach operator will do his/her work while
keeping the garments in hanger. Then next operation of loop cutting followed by
tack & wrapping operation of care label, as per product requirement.
by tread trimming operation, there were some space for garments hanging as
input for thread trimmer helper. Then comes inside quality check. It may be
subdivided into front or back part or left or right side inside QC. There will
be defect trolley keeping them segregated with different types of defective
product. This types of layout system strongly avoids backward flow. It need to
keep defective product stored, after a fixed time interval it will be collected
& fixed by line supervisor, QC supervisor or line manager with necessary
it needs dust cleaning then full garments will be open from hanger, clean, turn
& hang it to the line. In this section side stand can be kept to keep
defective garments if found. Then pass it through rail-line to topside thread
trimmer. Number of topside thread trimmer is less than inside thread trimmer.
After that workstation of topside thread trimmer with defect stand or trolley.
After that garments pocket cleaning.
comes ironing operation now. There will be waist side press, side press, crease
press etc. as per product requirements. It is better to keep one or two defect
stand. There will be iron quality checker with segregated defect rack or
trolley followed by measurement QC.
time to add necessary trims, stickers etc. as per requirements. After that
audit table to check final product.
comes folding, wrapping or packing table as per product requirements. In this
section, manpower can be shared with another line. By following this layout
system, there will be much open space to keep line wise finishing rack, trims
& accessories keeping rack etc.
Advantages of Rail-Line Layout of Garments Finishing Unit
No crease in garments
Proper utilization of space
No dust from excessive hand touch
Lean Management in Finishing line
Limitations of Rail-Line Layout of Garments Finishing Unit
Cannot be useful for short length product like
tank top or lingerie
Improper line layout may cause improper process
Bad quality hanger or mishandling can cause
We need improvement in every
section of garments unit. For achieving this, it is necessary to start now with
slow but continuous improvement. Though there are some limitations of this
layout system, why not try a proto-type of one line in your finishing unit? With
proper plan & set-up system it is easy to implement. In the long run you
will get the advantages. There are so many renown buyers who want this kind of
layout system for sewing & finishing unit. For example, Walmart, Levis,
hagger etc. buyer have some pre-condition before order placement to have this
kind of layout system for their quality products. Hopefully very soon we will
adopt this layout orientation for our sewing & finishing product not only
for quality product but also for following lean management.
‘Visual Management’ is an important part of lean manufacturing. It
can carry up to 90% information in production floor. Visual management can
convey message more effectively & easily understandable by all. Though It
has positive impact, we sometimes overlooked this tool because of our ignorance
or lack of knowledge. Visual management is a tangible way of communication to
express rules, SOP, performance, standard, warning etc. It requires prior or
less training to implement & follow. In this article it will be discussed
how visual management is important for garments finishing unit. Garments
finishing is one of the important step of completion of product life cycle. Finishing
unit consist of garments checking, measurement follow-up, standard follow-up, trimming
uncut threads, ironing, adding trims & accessories, wrapping, packing,
Visual Management: A Tool of Lean Management for Garments Finishing Unit
1. To Hang a Layout Diagram/Picture
It is good practice to use same
layout for all lines in finishing unit. Here A layout showing every steps of
garments finishing along with workstation orientation. There must include all
physical variables, structures, length & width, substations, pathway etc. It
is easy to make layout diagram in excel or AutoCAD by keeping measurement. Whenever
a new employee or worker will see the layout, can easily understand the
workflow. Language used in layout can be Bengali or English as per wish. It is
helpful for any kind of technical or compliance audit also. A layout of your
production or finishing floor can easily make first impression better when a
new buyer visits your floor. It is an easy lean tool to make anyone understand
about work activities & discipline.
2. To Do Demarcation
Demarcation is the second step of
visual management. Demarcation is fixing or identifying area for specific work.
Do divide your finishing line is substations. Then fix the area by measuring
& considering ergonomically standard work stations. You can take operators
or workers view while dividing the area. It will add positive value & they
will abide by the rules later. The question may be why this is necessary? It is
necessary to fix work area to make sustainable discipline in finishing floor. No
machine, table, man or accessories will move beyond your demarcation area. It
is another way to eliminate process flow time by irregular flow. Demarcation
can be done using color or different color tiles as per wish.
3. To Attach Identifier Board and KPI Board
After subdividing your work stations, the third step is to make visual boards or stickers for every workstation. Workstation identifier boards must be attached to every workstation. When you will follow it for every line in your finishing floor, it will look like an organized finishing floor. Anyone can understand process flow very easily. During any kind of buyer visit or audit, you will not have to follow them and show them the workstation by telling operation name. Well organized factories follow this visual management to reduce these kinds of micromanaging activities. Don’t think about the monetary value of identifier boards, implement them first & gradually you would see the result. KPI board need to be attached in front of the finishing line. You can add KPI list as per your factory standard. Finishing garments operation breakdown, DHU percentage, daily production & efficiency, attendance & leave status can be added in KPI board. It is good practice to include several departments activities in KPI board like HR, Quality, IE & top management. A well-organized KPI board can save minimum 1hour time. You want to know, how? At morning IE will fill up KPI board with efficiency or bottleneck status, QC will fill defect rate or top defect areas, HR will fill leave or attendance status, the production team will fill plan vs target status etc. These kinds of visual management will help top management to identify any line status at a glance. So why not you are applying it on your floor!
4. To Make Rules, Instructions, and Standardization for Sustain
It is necessary to make visual
management sustainable. For this purpose, some rules & instruction can be
visualized for standardization. It also helps to maintain discipline & in
some cases have direct impact on productivity improvement & defect
reduction. A proper set up of visual management is the first pre-requisite of
lean manufacturing process. It helps to make audit successful, reduce defect
label, maintain HR rules & regulations, workplace standardization &
Visual management helps to identify mistakes, improper orientation, mismanagement & irregularities. Not only for garments finishing unit, visual management is mandatory for all units like cutting, printing, sewing, washing, dyeing, warehouse etc. Office workstation can be properly visualized & it will make your organization a wonder land of lean based organization. Then why not approaching towards this small & continuous improvement? You can easily follow mentioned four steps for any kind of factory or organization from shop floor to workstation.