Metal Detection Procedure in Apparel

Metal Detection is the final precautionary measure used to get needle/metal free final product. It is not as a replacement for well-maintained needle control procedures. Metal Detection Procedure in Apparel could be the final needle detection system and machine calibration (whether machine is functioning properly or not) is checked  by 9-point calibration system. Metal detection machine should be located in packing section to ensure that after metal detection process, garments will remain inside a metal/needle free zone. Machine calibrated with 9-point method or any other suggested method given by the supplier/buyer. This process should continue for every hour & keep record.

Metal Detection Procedure in Apparel

Objectives of Metal Detection in Garments

Final product of garments should be metal or needle free, otherwise it can harm the user of garments. Here are the few objectives of metal detection:

  • To get needle free final product
  • To get metal free final product in carton
  • Secure product safety
  • Metal detection is mandatory for all children wear garments, and this also varies according to the buyer wise requirement.
  • To meet customer satisfaction

Metal Detection Procedure in Apparel

Metal Detection Procedure of Garments Manufacturing are explained below

  1. All goods must be passed through the Metal Detector except in exceptional circumstances where the nature of the product dictates that this cannot be done. This must be agreed with the buyer beforehand; and signed on the Operation Manual or Product Specification (I.e. (a) Certain accessories, (b) PRO, where the stitched upper is passed through the detector Goods with ferrous metal components.
  2. All goods must be passed through a Metal Detector set to the standard of a 1.2 mm sphere. As the majority of the trims and decorations are non-Ferrous, it is a requirement that ferrous metal detector be used.
  3. Records and samples must be kept of any contamination detected, starting date, and time, product type, and the cause of resultant actions to be kept in a secure location.
  4. When a metal is detected, only supervisors or manager can reactivate the equipment. It is therefore mandatory that a Security Key Switch is used to ensure this.
  5. X-ray machine is needed where tacks are used in production (i.e. hand sewn shoes, moccasins, etc.)

Metal Detector Machine Calibration by 9 Point System

9-point testing of metal detector refers below points

  • Calibrate (Test) machine 3 times each day at the beginning, middle and end of a working period by using the 1.2mm sphere ferrous checks cards to check machine sensitivity.
  • Test at 9 points at every time
  • Test from top, Centre and bottom position in left, middle and right side of machine, total 9 points.
  • If any point not detected by machine, should recheck the point again.

Description of Needle Calibration Check

Needle Calibration check purpose to check machine sensitivity. The sensitivity should be set by passing the test sample through/at the (i) Centre (ii) Left Side (iii) Right Side of the detector. This process will be repeated by placing the test sample at a raised height, allowing the test sample to pass through the middle of the detector. The 1.2mm test sample must be kept available at all times. The detector must be tested with the 1.2mm test sample a minimum of 3 times per working session, which is defined as a shift. The test should be carried out prior to starting detection, at an intermediate point, and at the end of the session using the test sample. A record should be kept of the time and date by the supervisor. When a detector fails to detect the test sample, all merchandise that has passed through the detector since the last correctly completed test must be rechecked through the metal detector. It is good practice to be able to identify each batch of production that has passed through the detector since the last test.

  1. The Metal detector is positioned such that goods need to pass through the metal detector in order to be shipped out (finishing to packing; or packing to warehouse).
  2. Best practice is to have a magnetized station/ table where the tacks are removed; when the operator holds the lasted upper on this and pulls the tacks out, they are pulled and held in place until the operator removes them to a dedicated sharps storage container. Alternative solution is to use a magnetic /generator coils (about 12 to 15 inches in diameter) as cradles during the de-tacking process.
  3. Machines must be serviced, certified and calibrated by the Metal Detection Company or recognized 3rd party testing company.
  4. Records are to be kept.

Needle Detecting Report

Metal Detection Procedure in Apparel also Refer to-

  • Needle detection procedure in Garments
  • 9 Points calibration system
  • Product safety in Garments

Download : Needle Detection Report Format (Excel 47kb)

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

Facebook: Amirul Islam Washim
E-mail: [email protected]

Implementation of 5S in Apparel Industry

5S comes from 5 Japanese words and each of them starts with S. These are seiriseitonseisoseiketsu, and shitsuke, if we translate these 5 Japanese words into English then we get Sort, Set in Order, Shine, Standardize, and Sustain. In garment industry 5S works as a basic tool of Lean Manufacturing, a technique to set well organized, clean and visual attractive workplace. That’s why the implementation of 5S in Apparel Industry is required.

Implementation of 5S in Apparel Industry

Implementing 5’S method is a base to implement quality improvement/lean procedures. Expecting the team to be and they do activities in each department: like monitoring, evaluate and drive the aspects very clean and organized so that, your Factory will look very planned and well Set-up.

Let’s have a look at the difference in English and Japanese words for 5S

5S Implementation Meaning in English and Japanese

Basic Concepts for 5S Implementation in Apparel

S1. Sort (Seiri)

5S start with sort. Sort means to sort out unnecessary items, use all machine, tools, equipment for regular use. Define daily needed items, weekly needed items, and monthly needed items and keeping separate. Store is broken, unusable or occasionally used items also should be defined. Keep records for eliminating unnecessary items exist and new in items. Each and every section of garments you may find many things are kept in a haphazard way. So for these, you need to follow first S from the 5S, i.e Sort. Sorting according to items characteristics and importance.

S2 – Set in Order – SEITON

Setting order is important for 5S. All items, section, and area (In, exist) are clearly identified by a label and everything should be well organized. Never mix/store two category items in one place. Dividing lines, aisle mark, Stairway is clearly identified and clean as per standard. Confirm that the exits are accessible and unlocked during working hours. Confirm that, where necessary, the emergency exit doors have no panic hardware or lever style (one hand, one motion door openers). If you keep all of your store materials in your garments warehouse in a planned order basis, then whenever required that materials you can easily find out and get those materials. That’s why all materials should be kept in accordance with set in order.

5s system in garment industry

S3 – Shining – SEISO

The third S from 5S is Shine, actually mean cleanliness. All items/place of workplace Floors, walls, stairs, ceilings, pipework Racks, cabinets, shelves, Machines, equipment, tools, Stored items, materials, products and lighting everything required to be kept clean. All cleaning tools and materials are easily accessible. Cleaning assignments are defined and are being followed by checklist and hang checklist on visible board. Do periodical pest control to make sure there is no insect. Cleanliness is not only the compliance issue but also this increase the healthy working environment in garments factory or office.

Shine-3rd S-Cleaning Schedule

Download: S3: Shine, Cleaning Schedule (Excel 20kb)

S4 – Standardize – SEIKETSU

First three steps of 5S are the key to implement 5S in the workplace. This section is about visualization by Information displays, related SOPs, signs, color coding and other markings are established everywhere of the factory also included procedures for maintaining the first three S’s are being displayed. Do regular 5’s audit using a checklist, give & post rating to each area. Need formal training, keep training records to approach towards improvement. These standardizations increase the operating efficiency of the apparel industry.

5S in Apparel Manufacturing Industry Store

S5 – Sustain – SHITSUKE

This section is to sustain 5S in the textile and garments factory to be the way of life rather than just a routine. Success stories are being displayed (i.e. before and after pictures) in every section of the 5S board. Give rewards and recognition is part of the 5S system to sustain 5S.

S6 and S7(Extension of 5S)

Now, 5S have two additional points 6th “S” for “Safety” and the 7th “S’’ is “Security”. These two new points objective is to make safe workplace for all employees. It is employer’s responsibility to provide safety and security for both factory and office place in apparel industry.

Advantages of 5S for Garments

If you properly follow 5S for your textile and garments industry, then you will get following benefits:

  • Health and Safety is ensured
  • Base of implementation of quality improvement
  • Productivity Increase
  • Save time, cost and storage space
  • Minimization of accidents & mistakes
  • Increases efficiency
  • Creates workplace ownership
  • First step for Lean procedures
  • Increase customer satisfaction
  • Reduce inventory time
  • Reduce downtime, wastage
  • Good working environment
  • Visualization and labeling
  • Boost morale
  • Improve company image
  • Optimize organization and workplace as per requirement
  • Routine wise work schedule and visual Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) everywhere
  • Everybody knows their working responsibility where and when
  • Disciplined housekeeping

Implementation of 5S in Apparel Industry
5S in Sewing Section

For implementing 5S in Apparel Industry you need to follow the followings:

  1. Need central 5S committee and section wise subcommittee
  2. 5S organogram and committee list as enclosed
  3. Section wise 5S checklist
  4. 5S display board in every section
  5. Make a separate T-shirt for a committee
  6. Conduct 5s training and drive for good housekeeping
  7. Conduct section wise 5S audit and submit a report.
  8. Evaluate score and take corrective action for improvement in every department.

Actions Need to Implement 5S in Garments Industry

  1. Take “before” photographs.
  2. Check that the first three S’s are implemented properly.
  3. All team activity documents/checklists should be publicly displayed on a 5S board.
  4. Establish the routines and standard practices for regularly and systematically repeating the first three S’s.
  5. Standardize red tag procedures and holding area rules (see Seiri).
  6. Create a maintenance system for housekeeping. Make a schedule for cleaning of the workplace. A common approach is to ask a cross-functional team to do it.
  7. Inter-departmental competition is an effective means of sustaining and enhancing interest in 5S.
  8. Assign responsibility to individuals for a work area and machinery.
  9. Regular inspection/audit and evaluation by a special team (including senior management persons) to be continued.
  10. Instead of criticizing poor cases, praise and commend good practices or good performers.
  11. Take “after” photographs and post them on the 5S board(s).
  12. Give a reward for the top scoring section.

You can download Presentation File on 5S if you need.

5S Presentation: PowerPoint (6.3MB)

5S Training: PowerPoint (5.1MB)

5S Presentation (English & Bangla): PowerPoint (6.9MB)

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

Facebook: Amirul Islam Washim
E-mail: [email protected]

Trims and Accessories Inspection in Apparel

Quality of Trims and Accessories quality is very important for garments because of its added value with the final product. Trims and Accessories Inspection in apparel is required to ensure the use of right quality trims and accessories for getting quality garments, although Trims and Accessories are supplied by the third party/buyer nominated supplier. Basically, garments maker check trims quality after receiving. If there is any quality issue, then they can claim for compensation within a certain date of Trims and Accessories in-house. If GMTS maker fails to identify defects in their inspection process, then they must have to carry liability. So Trims and accessories quality plays a vital role in the apparel industry.

Trims and Accessories Inspection in Apparel Industry

Trims and Accessories Inspection in Apparel

You can have a look at the list of trims and accessories from our previous article; List of Trims and Accessories

 Most Important Items for Inspection of Trims and Accessories

  • There must have a standard Trim card which is to be approved with signature & date by the factory or buying house Merchandiser.
  • Buyer style wise PDM must present to match label/ticketing requirement and sticker.
  • And there should have Acceptable Quality Limit (AQL) Chart to follow AQL.

Trims and Accessories Inspection Procedure in Apparel Industry

For inspecting trims and accessories, following standard procedure will be followed:

  • Trims and Accessories Quality Control (QC) will check trims after in-housed by using AQL 1.5 of every lot.
  • If this particular lot fails as per AQL, QC will check 50% Trims of whole lot.
  • If QC finds more defective Trims from out of 50% check, QC will check 100% Trims (whole lot).
  • After completing the check, QC will claim supplier via merchandising
  • A claim must be done within 7 days after in-house in factory.

AQL Chart of Trims and Accessories Inspection in Apparel Industry

Trims and Accessories Quality Defect Criteria to Identify During Inspection

  • Print Mistake
  • Color Problem
  • Code Mistake
  • Fitness Problem
  • Print Spot
  • Measurement Problem
  • Size Mistake
  • Gum Nil
  • Running Color
  • PO Mistake
  • Style Mistake
  • Letter Mistake
  • Spot
  • Broken
  • Logo Mistake

Explanation of Trims and Accessories Defects

  1. Print Mistake: Any problem showing for incorrect printing. Example: color bleeding
  2. Color Problem: Used different color/shade, not match with approved trims color
  3. Code Mistake: Barcode or any types of code mistake
  4. Fitness Problem: Not found as per ordered length and width.
  5. Print Spot: Any spot only for printing
  6. Measurement Problem: Any types of measurement do not match with an approved swatch
  7. Size Mistake: When everything okay but mentioned size not correct
  8. Gum nil: If there needed gum but not found in the inspection
  9. Running Color: Different types of color in trims when one color is approved
  10. PO Mistake: When everything is okay but mentioned PO number not correct
  11. Style Mistake: When everything is okay but mentioned style not correct
  12. Letter Mistake: Used capital letter instead of small or small letter instead of capital.
  13. Spot: Any type of spot is to be considered as a defect
  14. Broken: Trims and accessories broken is a critical defect.
  15. Logo Mistake: Any problem in logo design and color.

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

Facebook: Amirul Islam Washim

E-mail: [email protected]

Job Responsibility of IE in Apparel Industry

Before appointing an industrial engineer for the apparel industry, you have to keep in mind the Job Responsibility of IE in Apparel Industry. Here IE means Industrial Engineering. The world has limited resources but day by day we need to produce more and more product. The challenge is to increase productivity by using least amount of resources. Garments industry is very much competitive. So in this competitive industry, it is a big challenge for Bangladesh or any other country to survive. We are looking for a solution where we will get more productive technology with lower cost. Industrial Engineering is all about optimization of limited resources. Generally, Optimization, Planning, and Process Control is the core work in apparel for the industrial engineering department.

Job Responsibility of IE in Apparel Industry

Nowadays IE playing the key role in the apparel industry. Industrial Engineering Job is not an easy job, always engineers need to take the challenge and bring a complete solution. The person who is responsible for industrial engineering is considered as an industrial engineer. I made a list of industrial engineering activities in the apparel industry.

Job Responsibility of IE in Apparel Industry

Major Work of Industrial Engineering in Garments

Industrial Engineering deals with the following activities:

  1. Time Study, Motion study
  2. Taking the capacity study of full-line and line balancing for clean-up bottleneck area.
  3. Methods developments & analysis as a side of quality & quantity.
  4. Follow-up the low performing Operators.
  5. Operation breakdown, Operation Bulleting / Layout
  6. SMV calculation by time study.
  7. Operator skill Summery.
  8. Train up production staff on efficiency.
  9. Process-wise operator skill development.
  10. Nonproductive time (Loss Time) record and reduce.
  11. Hourly Production Monitoring & Achieve the line Target.
  12. Prepare Man machine report.
  13. 5s implementation, Training, and Auditing
  14. Work on 7 QC tools to minimize defect.
  15. Statistical analysis for continuous quality improvement.
  16. Production Planning and control, Planning Calculations
  17. Capacity Study
  18. Production Study
  19. PDCA Cycle
  20. 7 Wastage reduce
  21. Manpower Budget Planning
  22. CPM, CM Calculation
  23. Line Cost Calculation, Floor capacity calculation
  24. SPM, EPM, PCL Calculation
  25. Reduce WIP (Work in Process)
  26. Operator, Line and floor efficiency Calculation
  27. Follow up KPI (Key points indicator) and Report
  28. Inventory Control in all section
  29. Implementation lean manufacturing tools and Six Sigma
  30. Provide Incentive for operator and Production staffs
  31. Manpower requisition and set up
  32. Eliminating excess manpower
  33. Improving Productivity through detailed analysis of process by process
  34. Smooth supply chain management from raw material to output
  35. Helping to launch TQM (Total Quality Management) system in a factory
  36. Implement traffic light system on the floor & reduced sewing defect percentage
  37. Co-ordination with merchandising
  38. Fabric & thread consumption.
  39. Garments analysis & style development for reducing costing.

Please mention in the comment box if I missed any point.

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

Facebook: Amirul Islam Washim

E-mail: [email protected]

7 QC Tools in Apparel Industry

7 QC (Quality Control) tools are very effective for apparel or any other types of the factory to solve almost every type of problem in a factory operation. These are the tools of troubleshooting quality issues, based on numeric value. 7 QC tools in apparel industry is a set of data analysis tools used to support continuous quality improvement efforts. If you can use these seven fundamental tools, then definitely quality control will be effective for your company.

7 QC Tools in Apparel Industry

  1. Histogram
  2. Check Sheet (Tally Sheet)
  3. Cause-and-Effect Diagram
  4. Pareto Chart
  5. Scatter Diagram
  6. Control Chart
  7. Stratification

7 QC Tools in Apparel Industry

Benefits of 7 QC Tools

  • Improve management decision making skills
  • Collect, present, Identify and analyses data
  • Implement Six Sigma
  • Control cost of poor quality
  • Reduce variations and improve quality
  • Reduce defects and improve production
  • Reduce cycle time and improve efficiency
  • Continuous quality improvement
  • Encourages teamwork and confidence
  • Enhances customer satisfaction through improved quality product

Explanation of 7 QC Tools for Apparel Industry

  1. Histogram

Histogram is also a bar chart. It is a graphical chart based on numeric value for showing frequency distribution of database. People become confused among Histograms and Bar Charts. A histogram is used for continuous data, where the bins represent ranges of data, while a bar chart is a plot of categorical variables. Some authors recommend that bar charts have gaps between the rectangles to clarify the distinction.

Histogram for Apparel Industry

Download: Histogram Template (excel 31kb)

  1. Check Sheet (Tally Sheet)

The Check Sheet/Tally sheet is a simple document that is used for collecting data in real time and at the location where the data is generated. The document is typically a blank form that is designed for the quick, easy, and efficient recording of the desired information, which can be either quantitative or qualitative. When the information is quantitative, the check sheet is sometimes called a tally sheet. A tally sheet to collect data on frequency of occurrences which custom designed by user.

Check Sheet or Tally Sheet

Download: Tally-sheet-template (excel 75kb)

  1. Cause-and-effect diagram (Ishikawa Diagram / Fishbone Diagram)

Cause-and-effect diagram is look like a fish that’s why it’s called Fishbone Diagram, also called Ishikawa diagram, herringbone diagrams or Fishikawa diagrams, a visualization tool for categorizing the potential causes of a problem in order to identify its root causes. Causal diagrams created by Kaoru Ishikawa that show the causes of a specific event. Dr. Kaoru Ishikawa developed the “Fishbone Diagram” at the University of Tokyo in 1943.To break down (in successive layers of detail) root causes that potentially contribute to a particular effect. This diagram is used in process improvement methods to identify all of the contributing root causes likely to be causing a problem.

How to Work on Fishbone

If you find a problem and want to make fishbone diagram. First need brainstorming about the defect to find out types of causes based on 6 basic things. These are:

  • Machine
  • Manpower
  • Environment
  • Method
  • Materials
  • Measurement

Brainstorm all the possible causes of the problem. Ask: “Why does this happen?” As each idea is given, the facilitator writes it as a branch from the appropriate category. Causes can be written in several places if they relate to several categories. For example you can see fishbone in the below:

Fishbone Diagram of QC Tools

Download: Cause and Effect diagram Template (excel 34kb)

4. Pareto Chart (80/20 Rule)

A Pareto chart is a bar graph. The lengths of the bars represent frequency or cost (time or money), and are arranged with longest bars on the left and the shortest to the right. In this way the chart visually depicts which situations are more significant.

The Pareto principle

The Pareto principle (also known as the 80–20 rule, the law of the vital few, and the principle of factor sparsity) states that, for many events, roughly 80% of the effects come from 20% of the causes. More generally, the Pareto Principle is the observation (not law) that most things in life are not distributed evenly. In apparel industry, you can see the data in the below that first 5 defects covered 50% of total defect. So 80-20 rules will not cover all-time 80% problem for 20% causes. It can mean all of the following things:

  • 20% of the defects number cumulate 80% of the total defects
  • 20% of the operator produce 80% of the defects
  • 20% of the customers create 80% of the revenue

Pareto for Apparel Industry

Pareto Chart of Cutting Defects

Download: Pareto Chart Template (excel 25kb)

5. Scatter Diagram

The scatter diagram graphs pairs of numerical data, with one variable on each axis, to look for a relationship between them. If the variables are correlated, the points will fall along a line or curve. The better the correlation, the tighter the points will hug the line. The scatter diagram Collect pairs of data where a relationship is suspected.

Scatter Diagram

6. Control Chart (Shewhart Chart)

Control charts, also known as Shewhart charts or process-behavior charts, are a statistical process control tool used to determine if a manufacturing or business process is in a state of control. A control chart shows how data frequency changes, defects trends and compares with previous time record. Control chart monitor process and hypothetical prediction. Apparel industry need to reduce defect frequency to get quality improvement.

Control Chart for Apparel

Download: Control Chart Template (excel 17kb)

7. Stratification (Divide and Conquer), can be alternative of flow chart or run chart

Stratification is a method of dividing data into subcategories and classify data based on a group, division, class or levels that helps in deriving meaningful information to understand an existing problem. The main purpose of Stratification is to divide the data and conquer the meaningful information to solve a problem. The visual nature of the chart makes patterns jump out.

Implementation of 7 QC Tools

To implement these tools in your industry, you must have to do Pareto, Fishbone for every section. Result publishes visibly in each line or area in board. People will be conscious to reduce defect. There improvement tracking on control chart also visible for each line/area. You have to find root cause from the root level for cause and effect diagram. Data and data collection must be accurate. Every section has to be taken corrective action based on quality data. Every section must do a quality meeting to take new decision for quality control at least once per month.

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

Facebook: Amirul Islam Washim

E-mail: [email protected]

KPI Factors of Garments

KPI stands for Key Performance Indicator or Key Points Indicator. This is the era of competition and we have to survive with global challenge in apparel industry. If you carefully work with Key points that is KPI Factors of Garments then surely Garments business will flourish. Management team should focus on KPI for their industry. KPI report will help you to look into the actual condition of your garments.

KPI Factors of Garments

There are many KPI factors which are directly and indirectly related with garments, specially in factory operations.

KPI Factors of Garments

KPI for Garments Cutting

Cutting efficiency: Cutting efficiency one of the most important factor. If efficiency increase in cutting section, then production will increase by using minimum number of manpower.

Month Wise Cutting EfficiencyCutting Production: Cutting production is another important factor as like Cutting efficiency. Cutting production is related with Spreading, cutting, numbering and bundling.

Month Wise Cutting ProductionDHU (Defect per Hundred Units) in cutting: In cutting, there is no way to repair defect, must replace panel as per marker with shade matching. So if DHU is high, you will be needed to rework.

Cutting delay/Input delay in sewing line: Sometime cutting and sewing not start as per plan. Only two reason behind this. If PP/Size Set or pilot run sample fail to buyer QC to meet quality standard, apparel manufacturers have remake sample and submit again to buyer QC to pass sample and get cutting approval. Sewing can be delayed for Trims and accessories delay receive from supplier.

Month Wise Input Delay Status

KPI for Sewing

Line wise Sewing efficiency: Sewing make the whole garments, so sewing efficiency is an important factor for garments industry.

Efficiency calculation: An operator was doing an operation of SAM (Standard Allowed Minute) 0.60 minutes. In 10 hours day he produces 600 pieces. So according to the efficiency calculating formula, that operator’s overall efficiency is as follows:

Efficiency (%) = [Total minute produced by an operator/Total minute attended by him *100]

Efficiency (%) = [(Total piece made X SAM of the operation)/ (Total working hour X 60) * 100]
= [(400 x 0.60) / (10 X 60)*100%]
= 240/600*100%
= 40.00%

Last Month Sewing Efficiency


The ratio among production/hour/manpower/machine is to be optimal. Every factory has self study to reduce manpower, keeping less helper with best possible production outcome.

Month Wise Production Plan of Actual Sewing

Machine Trouble/Machine downtime: Because of Machine trouble production is stopped. Machine maintenance department have to do their best effort to reduce machine downtime. Electrical problem also can be cause of Machine trouble/machine downtime.

DHU in Sewing: Defects rate also key point in garments manufacturing. Factory has to rework for repairing defects. Defect generation reduces operator’s efficiency. Factory wants to keep defects as low as possible for per hundred units.

Absenteeism: Operator absenteeism hamper sewing production, create bottleneck. Every factory target employee absenteeism rate is zero % but sometimes it may not possible to keep this percent.

No. Style change: Style change effect on productivity, efficiency, and quality. So garments manufacturer wants big lot order more rather than small quantity order for any lot.

Plan vs Actual Production Ratio: All factories have planning department to make plan for cutting, sewing, finishing and shipment to meet buyer required shipment date. Gap between plan and actual production is the reason of not meeting on time delivery.

Idle Time/Machine: Idle time is also known as loss time. For any type of reason operators are not working is considered as loss time. Common reasons for idle time are; using new layout, machine trouble, no work etc.

Operator Wise Efficiency: The best way of efficiency calculation is to calculate individual operator efficiency every day, show report weekly and train up lower efficient operator for improvement which ultimately increase the operator efficiency.

Process improvement: Industrial engineering (IE) department do time study, motion study and work study to find out SMV (Standard Minute Value), to minimize unnecessary motion for sewing operations. By this way factory save SMV time for garments manufacturing.

Operator Turnover Rate: Since sewing is the key process of apparel, sewing operator turnover percentage is important. Turnover means the number of employees got fired or left from the job and replaced in work place by new operator. If turnover rate is lower in factory then it will be better for the company.

Monthly turnover % = (Employees separated/Average number of employees during the month) *100

Example, If Employees separated = 21, Average number of employees during the month= 950

So, Monthly Turnover % = (21/950) × 100 = 2.21%

KPI for Trims and Fabrics

Claim Amount vs. Recovery Amount: According to the buyer quality standard, garments manufacture has to reject fabrics, trim if there is any quality issue. So, maker must claim for compensation by replacing or giving back their money.

Claim and Recovery Amount

KPI for Finishing, Final Audit and Shipment

Cut to Ship Quantity: As PO wise buyer order quantity cutting department try to cut extra as much as possible. It could be from 2% to 5%. GMTS reject due to different quality issue. Below data will give idea about GMTS (Garments) production flow.

Cut to Ship Quantity

Month Wise Cut to Ship Percent

Reject percentage: For some critical quality problems like wash damage, measurement out of tolerance, work hole and unrepeatable problems GMTS rejected by finishing quality team.

DHU in Finishing: Defects rate also key point in garments manufacturing. Factory has to rework for to repair defects. Finishing team have to repair whatever defect come from sewing or finishing they found. Factory wants to keep defects per hundred units as low as possible. If too many products are defected then to rework the garments may add extra cost to the product which to totally unexpected.

Final Audit Pass rate: Final Audit pass rate is the number 1 KPI factor for Garments Quality. For some buyer final audit, if fail once any PO in final Audit, Factory has to give penalty for that. Any PO fail in final audit, factory has rechecked full quantity goods again. Could imagine how much cost need to recheck, and it also does hamper running production as well.

Month Wise Final Inspection Pass Rate

Finishing Production: Finishing is the last step of apparel manufacturing. On time delivery, sea or air shipment mainly depends on finishing of production.

Finishing Efficiency: Finishing efficiency is also very important key factory. If efficiency increases, production will increase with minimum manpower and ultimately it will increase profit for the company.

Last Month Floor Wise Average Finishing Efficiency Plan

Order and Ship Ratio: Order and ship ratio should be equal at least or ship quantity could be more than order quantity since cutting quantity is more than 2% or 3% of order quantity by reducing reject %.

Last Month Shipment Analysis

Year Wise Excess Shipment Quantity

Month Wise Order to Shipment Percent

Air Ship Quantity: Two reasons are cause for air shipment. One, If Garments maker cannot meet on time delivery date then maker have to ship goods by air at his own cost. GMTS suffer huge financial loss for air shipment because the rate is more for air shipment. Number two would be merchandising reason for not sourcing raw material on time.

Month Wise Air Shipment

Templates and KPI Dashboard Presentation

You may need to present your factory KPI data with Top management or may need to report them. Here I am sharing you a complete presentation and Excel database for your convenience for free. I hope these would help you to work with KPI smoothly.

  1. KPI Presentaion-Apparel and Garments (PowerPoint) (1mb)
  2. Summary of KPI report (Excel) (1.3mb)

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

Facebook: Amirul Islam Washim

E-mail: [email protected]

Flow Chart of Apparel Dyeing

Apparel Dyeing is a process by which color is applied on apparel. Basically through the dyeing process color is applied on fabric. Dyeing is used for giving fashionable look on fabric, and using these fabric, garments manufacture denim, t-shirt, sweater, Shirt, jackets etc.

Objectives of Dyeing

  • To produce fashionable garments by changing the outlook.
  • Comparatively low cost
  • Different shade can be accepted in same batch

Basic Dyeing Process of Garments

Process Flow Garments Dyeing

Mainly dyeing process is applied on grey fabric and after completing the whole process we get colored fabric. But remember one thing that after Dyeing you have to wash your fabrics.

Flow Chart of Apparel Dyeing

Flow Chart of Apparel Dyeing

If closely see the flow process of complete Dyeing of fabric, then you may identify the following procedure. Earlier I said that Dyeing process starts with grey fabrics/garments then loading into Dyeing machine, after that pre-treatment and bleaching garments, then Dyeing, fixing (after treatment) and finally we will get finished dyed fabrics.

Flow Chart of Apparel Dyeing

Written by

Md. Mashud Rana Opurbo

Industrial Engineer.

Email: [email protected]

Cell: 01928-186429

Inventory control in Apparel and Textile Warehouse

Inventory control is crucial part of every industry.  Inventory control of Apparel, textile and fashion industry must keep inventory in their warehouse/store. Inventory control is called stock management which save cost, time and increase work efficiency of your warehouse.

Goods in warehouse in Garments

Inventory control can be defined as list of in housed, unsold and unshipped goods in organized way at the same time; balance quantity, booking quantity, shipping quantity everything I mean real status of stock/selling/shipping/moving goods.

Inventory control in Apparel and Textile Warehouse

Inventory control in Apparel and Textile Warehouse

Proper inventory control in apparel and textile warehouse will ensure market competitiveness in international market.

Goods in warehouse can be placed in three ways

  1. Raw material, to be inputted for production bought from another company
  2. Work in progress, production is running
  3. Finished goods, waiting for delivery to buyer’s destination

 Inventory of Raw materials

Inventory in Garments Industry

Maintaining Database for Inventory in Textile and Garments Industry

For controlling your inventory, you have to maintain proper database and recording system so that you can monitor the inventory status continuously. Two common practices of maintaining inventory report you may find in apparel industry:

  • Excel data base
  • ERP (Enterprise resource planning) software.

For small organization buying ERP software is sometimes creates extra burden so my suggestion for them is to use excel template which is totally from and available to download. We have developed excel (inventory management) template for your convenience. Here is some free excel template ready to download.

Benefits of Inventory

  1. Information transparency
  2. Save cost
  3. Increase efficiency
  4. Save time
  5. Data Management
  6. Beneficiary for all others departments
  7. Minimize Goods receive and delivery time
  8. Increase supply chain performance
  9. Knowing stock information in any time
  10. Organize store/warehouse

Factors of inventory report for Garments and Textile store/Warehouse

  1. Mention buyer name
  2. PO and style name
  3. Production name
  4. Product description
  5. Proforma invoice (PI) number of received goods
  6. Challan No
  7. Booking quantity
  8. Received quantity
  9. Balance quantity
  10. Delivery quantity
  11. Quality inspection status
  12. Due product
  13. Product moving log
  14. Shipment date
  15. Rejected quantity
  16. Store rack number

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

Facebook: Amirul Islam Washim

E-mail: [email protected]

Sewing Quality Control SOP

Sewing Quality Control SOP

Sewing is the key process of apparel industry. Sewing produce full garments. Cutting section just cut garments as per marker. Finishing section mainly does decorative work, add ticketing items and ironing. As Garments construct through Sewing; sewing quality control is most important factor in Apparel industry. Sewing quality team controls all the necessary quality criteria. There are some rules for controlling quality of sewing. These standard rules are well known as sewing quality standard operating procedure (SOP). Let see, what are the basic things a sewing quality controlling SOP includes:

Standard Operating Procedure of Sewing Quality Control, Sewing Quality Control SOP

Sewing Quality Controlling Standard Operating Procedure

Here is the standard operating procedure of sewing quality control

  1. Quality inspectors check sample and trim card of his process at the very beginning of a style. Inspector also checks SPI, thread, label and First Bundle specially and will have to take over his work from Quality controller for new style.
  2. Inspectors know his all measurement of his check point and will have to explain clearly if anybody ask.
  3. No defect allowed passing from QI check point and defect will be limited in one bundle in any process.
  4. Bundle cut have to maintain as per cutting report, short and mistake bundle not to pass by QC check point.
  5. Measurement tape hanging on every QI neck
  6. Every in-process report to be updated, to be signed by QC and line supervisor in every hour.
  7. Any process mistake and size mistake body go back to operation making correction.
  8. Every running style Sample and Trim card showing operation clearly displayed on each line.
  9. Every quality inspector following up machine cleaning before breaking up factory every day and 100% machine having oil card.
  10. Washed Garments not allowed keeping sewing line. If there any GMTS in sewing line, Output QI and Line QC have to handover in finishing.
  11. Every Line QC is responsible for all types of buyer requirement of his line.

You can download a common form of SOP both in Bengali and English

Sewing Quality SOP (English)

Sewing Quality SOP (Bangla)

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

Facebook: Amirul Islam Washim

E-mail: [email protected]

Sand Blasting Washing

Sand blasting is mechanical dry washing process by which AL2O3 is passing through a nozzle with the help of high speed compress air. Doll can be used for this type of washing.  Basically sand blasting is used in heavy garments like; denim, twill, Canvas, corduroy etc.

Sand Blasting Washing (SiO2)

Sand blasting is performed combine with the wash like; Bleach wash, Normal / Rinse wash, Stone enzyme wash, tinting/ dyeing, Stone wash etc.

Sand BlastingWashing

Objective of Sand Blasting

  • The main objective of sand blasting washing is to color fading from the specific surface area on the garments.
  • For making fashionable apparel.

Objective of SandBlasting

Principles of Sand Blasting

Al203 is passed through a nozzle with the help of compress air. So rubbing is occurred and color is fade from the specific area on the apparel surface.

Precaution of Sand Blasting

Proper protection is needed for operator so that any threat can be avoided

  1. Protection eye glass,
  2. Using mask,
  3. Ear plug,
  4. Should use helmet, Cap.
  5. Using apron

Procedure of Sand Blasting

A standard process flow of sand blasting washing is as flows: Close Chamber => Table => Place Apparel => Sand Blasting => Color Fading => Apparel Washing.

Sand Blasting Washing Process Flow chart

Demerits/Disadvantage of Sand Blasting

  • Not Environment friendly.
  • Health hazardous, harmful for operator.
  • There is chance of fabric damage.

Now a days Sand Blasting Washing process is isolate due to health hazardous, it may be causes cancer. On the other hand, buyers do not prefer this type of washing because of health issue.

Md. Mashud Rana Opurbo

Industrial Engineer.

Email: [email protected]

Cell: 01928-186429