Difference between Systematic and Unsystematic Risk

Difference between Systematic and Unsystematic Risk

As an investor you must know the difference between systematic and unsystematic risk because it will help you to take effective investment decision. If you observer the investment decision of an investor, you can see that their investment decision is highly influenced by their risk taking behavior. Although future is uncertain, people always try to assume how much risk may arise in future if an investment is made.

Risk is the portion of uncertainty which we can measure. Normally risk is considered the deviation between what an investor expects and in return what he/she gets.

In a broader sense risk can be categorized into two types; one is systematic risk which is non diversifiable risk and other is unsystematic risk or non-systematic risk or diversifiable risk. Let have a detail discussions of systematic risk and unsystematic risk with examples:

Systematic Risk

The percent of risk which we cannot minimize or reduce through diversification is considered as systematic risk. This means that this type of risk is impossible to eliminate by an individual. It is directly related with the market, that’s why systematic risk also known as market risk. From my point of view systematic risk is arisen from the macro economic factors (inflation, unemployment rate, oil price etc.) which is beyond our control. Only through proper economic planning of government can reduce this types of risk. One important thing you need to know that although implementation of effective economic policies by government would reduce this type of risk but it needs time to be visible in the market. That’s why we cannot consider it when taking our individual investment decisions.

examples of unsystematic riskBeta is the measure of systematic risk and market beta is always one. The reason behind market beta is to be 1 is that we cannot minimize or eliminate systematic risk by our own. Beta can be calculated through dividing the covariance between individual securities and market to the variance of market.

Beta = Systematic Risk

Examples of Systematic Risk

As we have already know that systematic risk arises because of change in macro-economic factors, for showing the example of systematic risk we will use macroeconomic factors (Inflation rate, unemployment rate, market interest, oil price and political condition).

  • Suppose market interest rate is increased, in this case if we want to borrow money from the market we have to pay more interest than previous because cost of funds increased. Individually we cannot change the market interest rate so this works as a systematic risk.
  • Increase in inflation rate, this means the buying power of money is decreased. For this reason we can buy less resource than previous. So increase in inflation works as a systematic risk which existed in the market. Only monetary policy of government can influence the inflation rate.

If there is increase in unemployment rate then people will have less money to purchase goods and services. And this will create negative impact on the business which is beyond the control of individuals.

Unsystematic Risk

Unsystematic risk also known as diversifiable risk or nonsystematic risk. This type of risk arises from the micro-economic factors which directly or indirectly related with business and through carefully managed you can eliminate this unsystematic risk.

A popular portfolio management concept is diversification, through investing in negatively correlated investment alternatives. That is invest in different companies from different industries which do not have any direct link among them. The better you manage your portfolio the lower will be your systematic risk.

As unsystematic risk is not directly related with economic system, we can manage it in a better way through taking effective decision individually and maximize our return on investment.

Examples of Unsystematic Risk

Individual industry or company related any kinds of risk is considered as unsystematic risk for the company. Examples of unsystematic risk can be:

  • Increased labor turnover rate due to dispute of payment related issues among employer and employee.
  • Increase in research and development cost of the company.
  • Increase in operational expenses.

systematic and unsystematic risk

Here in this graph you can see that systematic risk is fixed in nature, that’s why we work on with unsystematic risk to eliminate it or keep it at a lower level. If it is possible then total risk of the investment will be reduced.

Difference between Systematic and Unsystematic Risk

From the above clarification about systematic and unsystematic risk we can easily identify several difference between systematic risk and unsystematic risk of the business/investment. Here is the list of difference between systematic and unsystematic risk:

Systematic Risk

Unsystematic Risk

Systematic risk arises on account of the economy with uncertainties and the tendency of individual securities to move together with the change in the market.

Unsystematic risk is that part of risk which arises from the uncertainties and which are unique to individual securities and can be diversifiable.

Directly related with economic system of a country.

Directly not related with economic system, rather it is more about business or company related.

Systematic risk is known as non-diversifiable risk/ not diversifiable/ market risk/ macroeconomic risk.

Unsystematic risk is known as diversifiable risk, not systematic risk.

We cannot reduce this type of risk individually This type of risk can be reduced
Negatively correlated investment cannot eliminate the risk.

It is possible to eliminate the risk by forming portfolio of negatively correlated investment.

Beta is a measure of systematic risk.

Unsystematic risk is the function of may macroeconomic factors related with business.

Basically investors not try to work with systematic risk.

Investors always try to reduce this type of risk through better managing their investment.

Examples:

  • Change in market interest rate
  • Increase in inflation
  • Change in oil price
  • Unemployment rate
Examples:

  • Increase in business operational cost
  • Workers strike in the factory
  • Employee turnover

Although we cannot work with the systematic risk but we have many things to do with unsystematic risk because if we can manage it in a better way, then our business will be more profitable with lower risk. By choosing negatively related investment alternatives we can form an optimal portfolio but it is not easy task for the financial manager.  There is involvement of risk with every investment alternatives but we have to consider the systematic portion and then work with controllable factors which we actually can improve.

difference between systematic and unsystematic riskFinally, my suggestion is for you that take a time for risk analysis before any investment, otherwise you may have to incur loss. Risk always was there and will be there, so do not afraid to take challenge, think and then take a right choice.

If you have any confusion then please comment here. We will try to help you to understand. You can also comment to our facebook page

Quality Improvement Techniques in Apparel Industry

Quality Improvement Techniques in Apparel Industry or Garments Industry

As quality is one of the key success factors, managers always try to devote their effort for improving the quality of garments. In this article we will show you how quality improvement techniques in apparel industry can be ensured.  Not only productivity but also quality improvement getting most importance in apparel industry. Without ensuring quality you should not make shipment of your goods to the customer’s destination. We have seen that sometimes our valuable customers reject the goods or hang the payment because of low quality goods which is not in accordance with the specification. Although there is continuous efforts is given but there may have some problem which is not correctable/repairable. So it would be a right decision to take all precautionary measures to avoid unexpected fault of your garments and ensure right quality.

Quality Improvement Techniques in Apparel Industry

Garments Quality depends on these Quality Factors

If you want to ensure quality and continuous improvement then you have to avoid the following defects of the garments.

  1. Fabric defect
  2. Trims and accessories defect
  3. Cutting defect
  4. Construction and placement Defect
  5. Seam and Stitching Defect
  6. Finishing defect
  7. Packing defect

Let’s have a short discussion about these quality factors/matters

Fabric Defect

Fabric cost is at least 60% out of total garment Cost. Apparel Industry inspect fabric roll for quality matter. If your fabric roll fail in inspection you should return to fabric supplier and replace with the quality one. If your finished garment contains fabric defect, you are the one who will be responsible for that not fabric supplier.

Trims and Accessories Defect

Apparel industry should check all trims and accessories after in housed. If they found any problem, they should return to suppliers for replacement.

Cutting Defect

As per Running shade and Selvage report, marker will make for bulk cutting. Otherwise garments will contain part shading. All cut components should match with marker.

Construction and Placement Defect

You will sewing garments as per buyer’s approved sample for bulk production. All stitching of every process should same as sample. Different parts placement should accurate. Up-down is not acceptable.

Seam and Stitching Defect

All sewing machine should fit for sewing with accurate tension. Otherwise there are possibilities of skip stitches, puckering. Garments should be clear of some other stitching defects like: broken stitch, over stitch, down stitch, jam stitch, and joint stitch.

Finishing Defect

After pressing Garments there should be no crease mark, puckering. Keeping good appearance is also necessary for garments.

Packing Defect

There are zero tolerance any types of packing defect. Incorrect size, incorrect PO, incorrect quantity, folding defect include in packing defect. You should be careful about these defects.

Inspection

You should check your quality of 100% garments in finishing. If repairable of defective garments, you should repair it quickly as you can. Before final inspection, you can do pre-final or shadow inspection to see quality of your packed garments. If you found lots of defect in packed garments, you should re-check all garments and take effective measures to resolve the quality problem of garments.

Finally quality improvement is a continuous process that’s why you have to give your effort continuously and this will be possible through proper monitoring every steps of garments manufacturing. If you can ensure monitoring and take immediate action to resolve the defects then obviously you product quality will be improved.

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

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Types of Garments Defects

Types of Garments Defects

You may find several types of garments defects in a production process. First of all let have some idea of what basically defect is? Any variation from quality standard (QS) that affects appearance, durability, safety or fitness of a product is called defect.

 garments defects

Defects are classified into following three categories

  1. Critical Defects
  2. Major Defects
  3. Minor Defect

Critical Defects: It refers that the product is unsafe or hazardous for the end user or violate mandatory regulations.

Major Defects: Major defects can result in the product visual or performance failure, reducing its marketability or usability. Because of this defect product cannot be sold as a 1st quality. If it is possible to repair or eliminate this defect then it will be possible to upgrade that product as a first quality.

Minor Defect: If a product has minor defect then this type of product can be marketable and usable, but this will loss the standard quality. Because of this type of defects product fall short of defined specifications or quality standard.

types of garments defects

Different Types of Garments Defects

We can further classify garments defects into following categories

Construction Defects: This defects created in garments manufacturing, actually occur at the time of product construction.

Color defects: Shading problem in garments contain color defect. If there is wrong shade of color is applied on the product. Color defect is one kind of visual defect which can be the reason of reject of the product by the customers.

Fabric Defects: Garments are manufactured by using fabric. If there is any defect in the fabric then it will produce defected garments. That’s why fabric defect is surely will be visible in garments.

Trims Defect: Wrong trims and accessories considered as a trims defect.

Packing defect: Packing is very crucial and sensitive process for export garments. Choice of wrong packing materials may create defected package. On the other hand wrong size packaging also considered as defected packaging. As because there are lots of defects found in packing, caution need to be taken when packaging.

Fit and Measurement Defect: You can’t make 100% accurate garments in maintaining measurement as buyer expectation. But there are a certain tolerance of measurement, you can’t cross that limit.

I have made a list of every category defect. See in the below.

Check the following list to get idea of defects under different categories of garments defects

Different Types of Garments Defects

  1. Construction Defect

ALIGNMENT PLEAT POOR REPAIR
BARTACK MISSING POOR HEAT MELTING TWISTED LEG
BARTACK PLACEMENT OFF POOR SEAM SEALING MISSING BELTLOOP
BARTACK POOR PUCKERING WHITE SPOTS
BROKEN STITCHES RAVEL BACK ADHESION SEPARATION
BURNT MARK ROPING WRINKLED-FOOTWEAR
CONCAVE SCUFFS / BRUISED POOR LASTING
CONVEX SEE THROUGH / VISIBLE POOR ATTACHMENT-FOOTWEAR
CROOKED SEWN CAUGHT POOR MOULDED
CUT SPI INCORRECT POOR INJECTION
DEFECTIVE STICKER SPI UNEVEN LUMPY
DISTORTED STITCHES EXCESS / OVERRUN UNSTABLE-FOOTWEAR
DOWN LEAKAGE STITCHES EXPOSED POOR CLENCHED-FOOTWEAR
EXCESS FABRIC STITCHES LOOSE MISMATCHED-FOOTWEAR
EXPOSED STITCHES MISSING WATERPROOF LEAKAGE
FOLD BACK STITCHES SKIP NON-WICKING FAILED
FRAYING EDGE / RAW EDGE STITCHING INSECURE POOR ZIG-ZAG STITCHING
FULLNESS STITCHING UNEVEN DAMAGED
HI-LOW TIGHT TENSION POOR EDGE STAIN
HI-KING UNEVEN GATNERING CRACKING
HOLE UNEVEN LENGTH POOR HEEL SHAPE CURVE-FW
INCOMPLETE OPERATION UNTRIMMED THREADS HARD EDGE-FOOTWEAR
INCORRECT OPERATION WAVY STITCHING ENDS NOTLOCK-FW
INCORRECT STITCH MARGIN WIDTH VARIATION PU HYDROLYSIS
JOINT STITCHES YARN END NOT SECURED UNDER CURING – FOOTWEAR
MENDING MARK LAMINATION POOR NONUV OF CE/INJECT EVA-FW
MISSING OPERATION MISALIGNMENT VISIBLE/DEEP PARTING LINE
NEEDLE CUTS LOPSIDED CONTAMINATION – FOOTWEAR
NEEDLE HOLE PEELING OFF OFF SPEC-FOOTWEAR/EQUIPMT
NOT CUT APART EXCESS / LESS DOWN FILL WHITE SPOTS
OFF TRACK / RUN OFF NONFUNCTIONAL ARM CAN’TBE CLOSED COMPLE
OPEN SEAM LOOSING STUD GAPPING
OVERLAPPED SHIFTING WHEEL
PLACEMENT OFF ROCKING

2. Color Defect

DYE LOTS INFILTRATION
CLR COMBINATION COLOR BLEEDING
SHADE OFF YELLOWING
SHADING WITHIN PRODUCT POOR DYED COLOR SHADE
SUBLAMINATION CONTAMINATION ON WHITE/LT

3. Fabric Defect

BARRIE STREAK
BLEEDING THICK YARN
BOWING THIN YARN
BROKEN YARN UNEVEN DYE
COARSE YARN WAVY EDGE
COLOR MIGRATION YELLOWING
CREASE LINE CROSS STAIN
DELAMINATION SCAR / LEATHER
DROP STITCHES BELLY CUT / LEATHER
FABRIC DAMAGE HAIRY LONG/SHORT/LEATHER
FOREIGN YARN UNMATCHED GRAIN/LEATHER
HOLE INFERIOR QUALITY/LEATHER
INCORRECT FIBER CONTENT POOR HARDNESS/LEATHER
KNOTS SCRATCHED MARK/LEATHER
LOOPS CUT MARK/LEATHER
LOOSE YARN END DEFECTIVE MARK/LEATHER
MISSING YARN INSUFFICIENT OIL/LEATHER
NAPS POOR POLISH/LEATHER
NEEDLE LINE POOR ROUGH/GRIND/LEATHER
ODOR SMELL POOR SKIVED LEATHER EDGE
PULLING YARN SCRATCHED MARK/LEATHER
SHADE BAR / STOP MARK IMPURITY
SHADE OFF SCRATCHED
SKEWING DIFF. DEGREE OF TIGHTNESS
SLUBS PEEL OFF LACQUER
SNAGGING

4. Trims Defect

ATTACHMENT DEFECTIVE RIVET UP SIDE DOWN
ATTACHMENT INCORRECT SEAM TAPING DEFECTIVE
ATTACHMENT MISSING SEAM TAPING INCORRECT
ATTACHMENT OXIDIZED SEAM TAPING MISSING
ATTACHMENT PLACEMENT OFF SEAM TAPING PLACEMENT OFF
ATTACHMENT UP SIDE DOWN SEAM TAPING UP SIDE DOWN
BUCKLE DEFECTIVE SNAP DEFECTIVE
BUCKLE INCORRECT SNAP INCORRECT
BUCKLE MISSING SNAP MISSING
BUCKLE OXIDIZED SNAP OXIDIZED
BUCKLE PLACEMENT OFF SNAP PLACEMENT OFF
BUCKLE UP SIDE DOWN SNAP UP SIDE DOWN
BUTTON DEFECTIVE STRAP DEFECTIVE
BUTTON INCORRECT STRAP INCORRECT
BUTTON MISSING STRAP MISSING
BUTTON OXIDIZED STRAP PLACEMENT OFF
BUTTON PLACEMENT OFF STRAP UP SIDE DOWN
BUTTON UP SIDE DOWN TAG DEFECTIVE
DRAW CORD DEFECTIVE TAG INCORRECT
DRAW CORD INCORRECT TAG MISSING
DRAW CORD MISSING TAG PLACEMENT OFF
DRAW CORD PLACEMENT OFF TAG UP SIDE DOWN
DRAW CORD UP SIDE DOWN THREAD DEFECTIVE
ELASTIC DEFECTIVE THREAD INCORRECT
ELASTIC INCORRECT THREAD MISSING
ELASTIC MISSING THREAD PLACEMENT OFF
ELASTIC PLACEMENT OFF THREAD UP SIDE DOWN
ELASTIC UP SIDE DOWN VELCRO DEFECTIVE
EYELET DEFECTIVE VELCRO INCORRECT
EYELET INCORRECT VELCRO MISSING
EYELET MISSING VELCRO PLACEMENT OFF
EYELET OXIDIZED VELCRO UP SIDE DOWN
EYELET PLACEMENT OFF WHEEL DEFECTIVE
EYELET UP SIDE DOWN WHEEL INCORRECT
HANDLE DEFECTIVE WHEEL MISSING
HANDLE INCORRECT WHEEL OXIDIZED
HANDLE MISSING WHEEL PLACEMENT OFF
HANDLE OXIDIZED WHEEL UP SIDE DOWN
HANDLE PLACEMENT OFF ZIPPER DEFECTIVE
HANDLE UP SIDE DOWN ZIPPER INCORRECT
HOOK & EYE DEFECTIVE ZIPPER MISSING
HOOK & EYE INCORRECT ZIPPER OXIDIZED
HOOK & EYE MISSING ZIPPER PLACEMENT OFF
HOOK & EYE OXIDIZED ZIPPER UP SIDE DOWN
HOOK & EYE PLACEMENT OFF POLY BAG INCORRECT
HOOK & EYE UP SIDE DOWN POLY BAG MISSING
LABEL DEFECTIVE POLY BAG DAMAGED
LABEL INCORRECT POLY BAG LABEL INCORRECT
LABEL MISSING POLY BAG LABEL MISSING
LABEL PLACEMENT OFF POLY BAG LABEL DAMAGED
LABEL UP SIDE DOWN POLYBAG LABEL PLACE’T OFF
PATCH DEFECTIVE INFERIOR HF WELDED/PEELOF
PATCH INCORRECT LOOP/D-RING INSECURE
PATCH MISSING EYELET CRACKAGE-FOOTWEAR
PATCH PLACEMENT OFF MALFUNCTION BOA
PATCH UP SIDE DOWN BROKEN LACE TAG
POLE DEFECTIVE MISALIGNED BOA EYESTAY
POLE INCORRECT INCORRECT CABLE LENGTH-FW
POLE MISSING MALFUNCTIONING FIT AID SY
POLE OXIDIZED POORLY SECURED PLASTIC SC
POLE PLACEMENT OFF MISSING LOGO
POLE UP SIDE DOWN DEFECTIVE LOGO
RIVET DEFECTIVE INCORRECT LOGO
RIVET INCORRECT OFFPLACED LOGO
RIVET MISSING RIVET PLACEMENT OFF

5. Packing Defect

CARTON DAMAGED MISSING TAG
CARTON PROTUBERATED MIXED COLOR
CARTON QUALITY POOR MIXED PO#
CARTON SIZE INCORRECT MIXED SIZE
CASE LABEL CORRECTION OVER WEIGHT
CASE LABEL INCORRECT INCORRECT TAG
INCORRECT BARCODE INCORRECT GMT PACKED
INCORRECT COLOR INCORRECT POLYBAG PRINT
INCORRECT COUNT MISSED SELICA GEL
INCORRECT FOLDING INCORRECT INNER BOX
INCORRECT SHIPPING MARK MISMATCHED ODD PAIR-FOOTW
INCORRECT SIZE MISS SHOE TREE SUPPORT-FW
INCORRECT PO# INFERIOR POLYBAG
MISSING DETACHABLE ACCESY EMPTY INNER BOX
MISSING GARMENT TEST REPT MISSED HANGER
MISSING PLASTIC STRAP TORN/DAMAGED/WRINKLED LAB
MISSING STICKER POOR ADHESION OF LABEL
MISSED SHOES DIRT MARKS

6. Fit and Measurement Defect

After crossing certain limit garments measurement, there will be defect. There are defined measurement of all parts of garments. I have make an example how measurement up down expressing:

– 1 1/4″ – 3/8″
 – 1 1/2″  – 5/8″
 – 1 3/4″  – 7/8″
 – 2″  – 1 1/8″
 – 2 1/4″  – 1 3/8″
 – 2 1/2″  – 1 5/8″
 – 2 3/4″  – 1 7/8″
 – 3″  – 2 1/8″
 – MORE THAN 3″  – 2 3/8″
 + 1/4″  – 2 5/8″
 + 1/2″  – 2 7/8″
 + 3/4″  + 1/8″
 + 1″  + 3/8″
 + 1 1/4″  + 5/8″
 + 1 1/2″  + 7/8″
 + 1 3/4″  + 1 1/8″
 + 2″  + 1 3/8″
 + 2 1/4″  + 1 5/8″
 + 2 1/2″  + 1 7/8″
 + 2 3/4″  + 2 1/8″
 + 3″  + 2 3/8″
 + MORE THAN 3″  + 2 5/8″
 – 1/8″  + 2 7/8″

 

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

Facebook: Amirul Islam Washim

Phone: +8801929643301
E-mail: [email protected]

If you like this article please do not forget to share on facebook and put your valuable comment.

Purchase Order Sheet of Garments Manufacturing

Purchase Order Sheet of Garments Manufacturing

Purchase Order sheet is simply known as PO sheet. Purchase order sheet of garments manufacturing (PO sheet) is commonly used important document for Garments Manufacturing. Basically purchase order sheet contains the information of confirmation of buyer order. To clarify some important manufacturing and technical issues buyer has to provide PO Sheet. In a PO sheet there may have information of product style, PO number, fabric cost, trims cost, garments unit cost, order quantity, shipment date, shipment destination and many others important things.

purchase order sheet of garments manufacturing

Purchase Order (PO) sheet is necessary for every department of Apparel Industry. Without PO sheet you will not be able to know about your shipment date, shipping destination, over ship or under ship tolerance, payment term. That’s why this document (PO sheet) is such an important.

Information Include in Purchase Order (PO)

Considering the importance of this document I have made a list of basic information which may include in PO Sheet.

  1. PO Number
  2. Style/Lot Number
  3. Order Quantity
  4. Shipment Date
  5. Unit Cost
  6. Total Cost of that PO
  7. Factory Name
  8. Vendor Name
  9. Shipping Address
  10. Overseas Port reach Date
  11. Sourcing Agent
  12. Shipment Terms
  13. LC Number
  14. Fabric Supplier Name and Code
  15. Fabric Content
  16. EXIT COUNTRY PORT
  17. Trims and Accessories cost
  18. Product Category
  19. Season
  20. Description
  21. Goods Description
  22. Size wise Order Quantity
  23. Transaction Policy
  24. Payment Terms
  25. Necessary Instruction
  26. Terms and Conditions
  27. Overship Tolerance
  28. Undership Tolerance

Explanation of key terms of Purchase Order

Following explanation may help you to understand the key terms of PO sheet

PO Number: PO number is unique purchase order number which is fixed by buyer.

Style: As per garments category or Color buyer separated by different style name.

Season: Buyer divide a year in 3 or 4 or more seasons as per overseas weather and their consumer demand.

Unit Cost: Unit cost mean cost of single garments. It can be FOB, Cnf or C.I.F.

Goods Description: Description about goods which can be long or short. Top or Bottom wear.

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

Facebook: Amirul Islam Washim

Phone: +8801929643301
E-mail: [email protected]

Pre Production Meeting in Apparel Industry

Pre Production Meeting in Apparel Industry

Pre production meeting is known as PP meeting in Garments/Apparel industry. In pre production meeting in apparel industry, discussion of every important issues related with bulk production is done, so that respected parties can ensure successful shipment of ordered goods. What kind of precautionary measures that need to be taken by the company is being set in PP meeting.

Pre Production Meeting in Apparel Industry

Working Procedure of Pre Production Meeting

  1. Make a plan of bulk Production
  2. Make layout
  3. Review PP sample/Size set sample/ 1st Production.
  4. Discussing all process parameter of every section.
  5. Review all checklist of PP meeting.
  6. Giving special instruction for bulk production.
  7. Find out all construction and structural defects of PP sample/Size set/1st production

Merchandiser confirm that all necessary items are already in housed for finished garments.

Some Important Documents to Present in PP Meeting

  • Purchase order sheet (PO Sheet)
  • Fabric inventory Report
  • Trims and Accessories inventory Report
  • Shade Grading Report
  • Shrinkage Report
  • Fabric Inspection Report
  • Trims and Accessories inspection Report

Attendances of Parties in Pre Production Meeting

PP meeting can be held in buying house or factory or in both. These respective person need to be present in Pre-Production Meeting:

  1. Buying QC
  2. Merchandiser
  3. Technical Team
  4. Head of Warehouse
  5. Head of cutting
  6. Head of Sewing
  7. Head of Finishing
  8. Production Representative/PM
  9. Quality Representative
  10. Industrial Engineer

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

Facebook: Amirul Islam Washim

Phone: +8801929643301
E-mail: [email protected]

What is Woven Fabric Features of Woven Fabric

What is woven Fabric Features of Woven Fabric

Many people looking for the answer what is woven fabric features of woven fabric, for this reason i tried to explain this in a easiest way so that you can understand it in a better way. Basically woven is produced by weaving process in loom. In manufacturing Structure of Woven fabric, it is made by interlacement of Warp and Weft yarn. Warp yarn is used in lengthwise and weft yarn in used in width-wise.

There are three structural design of woven fabric. These are

  1. Plain weave
  2. Twill Weave
  3. Stain Weave

Woven fabric construction

Basic Construction of Woven fabric is used as = (Ends per inch X Picks per inch)/ (Warp count X Weft Count) X Width.

As per example,

If, EPI (Ends per inch) = 128

PPI (Picks per inch) =64

Warp Count=30

Weft Count=20

Fabric width=60

So fabric construction will be = (128X60)/ (30X20) X 60

what is woven fabric features of woven fabric

Features of Woven fabric

  1. It is produced in Weaving
  2. Both Warp and Weft yarn is used in Woven fabric manufacturing
  3. It is more durable than knit and non-woven fabric
  4. Fabric width generally 59/60/61 inch
  5. Generally no stretch-ability in woven fabric
  6. Generally woven fabric in made by plain, twill or stain weave.
  7. usually smooth
  8. Iron in medium temperature

Different types of woven fabrics

  • Twill Fabric
  • Denim
  • Gabardine
  • Georgette
  • Oxford Fabric
  • Velvet
  • Khadi
  • Dobby Fabric
  • Solid Fabric
  • Grey fabric
  • Muslin
  • Organdy
  • Poplin
  • Voile
  • Bedford Cord
  • Chiffon
  • Canvas
  • Calico
  • Cambric
  • Drill
  • Jamdani
  • Gabardine
  • Linen
  • Ninon
  • Flannel
  • Y/D Fabric
  • S/D Fabric
  • T/C Fabric
  • Tappet
  • Printed Fabric
  • Brushed fabric
  • Pocketing Fabric
  • Wild silk
  • Warp Printing
  • Waxed Cotton

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

Facebook: Amirul Islam Washim

Phone: +8801929643301
E-mail: [email protected]

Top Garment Buyers of Bangladesh

List of Top Garment Buyers of Bangladesh

Now Bangladesh is one of the largest RMG exporters serving in the world. In recent time, Bangladesh is developing their apparel sector. Top garment buyers of Bangladesh; RMG (Ready Made Garments) buyers of Bangladesh are mainly from USA, UK, Canada, Australia, Switzerland, Italy, France, and from entire Europe continent and many other countries. Bangladesh apparel industry is growing so rapidly because of lower cost of production with capacity to produce quality goods. We have acquired expertise to produce according to the buyers demand around the world that’s why our market demand is increasing day by day. Because of easier communication system buyers from the European countries contact with garment product sellers and they get quick response because we have higher interest to serve the buyers according to their demand.

Top Garment Buyers of Bangladesh

I have tried to make a list of top garment buyers of Bangladesh so that you can get the idea of who are the main buyers of garments. This article will be helpful for the merchandisers or any other person is interested to engage in exporting garments. If you are a merchandiser of local or multinational company located in Bangladesh then this will definitely help you to get the buyers name and contact with them. So that you can increase your company’s total exporting.

Here is the list of top Garments buyers of Bangladesh from around the world

  1. H&M
  2. Wal-Mart
  3. Li & Fung
  4. Adidas
  5. Levis
  6. VF Asia
  7. Nike
  8. GAP
  9. Tesco
  10. C&A
  11. Target
  12. ASDA
  13. .Next
  14. Zara
  15. Old Navy
  16. PVH
  17. S. Oliver
  18. Puma
  19. K-mart
  20. M&S
  21. BHS
  22. Mother care
  23. Wool-worth
  24. Otto
  25. American Eagle
  26. US polo
  27. Tom Tailor
  28. European Eagle
  29. IC Company
  30. New look
  31. Banana
  32. Tema
  33. Terco
  34. Tally
  35. Peri Ellis
  36. Hugo boss
  37. Esprit
  38. Fashion link
  39. Reebok
  40. Armani
  41. First textile
  42. G-star
  43. NKD
  44. Decathlon
  45. Carretow
  46. Carrefour
  47. Laredoute
  48. Lindex
  49. Vertbaudet
  50. Uniquelo
  51. Best Seller
  52. Promod
  53. Black Berry
  54. Tom tailor
  55. New look
  56. Ramond
  57. Up-2-date
  58. Damart
  59. ITC
  60. Mahindra
  61. P. P.-Tex
  62. F.G
  63. Umbro
  64. Asmara
  65. Ed Ward wang
  66. Esprit
  67. Erima
  68. Spider
  69. Greenville
  70. MB Fashion
  71. Maskos
  72. Gastrok
  73. Maxim
  74. OBS
  75. Texco
  76. Multiline
  77. DR & S
  78. Katag
  79. Colince
  80. Octagon
  81. Cream Soda
  82. Trig Lobe
  83. Shobi Fashion
  84. Kiabi
  85. Brice
  86. Sumi tomo
  87. Algodon
  88. Zaogora
  89. Vood Bridge
  90. Air Soluation
  91. Evrozon
  92. Ginkana
  93. Lion star
  94. TKI
  95. Ulla popken
  96. New Yorker
  97. Terma tex
  98. Mister & Lady
  99. BTX
  100. Q. Solution
  101. Jules
  102. Delta plus
  103. EWM
  104. Hema
  105. Neck & Neck
  106. Momo prix
  107. YSL
  108. Carrera
  109. Giordano
  110. Quick Silver
  111. Inter sport
  112. Etam
  113. Shobey
  114. Women secret
  115. B. Young
  116. Matteo
  117. Liugo
  118. Pierre Cardin
  119. Francesca
  120. Mustang
  121. Silvian Heach
  122. Spring Field
  123. Gor Factory
  124. Sains Burry
  125. P&C
  126. Mexx
  127. KHOL’S
  128. JCP
  129. CK
  130. 3 Suisse’s
  131. South Pole
  132. V&D
  133. Guess
  134. Jack & Jones
  135. Mango (Turnkey)
  136. River Island
  137. Wallis
  138. Topshop
  139. Matalan
  140. Primark
  141. Debenhams
  142. Helly Hansen
  143. John Lewis
  144. Dunnes Store
  145. Heaton”s
  146. Securex
  147. Jacadi
  148. Kitaro
  149. Car Erra
  150. Catch Catch
  151. Sears
  152. Hot Source
  153. Beniton

If you know other than these buyers name then please let us know through your valuable comment. We are eagerly waiting for your response. Hope this article will enrich your knowledge about who are the top garments buyers of Bangladesh.

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

Facebook: Amirul Islam Washim

Phone: +8801929643301
E-mail: [email protected]

Buying House Interview Questions

Commonly Asked Buying House Interview Questions

Are you looking for job in Buying House? This article may help you to have some idea of buying house interview question. If you want to get employed in buying house or any other multinational company, you have to face interview. The question pattern may vary company to company, job to job or intention of the interviewers. I have tried to accumulate some commonly asked question by the interviewer, so that you can prepare yourself mentally. For accumulating all these 26 questions, I have talked with several people who are now working in buying house and faced these types of interview before getting their jobs. In addition to this I also used my own interview experience of getting my job.

Commonly Asked Buying House Interview QuestionsMost commonly asked questions for buying house interview are:

  1. Tell me about yourself/ Introduce yourself (For experienced and Fresher)
  2. Tell me which is not written in your CV you want to share with us
  3. Why you want to change your current job? (For experienced employee)
  4. Why you changed your previous job?
  5. What is your career goal?
  6. What is your career objective?
  7. What is your career achievement? (For experienced employee)
  8. What is your home district?(Common question in Bangladesh)
  9. What is your strong side?
  10. What is your weakness?
  11. Why you want to work here?
  12. What is your current salary? (For experienced employee)
  13. What is your specialty in this sector?
  14. What do you know about our company?
  15. What is your dream job?
  16. Why should we hire you?
  17. What is your expected salary? (Is it negotiable)
  18. How did you hear about your position?
  19. Where you want to see yourself after 5 year?
  20. How you will handle pressure in this position?
  21. How you manage your working hour?
  22. How many years do you want to work here?
  23. Why you prefer to work in this sector?
  24. What is your aim about our company?
  25. What is your main responsibility in your current job?
  26. When you like to join here? (If they choose you)

Note: Interviewer will not give you second chance to answer your question so be careful when you are answering. Get prepared yourself before attending our job interviews and arrange all these questions answer in your mind so that you can answer them fluently.

One important thing is, listen carefully what interviewer is saying and after finishing, then you answer the questions. Do not interrupt when interviewer asking your questions.

Try to be positive and never say anything which can create bad impression about you to the employers/ interviewers.

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

Facebook: Amirul Islam Washim

Phone: +8801929643301
E-mail: [email protected]

If you like this article please do not forget to share on facebook and put your valuable comment.

Visual Merchandising Implementation Techniques

Visual Merchandising Implementation Techniques and Its Importance in Retail Apparel Showrooms

This is the article about visual merchandising implementation techniques and importance of the visual merchandising in apparel retail showrooms. Through implementing these techniques you can increase the sales rate and increase the visitors. Visual   merchandising   is   a   process   of   enhancing   and embellishing   of a   product   or   brands   to   attract   the   customer   by   the   way of display. Here window display is shown in the figure: 1

Visual Merchandising Implementation Techniques and Its Importance in Retail Apparel ShowroomsObjective of Visual Merchandising

By visual merchandising it helps our showroom or   retail shop looks tidy and neat. It avoids the time taken for product searching and confusion of products for customers. It also increases the customer visit to the shops and showrooms. Also promote new brand and new product in market.

visual merchandising objectives

Tools and Techniques used for Visual Merchandising

There are lot of tools used for Visual merchandising. Such as

  • Lights
  • Mannequins
  • Marquees
  • Banners
  • Sound
  1. LIGHTS

Lighting’s are a powerful tool of visual merchandising between retailer and consumer. Some various types of   lights are used in visual merchandising. Spot light and focus light is used in ceilings. Ceiling height will be varying with different showrooms or shops. In warehouse or discount mass merchant   the ceiling or mounting height will be in high level. In department stores or specialty have the medium ceiling height .In boutique and designer showrooms the ceiling height will be low. The spot light ceiling is used to express the bright color products. The focus light ceiling is used to expose light color product as bright. The LED lights are used for display and decorative purpose.

  1. MANNEQUINS

There are several types of mannequins used in retail shops and showrooms.

  • Natural mannequins
  • Faceless mannequins
  • Headless mannequins
  • Abstract mannequins
  • Bendy mannequins
  • Leg mannequins
  • Head mannequins

Natural mannequins: These type of mannequins looks like a real human being. It poses like human beings. These types of mannequins are mostly made up of wax.

Faceless mannequins: It is a type of mannequin which is like faceless. They have a blank face doesn’t have any emotions in their face. It is mostly in black and fleshed skin colour. These mannequins are used in display of ladies lingerie like brassieres etc.

Headless mannequins: This is one type of mannequins which doesn’t have the head. it is mostly used to display wigs, clothes, bags, shoes…etc.

Abstract mannequins: It’s a type of mannequins which is unique from others. It is made up of glass fibre material.

Bendy mannequins: It is very flexible mannequins with adjustable body parts and it is easy to dislocate parts to wear the garment. We can make different type desirable poses according to garment with bendy mannequins.

Leg mannequins: These are mannequins of mid –thigh to foot. This type is used in stockings display.

Head mannequins: These are mostly used to display wigs and fancy hats.

  1. MARQUEES

This is a special type of tool used to display brand name or store name in exterior and interior. It helps in identification of store or brand.

  1. BANNERS

It helps in background   presentation of a product.

  1. SOUND

Sound doesn’t comes under visual, but it also correlation with visual merchandising. This gives pleasant environment to customer while purchasing. Mild music and karoke are used in retail showrooms and shops.

Visual Merchandising Techniques used in Retail Showrooms

  • Creating themes and stories
  • Blocking
  • Co-ordination
  • Triangular formation
  • Signage

Creating Themes and Stories

It is a type of technique in visual merchandising, to attract customers and get a best result. Theme or story should be simple and easy to understand. If we are using words to express our theme or stories, too much of words will get bored to customer.

Blocking

Blocking is a technique of separating the products in shelves. In blocking garments may be in plies or hankering. By blocking technique the customer can easily purchase their desirable product easily.

Coordination

In this technique one main   product joined and coordinates some match able sub-products.     Ex:   For  displaying casual wear accessories like hand –bags, shoes are used.

Triangular Formation

It is technique which seems like triangle. The main product and low quantity product is in top and sub product of medium quantity is in middle and more quantity in lower.

Signage

Exposing the logo or brand label in product is signage. By signage it’s easy to identify brand and size.

Types of Visual Merchandising

There are two types of visual merchandising method followed in India. These are

  1. Product merchandising
  2. Departmental merchandising

Product Merchandising

In this, only one product is merchandised. It can be one product showroom. Ex: In a bag showroom bag can be only displayed.

Departmental Merchandising

Arrangement in each department is known as departmental merchandising.

Factors Affect Visual Merchandising

  • Traffic of products will make confusion in products and irritation.
  • Same and repetitive display will bore the customer.
  • Unpleasant smell and uncomforted aisle will affect the neat display

Some Eco Friendly Visual Merchandising

Some Eco Friendly Visual Merchandising

Here the draping done by using papers and tree leaves for attracting customer and get in them to shop. This draping done by students of Angel college of Engineering and Technology, Tirupur.

Conclusion

According to visual merchandising, the above is about tools, techniques, and factors are used to expose the display. Visual merchandising is a visual communication between retailer and consumer to make them purchase. In India Visual merchandising is done according to festivals. And the theme and story is also based on festival. It will surely help to increases the sales rating in showroom also increases the visitors of the apparel retail showrooms.

AUTHORS BIOGRAPHY

V.GUNA POORANA JYOTHI

The author is currently an undergraduate student at the Department of Fashion Technology, Angel college of Engineering and Technology, Tirupur.

HerArea of interest is visual merchandising.

Email:[email protected]

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Garments Quality Standard

Garments Quality Standard

Garments Quality Standard is now one of the most important factors that need to be maintained as because people are now more conscious about the quality of garments. The quality standards may vary company to company, market to market, but there is some common quality standard which all garments always try to maintain. Here I am going to share a list of defects which must be avoided to ensure minimum Quality Standard for garments:

Garments Quality Standard

  1. Garments should not have these defects

  • Needle cuts
  • Holes
  • Slabs
  • Snags
  • Open seams
  • Broken stitches
  • Puckering
  • Raw edges
  • More than one skipped stitch
  1. Garments should avoid these manufacturing defects

  • Defective Stitching
  • Untrimmed or loose threads
  • Pills
  • Cleaning solution
  • Embroidery hoop marks
  • Stain or soils
  • Part Shading
  • Any unrelated operation
  • Pleats in any seaming
  • Contain dirt, Lint
  • Uneven seam
  • Insecure stitch
  • Pinked edge
  • Uneven tension
  1. Some Defect must avoid in Finished Garments

  • Fabric Fold marks
  • Center crease
  • Any Fabric defect
  • Unspecified color, shade and cast
  • Sleeves or legs shall be twisted
  • Improper pressed
  • All tape or stickers other than inspection stickers inside the garment
  • Clip or clamp
  • Wrinkles, creases or other signs of poor pressing
  • Pressing marks shine, scorching or burn marks
  • Unnatural creases or folds
  • Wavy or puckered seams
  • Appearance of Repairing

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

Facebook: Amirul Islam Washim

Phone: +8801929643301
E-mail: [email protected]

If you like this article please do not forget to share on facebook and put your valuable comment.