Basic Operation in Blow Room

Blow Room: There are some methods of opening the mass of fibres into small tufts before further processing. This process of opening & clean is knows as blow room process. Blow room consists of a number of m/c degree 40% to 70% trash is removed in this section.

basic operation in blow room

Blow Room

Objects of Blow Room Process

  1. To open the compressed layer of bale of cotton or any staple fibers with minimum damage to the fibers.
  2. To remove the impurities like sand, seed, bits, neps & short fibers present in the cotton with minimum loss of lint by opening & blending.
  3. To effect a through blending with minimum neps formation.
  4. To convert the mass of cotton fibres into a uniform thick sheet of cotton both longitudinally & transversely &fed as it in the case of chute feed system or wound in the form of a compactly built lap with minimum lap rejection.
  5. Intensive de-dusting of cotton fibres to extract micro-dust in order to improve the working of opened spinning m/c.
  6. Fibre recovery from the waste produced by the various processes the conversion of fibre to yarn in order to reduce the consumption of raw material.

Basic Operation in Blow Room

  1. Opening

    1. Opening is the first operation required carried out to the stage of flocks in the blow room & to the stage individual fibres in the card flock weight can be reduced to about 0.1mg in the room.
  1. Cleaning

    1. The blow room cannot eliminate all or even almost all of the foreign matter in the raw material.
    2. A blow room installation removes approximately 40% to 70% of the impurities.
    3. The result is dependent on raw material on the m/c s & on environment.
  1. Dust removal

    1. Dust removal is not easy operation since the dust particles are completely enclosed in the flocks & hence are back during suction.
    2. The suction units remove dust 64 dust removal will more intensive the smaller the flocks.
  1. Blending

    1. Fibers can be blending at various stages of the process. These possibilities should always be exploited.
    2. The start of the process is one of most important stages for blending.
    3. Intensive blending in a suitable blending m/c must be carried out after separate flock extraction from individual bales of layout.
    4. This blending operation must collect the sequentially arriving bunches of fibers from individual bales & mixes them thoroughly.
  1. Even feed of material of the card

    1. Finally the blow room must ensure that raw material is evenly delivered to the cards. Previously, this was carried out by means of precisely weighed laps from the scutcher, but automatic flock feeding installations are increasingly being used.
    2. While in the introductory phase such installations were subject to problem regarding evenness of flock deliver, today they generally operate well or at least adequately.

Written by

Engineer Sheikh Nurja

B.Sc engineer of textile

Merchandiser at buying house

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Top Textile Universities in Bangladesh

We have conducted a survey to draw a conclusion about the ranking of top textile Universities in Bangladesh. Basically, we collect data from those who are active in the social network. Total 633 people participate in this survey; most of them are textile engineering students and textile engineers. Out of this 62% of participants are the student of textile, 29% textile engineers, 6% student from other background and 3% from different sectors.

survey of top textile engineering universities

We have done this survey for the first time in Bangladesh. Students interested to study in textile are always seeking for the true information about the top textile universities in our country. This article will help you to get information about the top textile universities both private and public universities and institutions. We hope that this report will help you to have some ideas about the true ranking of textile universities.

top textile universities in bangladeshTop Textile Universities in Bangladesh

  1. Bangladesh University of Textiles
  2. Ahsanullah University of Science & Technology
  3. BGMEA University OF Fashion & Technology
  4. Bangabandhu Textile Engineering College
  5. Dhaka University of Engineering & Technology
  6. Chittagong Textile Engineering College
  7. Begumgonj Textile Engineering College
  8. Pabna Textile Engineering College
  9. Mawlana Bhashani Science and Technology University
  10. BGMEA University OF Fashion & Technology
  11. Khulna University of Engineering & Technology
  12. Daffodil International University

Top Private Textile Universities in Bangladesh

  1. Ahsanullah University of Science & Technology
  2. BGMEA University OF fashion & Technology
  3. South East University
  4. City University
  5. Daffodil International University
  6. Primeasia University
  7. University of South Asia, Bangladesh
  8. Green University of Bangladesh
  9. European University of Bangladesh
  10. National Institute of Textile Engineering and Research

Top Public textile Universities in Bangladesh

  1. Bangladesh University of Textiles
  2. Dhaka University of Engineering & Technology
  3. Bangabandhu Textile Engineering College
  4. Chittagong Textile Engineering College
  5. Pabna Textile Engineering College
  6. Mawlana Bhashani Science and Technology University
  7. Begumgonj Textile Engineering College
  8. Khulna University of Engineering & Technology

Although this study is conducted through online survey of 633 people, there is a limitation that only active users of social network participate in this survey. So in some cases the ranking may not be 100% accurate.

From this study, we also found that there are a less number of female students studying textile engineering compared with the male student. Only 10% of female participated in our survey of top textile universities in Bangladesh.

male and female textile engineers

We hope that this article will help you to get the idea about the position of textile universities and institutions.

If you like this article then please does not forget to leave your valuable comment and share on facebook so that your friends also can know about the position of textile universities and institutions.

Pattern Making in Garments

Pattern is a hard paper which is made by following each individual component for a style of garments. The appearance and fit of garments is highly dependent on each process. In the development of a garment pattern making is one of the most important step.

Pattern making in garments depends on the

  • Skill of the person
  • Technological Knowledge.
  • Analysis of design
  • Experience of garments making
pattern making in garments

Pattern Making Step

  1. Block pattern or Basic block
  2. Working or garment pattern

Block pattern or Basic block

Block pattern or basic block is individual component of garments without any design or style. It is produced according to exact dimension of standard body measurement where no allowance is considered.

Block patterns are made in two ways

a) Flat method

b) Modeling

Flat method

In Flat method the pattern of different parts of garments especially body and sleeve are made by technical drawing.

  • In technical drawing, the rule and application of method of body measurement and its ratio depends on pattern maker.
  • This type of pattern can be made by computer. In this case, the program of pattern of pattern making is stored in computer disk.
  • This method actually comes from modeling method.
  • This is a fast pattern making method.


Modeling method is primary and first method of pattern making. Till now this method is used widely in apparel industry.

  • In modeling method, Block is made with standard body measurement of dummy is called Toile. Toile is worn on the body of dummy to check fittings.
  • Then toil is worn out from the body of dummy and individual parts of toile are drawn on hard paper or board paper.
  • This method is the most efficient method of pattern making but required more time in this method.

Garments pattern

  • On the basis of block pattern or basic block Garments pattern is made. Individual block pattern are drawn on hard paper or board paper.
  • Sewing allowance, trimming allowance, button whole allowance, dart, and pleat is considered. Individual patterns are made for individual parts of garments.
  • In the pattern, grain line is showed by arrow.
  • After drawing of pattern, working pattern is separated from board paper by knife.
  • Size and name of individual parts are written on every part.
  • Simple garments are made from working pattern.

Written by

Engineer Sheikh Nurja

B.Sc engineer of textile

Merchandiser at buying house

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Blending in Spinning Mill

Blending may be defined as a condition in which every fibre characteristic is found in the same proportion as in the original blending within every unit cross section of the yarn .Fibre blending has been practiced since the beginning of the cotton textile industry due to the variation in the physical properties of cotton fibres like scrapple length, fineness, strength & cleanliness.

Blending in Spinning Mill

blending in spinning millObjects of blending

  • To achieve uniform quality of product for a longer duration.
  • To improve processing performance, increase yarn strength.
  • To reduce & control cost of production.
  • To facilitate the cotton for regaining its moisture content lost during baling.

Blending procedure

Stages in Blending operation, Blending is carried our three stages:

  • Metering determination & precise establishment of quantities of the individual components.
  • Mixing that is bringing together of the metered quantities.
  • Intermingling distributing the components evenly in the body of fibres.

Types of blending operation

Blending type     

Process stage

Bale Mixing Before the blow room
Flock blending Within the blow room
Lap blending By using scatters
Web blending At the ribbon-lap m/c or the blending
Sliver blending At the D/F,the sliver-lap m/c the comber
Fibre blending At the card or the OE- spinning m/c
Roving blending At the Ring Spinning m/c

Blending Techniques

To achieve homogeneous blend the following techniques were adopted.

  • Lap Blending
  • Card Blending.
  • Bin Blending.
  • Hand-stock Blending.
  • D/F Blending.
  • Massive Blending.

Here detailing about some common technique of blending

Lap blending

The blending technique is still used successfully to permit the blending of cotton of contrasting fiber properties to produce a variety of end users. A doubling scutcher is requires, this has a conveyor lattice in feed on which from four to six laps could be laid. The lap sheets from these laps passed doubled through a beater position followed by pair of cages &lap winding device.

Advantage of Lap blending

Procedure very good transverse blends & also a good longitudinal blend.

  • It is very easy process.

Disadvantages of Lap blending

  • Blend proportions are limited.
  • Need for control of lap wt.

Card Blending

Blending by doubling with laps at the card is sometimes used in high production cards. The procedure involves use of a double lap roll attachment whose feed rolls are positively driven by a link chain by the regular lap roll gear.

Advantages of Card Blending

  • Most intimate blend is obtained.
  • This method is used to randomly mix two laps differing in color.

Disadvantages of Card Blending

  • It can’t be obtained from wide range.
  • Controlled metered blending can’t be carried out.
  • Only make a previously proceeded blend more intimate.

D/F Blending

With D/F blending the card slivers are doubled at the drawing process in a predetermined fashion. The percentage of the blending depends on the number of slivers processed. In processing of cotton this method is not used for blending purposes, but it is the most popular method for blending man-made fiber fiber with cotton.

Advantage of D/F Blending

  • Suitable for blending two different cotton qualities.
  • Provide best blend in the longitudinal direction.
  • Working procedure is not complex.

Disadvantage of D/F Blending

  • Require additional blending passage.
  • Stripiness may be produce in the finished product.
  • Poor transverse blending in the product.
  • Fiber heterogeneity produced.

Written by

Engineer Sheikh Nurja

B.Sc engineer of textile

Merchandiser at buying house

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Mixing in the Spinning Mill

Mixing is the first and important process in the spinning process. Mixing is a process by which different grade of same fiber are kept together.

Types of Mixing

  • Volume mixing.
  • Bin mixing.
  • Card mixing.
  • Weight mixing.
  • Automatic mixing.
  • Hand stock mixing.
  • Lap mixing.
  • Sliver mixing.
  • Mixing by hopper.

Mixing in the Spinning Mill

mixing in the spinning mill

Mixing in a Spinning Mill

Factors to be Considered Before Doing Mixing

Length of cotton

The length of the fibers should be equal otherwise various types of problem will create. Fibers having different length causes problem in drafting zone &also in simplex or ring frame.

Micronaire of cotton

The second considerable factor for mixing is the micronaire value of fiber, the higher, the micronaire value, the fibers are regarded coarser.

Color of cotton

Color is also a very important factor in mixing. In case of cotton, it is measured by brightness of cotton and the presence of yellow color in cotton.

Micronaire CV % of mixing bales

The micronaire CV % of mixing bales should be 5%.

Micronaire deviation

The micronaire deviation of cotton fibers should be (+-0.1) or (+-0.05). Otherwise mixing quality cannot be classified as good quality.

Length deviation

Length deviation should not exceed 10% deviation from mixing to mixing for the same lot.

Color deviation

in mixing, two lot of adjacent color can be mixed, such as white and light spotted or light spotted and can be mixed. But white and spotted cannot be mixed.

Lay down

Every cross section of the lay down plant should be same. Which means average micronaire value should be controlled in every cross section.

Written by

Engineer Sheikh Nurja

B.Sc engineer of textile

Merchandiser at buying house

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Ginning Process of Cotton


The process by which the fibers are separated from the seeds is called ginning. It is one the most important step of spinning process. After collecting from field, Seed cotton moves to nearby gins for separation of lint and seed. The production of a typical gin is about 12 bale per hour. (here 1 bale = 500 pound)

 Objects of ginning

  1. To make the fiber free from seeds without gin-cut fiber
  2. To get fair price of the cotton
  3. To be confident that fiber does not contains excess and unexpected seeds
  4. To make the spinning process easier and effective
ginning process of cotton

Ginning of cotton

Ginning process of cotton

  • At first the cotton is made to go through dryers to reduce moisture content.
  • Then cotton is made to go through cleaning equipment to remove foreign matters.
  • The cotton is then air conveyed to gin stands where revolving circular saws pull the lint from the saw teeth by air blasts or by rotating brushes.
  • The cotton is compressed into 500 pounds weigh contained bales.
  • Then the bales of cotton are shipped to textile mill for further processes.

Type of ginning

Saw ginning

Advantage of saw ginning

  • Saw ginned cotton is more uniform
  • Cotton is more clean

Disadvantage of saw ginning

  • Possibility of fiber breakage due to drawn up the fiber from the surface of seed
  • Increase neps
  • Increase short fiber content

Roller ginning

Advantage Roller ginning

  • Fiber quality is better than saw ginned cotton
  • High production

Disadvantage Roller ginning

  • The moisture of seed mix up with fiber in processing which cause cake cotton fault.

Faults in ginning

  • Gin-cut fiber
  • Crushed seeds
  • Neps formation
  • Too much wastage

Written by

Engineer Sheikh Nurja

B.Sc engineer of textile

Merchandiser at buying house

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Flow Chart of Rotor Yarn Manufacturing

Rotor spinning is known also open end spinning or break spinning. Now it is become very popular spinning.

 Features of Rotor spinning process

  • Yarn Coarser than carded or combed yarn
  • Low count. Generally 20 count, highest 40s
  • Yarn Use for coarser fabric
  • Low manufacturing coast.
  • Produced by low graded fiber
  • High productivity
  • Less wastage percentage
  • No need of Simplex machine
  • Less labor
  • High capital cost
  • Mainly use to manufacturing Denim jeans fabric
  • Low price
  • Machine speed very high

Flow chart of Rotor yarn manufacturing/ Open end spinning process

flow chart of rotor yarn manufacturing

Flow Chart of Rotor Yarn Manufacturing

*Rotor spinning process eliminates some process of spinning.

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

Facebook: Amirul Islam Washim
E-mail: [email protected]

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Difference Between Tailor and Garment

Difference between Tailor and Garment

Garment can be made in both in tailor and in garments industry. What is the basic difference of these two ways of garment manufacturing process? Here mentioning the difference between the tailor and garments.


  • In tailors, it takes 1 or 2 person to make a garment.
  • Generally garment is made for a particular person in tailor.
  • Garment is made according to the body measurement of a person.
  • In tailor no grading is done.
  • In tailor garment can be made from a machine.
  • Initial cost is relatively low.
  • Single ply of fabric is used.
  • In this way fabric wastage is high.
  • Risk of loss is least.
  • No need of pattern.
  • It takes a few hours to make a garment.


  • In garments, it takes many persons to make a garment.
  • A garment is made for many people.
  • Garment is made according to standard body measurement.
  • Grading is done in garments.
  • Generally many machines are needed for making a garment.
  • Initial cost is relatively high.
  • Multiple ply of fabric is used.
  • Fabric wastage is low.
  • Risk of loss is more.
  • Pattern must be required.
  • It takes less than one minute to make a garment.
difference between tailor and garment

Comparison picture of tailor & garments

Garments manufacturing is done with a long process in garments industry which can never be cleared in a single article. But today here I am going to present about the major sections of garments.

Different section of garments

There are mainly four sections in garments manufacturing industry. They are as follows.

  1. Sample section
  2. Cutting section
  3. Sewing section
  4. Finishing section

Sample section

The main function of this section is to make approve sample. This section is the first and important section. This section includes, “ Designing to marker making”.

Cutting section

This section includes process starting from “ Marker making” to “sorting & bundling”. The main function of this section is to cut fabric according to the marker dimension.

Sewing section

The function of this section is to make a complete garment by using all of the cutting components for a particular style of garments.

Finishing section

This section includes process from “Ironing to send to buyer”. After making sample, it should be treated by steam, iron and use in it all of the finishing accessories and ultimately make the garments attractive as per buyers approved sample.

Written by

Engineer Sheikh Nurja

B.Sc engineer of textile

Merchandiser at buying house

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Silk Fiber Production

Silk is the most beautiful fiber of all textile fibers. Silk is acclaimed as the queen of textiles.

Silk Fiber Production

Silk comes from the cocoon of the silk worm. To produce silk filament there requires a great deal of handling and processing. Silk is one of the most expensive fibers.

Production of silk from Cocoon

The production of cocoon for their filament is called sericulture. The life cycle of silk worm encircle in the four stages. i.e.

  1. The egg,
  2. The silk worm/larvae,
  3. The pupa/cocoon and
  4. The moth.
life cycle of silk worm

Life Cycle of Silk Worm

The silk worm which feeds on mulberry leaves forms a covering around it by secreting a protein like substance through its hood.

Filature operation

The cocoons raised by the farmer are delivered to the factory is called a filature. In factory the silk is unwound from the cocoons and the strands are collected into skeins. Some cocoons are scientifically bred in such factories. The filature operations consist of the following stages.

  1. Sorting

Cocoons are sorted according to the color, size, shape and texture as these affect the final quality of the silk. Cocoons may range from white and yellow to gray.

silk fiber production

Silk Fiber

  1. Softening the servicing

Silk filament is a double strand of fibroin, which is held together by a gummy substance called service or silk gum. After the cocoon has been sorted, they are put through a series of hot and cold immersions, as the service must be softened to permit the unwinding of the filament as one continuous thread.

  1. Reeling the filament

Reeling is the process of unwinding the silk filaments from the cocoons and combining them together to make a thread of raw silk. As the filament of the cocoon is too fine for commercial use, three to ten strands are usually reeled at a time to produce the desired diameter of raw silk which is known as “reeled silk”. The useable length of reeled filament is 300 to 600 m.

  1. Bailing

The silk filament is reeled into skeins, which are packed in small bundles called books, weighting 2 to 4.5 kg. These books are put into bales weighing about 60 kg. In this form raw silk is shipped to silk mills all over the world.

 Characteristics of silk

  • Silk is very strong in terms of tensile strength, meaning it can withstand a lot of pulling type pressure without breaking. This should not, however, be confused with wear ability or abrasion resistance. Silk will not stand up to the heavy wear that other fibers will.
  • Silk can take on many different appearances. A raw silk fabric may fool you into thinking that it is cotton or synthetic. The more refined the silk and the smaller the yarn, the more it resembles the look and feel that we know as silky.
  • Like wool silk is also a protein fiber. This gives many characteristics to it’s properties. It is sensitive to a range of chemical situations and cannot withstand prolonged exposure to either high alkalinity or to acid or oily soils. It becomes brittle with age and exposure to sunlight.

How to identify silk

To identify silk we can do burn test which is the best way to be sure if it is silk or not? Burning silk will leave a powdery ash and will leave a powdery ash and will extinguish itself when the flame is removed, just like wool. The easy way to tell silk and wool apart in the burn test is the smell. Where wool will have the smell of burning hair, the silk will have a much more disagreeable smell.

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Written by

Engineer Sheikh Nurja

B.Sc engineer of textile

Merchandiser at buying house

Responsibilities of Apparel Merchandiser

What are the Responsibilities of an Apparel Merchandiser

In the Apparel sector now a day’s Apparel Merchandising is a well known and preferable job profile. As a student of textile engineering, many of us dream to be an Apparel merchandiser. This job carrier is also well known to others people beside textile related personnel. If you want to be an apparel merchandiser then you must know the responsibilities of apparel merchandiser.

responsibilities of apparel merchandiser


The word Merchandising comes from the word Merchandise. Merchandise means buying and selling something.

The whole activities of merchandise ( means the activities of promoting the sale of goods) is “Merchandising”. Merchandising is a process/function for what to buy and how to sell. In other word merchandising is the marketing activity responsible for ensuring a product’s desirability, both in qualitative and quantitative

The person who deals with the merchandise is called Merchandiser. If a person deals with apparel merchandising then the person is called “Apparel Merchandiser”.

merchandising cycle

Merchandising Cycle

Merchandising Process

Mainly merchandising is a part of the marketing process. There are required 4 P’s to complete the whole process of merchandising.

  • Product
  • Price
  • Place/Distribution
  • Promotion

Responsibilities of Apparel Merchandiser

  1. Doing work with buyers/sellers closely and determining a range of commodities or goods to sell.
  2. Doing work in right time in right place considering time & place for buying goods demand
  3. Calculation the prices of goods
  4. Preparing current sales figure
  5. Giving policy guidelines to the buyers
  6. Taking responsibility promotion, display
  7. With the help of merchandising manager determining a strategy of goods
  8. Monitoring stock management
  9. Preparing purchase orders to match range plan from buyers
  10. For the buyers preparing detailed spreadsheets
  11. Planning for the whole production process and financial process
  12. Ensuring purchase order raised to budgets.
  13. Fabric and accessories sourcing and tracking
  14. Negotiation with buyers/factories/and others about cost price.
  15. Approving samples.
  16. Factory production scheduling and production tracking
  17. Monitoring all production process.
  18. Ensuring preparation of all shipping documents.
  19. Arranging final inspection
  20. Shipping plan and booking
  21. Ensuring shipment in due time.

So, hopefully, it was helpful for you. If you like it do not forget to put down your valuable comment and share on facebook

Written By

Engineer Sheikh Nurja