Different Types of Button for Clothes

Different types of button for clothes


Buttons are one of the oldest and most widely used types of fastener. Buttons are generally consisting of a disk, ball, or dome-shaped fastener. They are generally attached to one piece of fabric and joined to another piece of fabric by being drawn through a hole or loop.

In modern fashion design buttons are used for both ornamentation and objective purpose. People started to use button from Bronze Age. Before Renaissance age buttons were used as ornamentation purpose only. After invention of buttonholes in the age of Renaissance, button became functional and 1830-1850 is considered as the golden age of buttons.

ornament button

Button is used as ornamentation purpose in fingerless mittens

Classification of buttons:

Depending on attachment way :

There are basic two types of button depending on how they are attached to a piece of material.

  1. Flat or sew-through (Hole button)
    1. Two hole button
    2. Four hole button
Flat button

Flat Button

Thread is making to pass through the holes and the material to bind the button in place. They are made to attach with fabric by machine and hand sew also.

2. Shank button

They have a connector to the back part of the button that is attached to the material with thread.

Shank button

Shank Button

3. Stud button or Snap button

They are mostly used in denim clothing such as jackets, pants etc. Fabric goes to the middle of the top and bottom part of snap button and they are attached by creating pressure.

picture of button shirt

Snap Button

Depending on raw materials

By which material buttons are made, depending on this factor there we will find different types of buttons. Here I am going to present some types name of them.

  1. Plastic button
  2. Seashell button
  3. Fabric button
  4. Coconut shell button
  5. Wooden button
  6. Pearl button
  7. Glass button
  8. Horn button
  9. Leather button
  10. Ceramic button
  11. Bakelite button
  12. Polymer clay button
  13. Vegetable ivory button etc.


Engineer Sheikh Nurja

B.Sc engineer of textile

Merchandiser at buying house

Facebook: Sheikh Nurja

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Basic Types of Risk

What are the Basic Types of Risk?

We know that future is uncertain, because of uncertainty; involvement of risk can be traced to our every part of life. When we talk about any investment we have to think about risk and return, higher the risk higher the rates of return and lower the risk lower the rates of return. Our life is directly related with economic activities where risk is the considerable element that cannot be overlooked.

To minimize the risk people go for savings and some people take the help of insurance companies/ agencies by paying insurance premium. Risk can be categories into different perspective but here we only discuss about the business risk.

Before discussing the types of risk, let’s have some idea of risk. Risk is the deviation between the actual outcome and expected outcome. Some risk can be minimized and some risk cannot be minimized. Some risk arisen from the micro economic factor and some from macro economic factors.

Basic types of risk that we may found are:

Basic Types of Risk

Basic Types of Risk

Unsystematic Risk

Unsystematic risk is that portion of risk which can be minimize through diversification of the investment by forming portfolio. If we form a portfolio using the negatively correlated investment securities then it would be possible to minimize the risk at lower level. This types of risk is known as diversiable risk Theoretically it is possible to eliminate the portion of unsystematic risk but in real sense it is not possible to eliminate the risk through diversification.

Systematic Risk

Systematic risk is that portion of risk which cannot minimize through diversification of the investments. Systematic risk is mainly arisen from the macro economic variables which are beyond our control. Beta is the measure of the systematic risk. Sometimes this risk is also known as systematic market risk. Sources of systematic risk are given below with short explanation.

Business Risk

Business risk is the risk which mainly arise when a firm or business organization unable to generate sufficient revenue to maintain its operating expenditure through providing service or selling products, that is risk is directly related with the operation of the firm.

Financial Risk

When a firm is unable to pay off its fixed financial obligation then this type of risk may arise. This type of risk is involved with the levered firm which uses debt capital for business. In some cases this risk can lead a lead a company to bankruptcy.

Liquidity Risk

This risk is involved with the marketability of a security or investment that is the capacity to generate asset into cash as much quicker as possible. If an investment is takes less time to convert into cash then it is liquid asset or investment.

Country Risk

Unstable political condition of a country is responsible for this type of risk. If this risk is more than an economy definitely fall, so does business. In our Bangladesh this type of risk is higher.

Exchange Rate Risk

Exchange of currency is required when a country is involved with import and export. For importing product or services foreign currency basically dollar is used. So if there is more fluctuation of the exchange rate frequently then a business may incur loss. This probable loss is the risk for the business.

Although every economic activity is involved with risk, we need to be more cautious to minimize the risk. If we can minimize the risk of doing business then it will be possible to generate profit for the company/ business organization.

Written by

Md. Nahian Mahmud Shaikat

Student of MBA

Institute of Business Administration (IBA)

Jahangirnagar University

Email: [email protected]

Facebook: Ördïnärÿ Böÿ

Traditional Dress Lungi

The Traditional Dress Lungi

The Lungi is a traditional dress mainly worn by men & women in south Asia. It is commonly worn by the people around the waist in Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Thailand, and Malaysia as a traditional dress. Normally men worn this dress for its comfort but we can see that tribe women also worn Lungi. The origin of Lungi can be traced back in south India where this dress is worn for thousands of years.

In Bangladesh most of the men wear Lungi when they at home. It is very popular where the heat and humidity create an unpleasant climate for other dress like pent, pajama or trouser. This dress is comfortable because it is made like a tube/ skirt. This is a kind of loin cloth, stitched, unlike a dhoti resembles a skirt which upper borders is tucked into the waist after tying a single or multiple knots.

Different sizes of Lungi can be found in the market for adult 115 cm in height and 200 cm in length is available, for kids aged below 8 years Lungi also available and for teenager’s average size Lungi can be found. Both cotton and silk lungi is available in the market but people prefer cotton lungi to wear.

Lungi mainly woven from cotton and price is depends on the size, color, and quality of the product. Normally you can find a Lungi at tk150 but it is lower quality product. A good quality Lungi can be bought for tk 400. The more price the more the quality of cotton and design. If you go through in the market you can get a higher quality beautiful lungi at tk1200 to tk4000. In Bangladesh some famous brands of lungi, these are, ATM Lungi, standard lungi etc

Before industrialization people knit Lungi by hand and handmade tools, and it basically took more time to make a lungi, but the quality of that product is higher because of the careful knitting by the knitter. When a lungi is designed by different color it basically required more time and energy than as usual. In Bangladesh sirajganj, kustia, Khulna is famous for Lungi production where many factories is producing lungi each year for meeting the demands of the customer. In Dhaka a quality lungi is produced by the Ruhitpuri knitter.

Traditional Dress Lungi

Weaving Lungi

Now a day’s technology makes it easier to produce because of customized machinery. For producing lungi Knitter needs more than 2 days but now with the automated machine it is possible to produce thousands of lungi within one day. Technology made it possible but if we want to have a quality lungi with customized design then we have to use the old way of producing lungi by knitter who knit lungi with passions. Knitters are the artist who innovate new design which is very lucrative.

Lungi Production Using Automated M

Lungi Production Using Automated Machine

The way people worn lungi is depends on the occasion and the region. For occasion people prefer white or cream color lungi, but for fashion people prefer multi color/ colorful lungi. Some people worn lungi short and some people ware it form waist to bottom. Labor/ worker basically worn it lower, some cases they bend it so that they can work comfortably.

The Way People Wear Lungi

The Way People Wear Lungi

Lungi can be found in different colors like- single color, multi color, butik print and stripe. Normally old people like to wear white color Lungi on the other hand child or middle age people wear strip Lungi or single color Lungi.

different lungi types

Different Types of Lungi

different lungi style

Depending on the occasion a Lungi can be worn differently. It looks nice when many people worn same dress and standing together. Now modes also using lungi to their ramp show because of its unique design and style. Last year an Indian movie song showing the lungi dance where models worn lungi and dance, they look very nice with this traditional dress lungi.

lungi worn at occasion

Lungi worn at Different Occasion

Tribe people, both male and female also wear lungi on the normal and occasional cases.

So I think that because of its designs, popularity and comfort Lungi is one of the most attractive traditional dresses found in the south Asian region. For this reason we have to keep this tradition with us and let the world to know about our traditional dress Lungi.


Md. Nahian Mahmud Shaikat

Facebook: OrdinaryBoy

Email: [email protected]

Phone: +8801914262602


Calculation of Yarn English Count

Calculation of Yarn English Count

English Count

English count indicates how many hanks of 840 yards length weigh one pound. That means if count 40 Ne, Than it means 40 hanks(bundle) of 840 yards will give 1 pound weigh.

 (Note: So, for gaining 1 pound weigh, 840 yards long how many yarn bundle we will in need, this require number of bundle is the English count of this yarn.)

Calculation of yarn English count

Different Count Yarn

  • Why calculation: Most of us are fear from count calculation. But we should have common sense of calculation to be good textile personnel.

Let’s try to solve following problem of English count


On one cone there are 9800 m yarns which weigh 490 gm. What is the English count of this yarn?

We know,

For Ne(English count),

problem of English count

Calculation of Yarn English Count

 So, Here count 12 Ne means, 12 bundle of yarn with 840 yards length will be required to get 1 pound weigh.

So, wish it was helpful for you to understand English count properly. If you like it doesn’t forget to put down your valuable comments and share on facebook

Written By

Engineer Sheikh Nurja

B.Sc engineer of textile

Merchandiser at buying house

Facebook: Sheikh Nurja

Skypee: Merchandiser.nurja

Fabric Consumption of a basic Polo-shirt

Fabric Consumption of a basic Polo-shirt

Consumption determination of fabric is a very important term in textile sector. Since it depends on fabric prices therefore accurate and closure consumption will reduce fabric wastage which will be beneficial for us economically. So, we should keep proper knowledge of fabric consumption properly.

Here today I am going to present fabric consumption of a basic polo-shirt.

Fabric consumption of a polo-shirt is the sum of fabric consumption of different parts of polo-shirt:

  • Fabric consumption for body part.
  • Fabric consumption for Sleeves.
  • Fabric consumption for half-moon
  •  Fabric consumption for pocket.

For calculating fabric consumption of a basic polo-shirt following measurement will be needed.

  1. Body Length
  2. ½ Chest
  3. Sleeve length
  4. ½ Armhole
  5. Length of half- moon
  6. Width of half-moon
  7. Length of pocket
  8. Width of pocket
Fabric Consumption of Polo shirt

Polo Shirt

So, now consider

  • Body length
= 72 cm (For body length allowance = 3+1.5 = 4.5 cm)
  • ½ Chest
= 58 cm (For chest allowance = 2+2= 4 cm)
  • Sleeve length
= 23 cm (For sleeve length allowance = 2+1.5= 3.5 cm)
  • ½ Armhole
= 24 cm (For sleeve opening allowance = 2+1 = 3 cm)
  • Length of half-moon
= 18 cm (allowance = 1.5+1.5 = 3 cm
  • Width of half-moon
=10 cm (allowance = 1.5+1.5 = 3 cm)
  • Length of pocket
= 12 cm (allowance = 2.5+1 = 3.5 cm)
  • Width of pocket
= 11 cm (allowance = 1+1 = 2 cm)
  • GSM
= 180 (Lacoste)
  • Wastage %
= 8%

Fabric consumption per dozen, (all measurement in cm)

Fabric Consumption Per Dozen

Fabric Consumption Per Dozen


For every part of a polo shirt,

= 2.04+0.61+0.06+0.04 kg/dz

= 2.75 kg/dz

So, Fabric consumptiuon for a polo shirt,

= 2.75 + 8% of 2.75 kg/dz (Here 8% is wastage of fabric)

= 2.75 + .22 kg/dz

= 2.97 kg/dz


So, Fabric consumption of a polo-shirt = 2.97 kg/dz

Note: Here I have made consumption of polo shirt which has a pocket. Here I did not mention collar and cuff consumption because maximum time in a polo shirt there is used flat knit collar and cuff.

If you like it, please don’t forget to put your valuable comments



Engineer Sheikh Nurja

BS.c engineer of textile

Merchandiser at Buying House

Facebook : Sheikh Nurja

Skype : Merchandiser.nurja

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Consumption of a Trouser

Consumption of a Trouser

Consumption determination of fabric is a very important term in textile sector. Since it depends on fabric prices therefore accurate and closure consumption will reduce fabric wastage which will be beneficial for us economically. So, we should keep proper knowledge of fabric consumption properly.

Here today I am going to present fabric consumption of a trouser.



Consumption per dozen (when all measurement is in cm)

Consumption of a trouser

Measurement of Consumption of a Trouser

Consumption per dozen (when all measurement is in inch)

consumption of trouser

So, according to given value fabric consumption per piece, 0.224 or 0.225 kg/piece.

Engineer Sheikh Nurja

B.Sc engineer of textile


Facebook Id: seikh nurja

Email: [email protected]

If you like this article please do not forget to share on facebook and put your valuable comment.

Perfect Capital Market

What is meant by a perfect capital market?

If a capital market has the following characteristics then it would be considered as perfect capital market. In perfect capital market case, assuming complete markets, perfect rationality of agents and under full information, the equilibrium occurs where the interest rates clear the market, with the supply of funds equal to the demand.

  1. There are no transaction (brokerage) costs.
  2. There are no taxes.
  3. There are large numbers of buyers and sellers, so the actions of no one buyer or seller affect the price of the traded security.
  4. Both individuals and firms have equal access to the market.
  5. There is no cost to obtain information, so everyone has the same information.
  6. Everyone has the same (homogeneous) expectations.
  7. There are no costs associated with financial distress.

What role does the perfect capital market assumption play in financial theory?

perfect capital marketRoles of perfect capital market assumption

Clearly most of these assumptions do not hold in the real world-taxes and brokerage costs exist, individuals often do not have the same access to markets as corporations, managers often have more information about their firms’ prospects than do outside investors and so on. Still, a theory should not be judged on the reality of its assumption, but rather on how consistent its predictions are with actual behavior. If a theory seems reasonable and is consistent with behavior, then the theory will generally be accepted, regardless of the realism of its assumption. Often the assumptions do not limit the ability of the theory to explain real world phenomena.

For example, although taxes certainly exist, there may be enough tax exempt institutions with sufficient capital to produce the results predicted by a theory that assumes zero taxes.

Pocket for Dress Shirt

An Overview of Pocket for Dress Shirt

Shirt Pocket

Pocket is one of the basic components of a shirt. There are different types of pocket which are used for shirt even sometimes we see some shirt without pocket. Pocket is used for bearing some light and essential things. Today I am going to introduce you some pocket which are mostly used for making dress shirt.

pocket for dress shirt

Pocket for Dress Shirt

Pocket for dress shirt

Most pockets on a dress shirt are located on left breast. The pocket of a dress shirt doesn’t really have functional purpose. The main objective of a dress is style purpose. Never try to use your dress shirt for heavy storage purpose.

Today I am going to introduce you some pocket which are mostly used for making dress shirt.

  1. Plain pocket
plain pocket

Plain Pocket

2. Rounded pocket

round pocket

Round Pocket

3. Squared pocket

squared pocket

Square Pocket

4. Hexagonal pocket

hexagonal pocket

Hexagonal Pocket

You can use any pocket plain, rounded, squared, Round or Hexagonal pocket for dress shirt purpose .But if you want more depth than you can try plain pocket for your dress shirt.


By — Engineer Sheikh Nurja

B.Sc engineer of textile


Facebook Id: seikh nurja

Email: [email protected]

Standard Deviation is Better Measurement

Why standard deviation is better measurement for risk?

In finance, standard deviation is applied to the annual rate of return of an investment to measure the investment’s volatility. Standard deviation is also known as historical volatility and is used by investors as a measure for the amount of expected volatility. Basically standard deviation is used to see whether the project has less or high risk.

standard deviation

Formula of standard deviation

A measure of the variation in a distribution, equal to the square root of the arithmetic mean of the squares of the deviations from the arithmetic mean, the square root of the variance.

The reasons behind standard deviation as a better measurement for risk are given below:

 The most commonly used measure of risk for assets or securities is a measure known as the standard deviation. The larger the standard deviation the greater the dispersion and hence the greater the distribution’s stand alone risk. On the other hand the lower the standard deviation the lower the risky-ness of the project.

 If you want to know how `risky’ a fund/ a project is, there are other ways of assessing it. For instance, you can compare the annual returns of a fund over the past several years. You can analyze how the fund has done in bull markets and in bear markets. Or you can compare compound returns for several time periods. Using compound returns has one problem though. Compound returns can be affected by one year’s exceptional performance. To correct for this, Fund Counsel suggests dropping the exceptional year and re-computing the compound rate of return.

 But from above mentioned measures standard deviation is consider as a better measurement of risk because by using standard deviation we can easily identify whether the project is risky or not. If the rate of standard deviation is high then the project is risky and if the rate of standard deviation is low then the project is less risky.

Asymmetric Information

In financial market what is meant by asymmetric information?

When a manager knows more about his or her firm’s future than do the analysts and investors who follow the company then a situation of asymmetric information exists. In this situation a firm’s managers may correctly conclude that its securities are undervalued or overvalued depending on whether the inside information is favorable or unfavorable. Of course there are degrees of asymmetry management is almost always better informed about a firm’s prospects than are outsiders but in some situations this informational difference is too small to influence managerial actions. In other circumstances such as prior to a merger announcement or when a drug company has made a major research breakthrough managers may have information that will significantly alter the prices of the firm’s securities when it becomes public. In most situations the degree of information asymmetry lies between the two extremes.

asymmetric information

The potential impact of asymmetric information on markets was analyzed by George Ackerlof in a paper titled “The market for Lemons”

The only convincing way for a seller to convey potential buyers that the product is good to take some action that buyer can unambiguously interpret as a sign that the product is not defective. Such actions are called signals and the act of providing signals is called signaling.

 Since manager’s primary goal is to maximize shareholders wealth managers are generally motivated to convey favorable inside information to the public as rapidly as possible. The easiest way would be to issue a press release announcing the favorable development. However outsider would have no way of knowing whether the announcement was true or how important it really was. Therefore such announcements have limited value. But if managers could signal information concerning favorable prospects in some truly credible way then the information would be taken seriously by investors and reflected in security prices.

 Example: Dividend announcements are the classic example of managers providing information through signaling. If a firm announces a significant increase in cash dividend this is its managers signal that the firm has good future earnings and cash flow prospects. If dividend increase is widely anticipated but then is not forthcoming this is negative signal.

 The presence of effective management signals plays an important role in financial management.

Written by

Md. Nahian Mahmud Shaikat

Student of MBA

Institute of Business Administration (IBA)

Jahangirnagar University

Email: [email protected]

Facebook: Ördïnärÿ Böÿ