Famous Denim Brand in the World

What are the Famous Denim Brand in the World?

Denim can be considered as the staple garment of the world as all of the people irrespective of their location, age, gender and status own a pair of jeans or two. It’s hard to find a wardrobe where there are no denim products in it. Europe, America or Asia, denim is the most common casually used outfit. The global market value of denim products are projected to reach a mammoth sixty five billion dollars by 2015.

famous denim brand in the world

Nice Ladies Denim Pant

Bangladesh Denim Market

Bangladesh is one of the most important centers for denim apparel production and export around the world. In fact, it has come up as the third most important exporter of denim apparel to US after Mexico and China and second highest to EU after China.  So, as a textile person we should know about worldwide famous brand of denim because it is a potential sector of Bangladesh garments.

 Worldwide renowned Denim Brands

Here I am presenting some worldwide famous denim brand name:

Some of the famous denim brands are as follows

  • Wrangler
  • Levis
  • G Star
  • Armani Brand
  • Lee
  • Diesel
  • Gap
  • Tommy Hilfiger
  • True religion
  • Guess
  • Pepe jeans
  • Calvin Kelvin
  • Lucky
  • Rock and republic
  • Seven for all Mankind
  • APC

Swedish Denim brand

  • Nudie jeans
  • Acne
  • Cheap Monday

Pakistani Denim brand

  • Stone Age
  • Cross Road
  • Leisure Club
  • Club X
denim jacket

Nice Denim Jacket

 

By

Engineer Sheikh Nurja

B.Sc engineer of textile

Merchandiser at buying house

 

Agency Cost

What is Agency Cost and who bears them?

An agency cost is a cost of reducing agency conflict among the owner/ principal (stockholders) and managers (agent). We can also say the cost which is bears by the company to reduce the agency conflict is basically known as agency cost and this cost must be maintained by the respective parties or by the company. To reduce agency conflict some effective measure can be taken which is cost worthy.

Managers can be encouraged to act in the stockholders best interests through incentives, constraints, and punishments. But these tools are effective only if shareholders can observe all of the actions taken by managers. A moral hazard problem, defined here as a situation in which agents take unobserved actions in their own interests, arises because it is virtually impossible for shareholders to monitor all managerial actions. To reduce agency conflicts and the moral hazard problem, stockholders must incur agency costs, which include all costs designed to encourage managers to maximize shareholder wealth rather than act in their own self-interests.

agency cost

Agency Cost

There are three major categories of agency costs

  1. Expenses to monitor managerial actions, such as audit cost,
  2. Expenditures to structure the organization in a way that will limit undesirable managerial behavior, such as appointing outside investors to the board of directors, and
  3. Opportunity costs which are incurred when restrictions, such as requirements for stockholders to vote on certain issues, limit the ability of managers to take timely actions that would contribute to shareholder wealth.

 Agency costs must bear by shareholders. In the absence of any effort whatever to affect managerial behavior, and hence with zero agency costs, there will almost certainly be some loss of shareholder wealth due to improper managerial actions. Conversely, agency costs would be very high if shareholders attempted to ensure that every single managerial action coincided exactly with shareholder interests. Thus, the optimal amount of agency costs to be borne by shareholders should be viewed like any other investment decision.

Written by

Md. Nahian Mahmud Shaikat

Student of MBA

Institute of Business Administration (IBA)

Jahangirnagar University

Email: [email protected]

Facebook: Ördïnärÿ Böÿ

Conflict Between Shareholders and Creditors

What kind of agency conflict between shareholders and creditors may exist?

A conflict between shareholders and creditors is common for the company which uses debt capital to form an optimum capital structure. Agency relation exists when one party works as an agent of the principal. In an organization, management works as an agent of owner or shareholders. When managers work for the company they can be influenced by the own interest so that they prefer their own interest rather than the interest of the company, on the other hand, creditors interest is to provide credit and get the principal amount and interest timely. For ensuring their credit return creditor always concerned whether the company is doing business in the right manner or not. By monitoring the financial performance of the company creditors actually, want to ensure their interest. So if there is any dispersion then creditors work to resolve the issue by taking necessary steps.

Conflict Between Shareholders and Creditors

The conflict between Shareholders & Creditors

Creditors have a claim on part of the firm’s earnings stream as well as a claim on the firm’s assets in the event of bankruptcy. However, the stockholders have control through the firm’s managers of the decision that affect the profitability and risk of the firm. Creditors lend funds at a specific rate which is based on the several factors. These are:

  1. On the riskiness of the firm’s existing assets,
  2. On expectations concerning the riskiness of future asset additions,
  3. On the firm’s existing capital structure (that is, the amount of debt financing used), and
  4. On expectations concerning future capital structure decision.

These are the primary determinants of the riskiness of a firm’s cash flows and hence its debt, so creditors base their required rates of return on these factors.

 Now suppose the stockholders, acting through management, have the firm take on a large new project that has a greater risk than was anticipated by creditors. This increased risk will cause the required rate of return on the firm’s debt to increase, which in turn will cause the value of the outstanding debt to fall. If the risky capital investment is successful, all of the benefits will go to the firm’s stockholders, because creditors’ returns are fixed at the old, low-risk rate. However, if the project is unsuccessful, the bondholders will have to share in the losses.

Written by

Md. Nahian Mahmud Shaikat

Student of MBA

Institute of Business Administration (IBA)

Jahangirnagar University

Email: [email protected]

Facebook: Ördïnärÿ Böÿ

Agency Conflict

What is Agency Conflict?

Agency conflict is a common problem we face in an organization, this problem arises because of the difference in the interest of management, owner, and other related parties. An agency relationship arises whenever one or more individuals hire other individuals to perform some service and also delegate decision making authority to the agents. Here the hiring parties are principal and hired individuals are the agent. But the question is what is agency conflict?

agency conflict

Agency Conflict

Agency Conflict

A potential agency conflict exists whenever a manager owns less than 100 percent of the firm’s common stock. If the firm is a proprietorship business then the manager is the owner, the owner-manager will take actions to maximize his or her own welfare, or utility. The owner-manager will probably measure utility primarily by personal wealth, but other factors, such as leisure time and perquisites, will be considered. However, if the owner-manager sells some of the firm’s stock to outside investors, a potential conflict of interest, called an agency conflict, arises. For example, the owner-manager may now decide to lead a more relaxed life and not work as strenuously to maximize shareholder wealth because less of this wealth will accrue to him or her. Also, the owner-manager may decide to take more “business trips” to fun locations because some of the cost will now be borne by the outside shareholders.

In most large corporations, potential agency conflicts are quite important, because managers generally own only a small percentage of the firm’s stock. In this situation, shareholder wealth maximization could take a back seat to any number of possible managerial goals. In an organization, an agency conflict may always be there but it is owners responsibility to reduce agency conflict as much lower level as they can.

Written by

Md. Nahian Mahmud Shaikat

Student of MBA

Institute of Business Administration (IBA)

Jahangirnagar University

Email: [email protected]

Facebook: Ördïnärÿ Böÿ

What is a Bond

What is a Bond?

Question may arise in your mind that what is a bond. A bond is a financial instrument used by the government or corporations to collect money from the market. It provides a fixed benefit to the bondholders periodically and also at the time of maturity. Although the use of bond as a financing instrument used in developed countries and is very popular around the world. But in Bangladesh the use of the bond not getting enough popularity yet.

By selling a bond, borrowers make a contract with the buyer to pay interest and principal at the time of maturity. All provisions, terms & conditions are written in the bond indenture. A bond indenture is the written document where all terms are clearly mentioned which actually helps to ensure the right of the bondholders.

Basically, a bond pays interest semi-annually to the bondholders at the specific rate which is mentioned in the bond indenture.

Bonds with the maturity of 10 years or more are considered as long-term bond. The interest of bond is set on the basis of market interest rate. Every bond has coupon rate (except zero coupon bonds), maturity date, and face value (basically Tk 1000). Some may have call provision and convertible features.

There is an inverse relationship between interest rate (market interest) and the price of the bond. Higher the interest rates lower the price of the bond and vice versa. We get the price of the bond by discounting the cash and capital gain received from the bond by the required rates of return. Normally large companies issue a bond for the purpose of collecting long-term funds from the market.

Basic Characteristics of Bond

what is a bond

Characteristics of a Bond

From above-mentioned issues we can draw some basic characteristics of a bond, these are:

  • Bond is a long-term financial instrument issued by the large companies to collect long-term funds.
  • Every bond must have a face value, maturity value, and coupon rate and maturity period.
  • It provides periodical benefit to the holders (basically for an interval of six months).
  • The terms and conditions are written in the bond indenture.
  • Zero coupon bonds do not provide any coupon/interest. It provides benefit at the maturity where the bond is issued at discount.
  • There is an inverse relationship between interest and price of the bond.
  • The callable or convertible feature is common for a bond.

Actually, the characteristics of a bond are depended upon the types of a bond which is being issued and where it is issued. Country to country the type and features of the bond vary.

How to Become Successful in Textile Sector

How to Become Successful in Textile Sector

Whether you are a textile engineer or a student of textile going to be graduated soon, you may have many confusions in your mind that from where you can start your career. The expectation of getting a job for developing career varies from person to person. But remember one thing; you can start your career by joining any department of textile sector. After that, you can rotate your career and enrich your knowledge of different departments.

how to become successful in textile sector

There are lots of people who didn’t have any educational background in textile but they are doing well. Question is how they are doing better day by day; you can get the answer if you observer their motive of working, they have the capability of learning through working. Positive motive towards work actually brings success in career. So why are you waiting for? You can read get the core knowledge of textile. All you need to keep patience learn & apply your knowledge, one day you will get what you are looking for.

Some basic qualifications you should have to work in the textile industry

  1. Confidence
  2. Technical skills
  3. Management skills
  4. Interpersonal skills
  5. Problem-solving capability
  6. Knowledge of IT and numerical calculation
  7. Communication skills
  8. Capability to work in a team

You can find that some textile engineers initially work as a production manager and their core responsibilities are

  1. Supervising and motivating a teamwork
  2. Maintain thing as of SOP(Standard operating procedure)
  3. Responsible for ensuring effective production cost
  4. Make sure that products are produced on time with good quality.
  5. Monitoring the production process
  6. Being responsible for the selection and maintenance of equipment
  7. Reviewing worker performance and identifying training needs.
  8. Working with managers to implement the company policies and goals.

If you like this article then please do not forget to leave your valuable comment in the comment box.

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)
E-mail: [email protected]
Cell : +8801929643301

Calculation of Weaving Cost and Profit

Calculation of Weaving Cost and Profit

There are lots of weaving factory in our country. So, it’s very important to know about calculation of weaving cost calculation.

So, today I am presenting a sample calculation of weaving cost calculation.

Cost for following fabric construction

   (128X60)/(20X16)

Twill 100% cotton fabric.

  • Per yard cost for warp yarn: 45 BDT (for example)
  • Per yard cost for weft yarn: 24 BDT

So per yard yarn cost: (45+24) = 69 BDT
Weaving charge: 18 Tk/yard
Total- 87 tk.

  • Dyeing wastage: 5%m

So, for dyeing wastage: 5% of 87

= 4.35 tk
So, including dyeing wastage cost is : (87+4.35)=91.35tk

  • Dying charge: 32 tk/yard

So, including dying cost total cost is – (91.35+32) =123.35tk/yard

  • If desired Profit is: 15%

So profit = 15% of 123.35 tk

= 18.50 tk

  • So overall price (you have to sell): (123.35+18.50)  = 141.85 BDT/YARD

= 1.89$(us)/yard (Here 1$ = 76.68)

calculation of weaving cost and profit

Weaving Fabric in a Loom

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)
E-mail: [email protected]
Cell : +8801929643301

What is Knitted Fabric

What is knitted fabric?

Knitted fabric

Knitted fabrics provide comfortable wear to almost any garment. For making comfortable wear we first think about knitted garments. Though it has an open structure so most of the knitted garments contour to the body’s silhouette. That’s why knitted garments are so much popular as inner-wear, bodywear, and sportswear.

what is knitted fabric

A nice comfortable wear made by knitted fabric

Types of knitted fabric

There are basically two types of knit fabrics.

  1. Weft knits
  2. Warp knits

Weft knits

Weft knitting is the simplest method of converting a yarn into fabrics. In weft, knitting loops are made in a horizontal way from a single yarn. In this way, inter-meshing of loops take place in a circular or flat form on a crosswise basis. Most of the weft knitting is of tubular form.

Weft Knitting

Weft Knitting

Warp knits

In warp knits yarn zigzag along the length of the fabric. In warp knits the number of stitches in a row is equal of the number of separate strands of yarn. It is almost done by machine, not by hand.

Warp Knitting

Warp Knitting

Written By

Engineer Sheikh Nurja

B.Sc engineer of textile

Folders in Apparel Industry

Folders in Apparel Industry

A folder is an attachment to a sewing machine for bending and folding the fabric previous to sewing. It belongs to the category of work aids (Additional devices that can be added to basic sewing machines)generally used in situations where fabric must be fold prior to sewing. Can be used for folds ranging from simple to complex. Different types of folders available in different size and thickness. The thickness of the folder is selected depends on the type of fabric.

  1. Light folder (0.15mm to 0.25mm thickness) – silk, synthetic materials, poplin, shirting, bed sheet
  2. Medium folder (0.27mm to 0.40mm thickness)–single jersey knit, flannelette, Oxford
  3. Heavy folder (0.45mm to 1.5mm thickness)–twill, corduroy, rib knit, interlock knit, denim
Folders in Apparel Industry

Folders in Apparel Industry

Features of a Folder in the Apparel Industry

There are some basic features of a folder, these are-

  1. It helps to improve the productivity.
  2. Improve or maintain quality standards.
  3. Reduce training time of operator.
  4. Reduce fatigue of the operator.

Different Types of Folders Used in the Apparel Industry

  1. Belt loop folder
  2. Binding folder
  3. Tape folder
  4. Hemming folder
  5. Collar setting folder
  6. Cuff setting folder
  7. Waistband folder
  8. Piping folder. etc

These are some types of folders used in the garment industry.

Hemming Folder

It is excellent for continuous hemming on automatic sewing operations. It’s suitable for double needle lockstitch machine. Used to make narrow hems, on prior to ruffling, curtains, and other straight hemming operations. Output piece seam line diagram is shown in the image.

hemming folder

Hemming Folder

Sleeve Attaching Folder

It is used for sleeve attaching operation by using a single needle lock stitch machine. Output piece seam line diagram is shown in the image.

sleeve attaching folder

Sleeve Attaching Folder

Piping Folder

It is used for preparing piping seam by using a single needle lock stitch machine. Output piece seam line diagram is shown in the image.

piping folder

Piping Folder

Belt Loop Folder

It is used for preparing belt loop by using a single needle lock stitch machine. Here stripe of fabric inserted on the folder. Output piece seam line diagram is shown in the image.

belt loop folder

Belt Loop Folder

Bias Binding Folder

It is used for cover the raw edge by using a single needle lock stitch machine. Here stripe of fabric inserted on the folder. It binds the fabric edge evenly. Output piece seam line diagram is shown in the image.

bias binding folder

Bias Binding Folder

Waist Band Folder

It is used for attaching waistband by using double needle lockstitch machine. It binds seam on the waistband. Output piece seam line diagram is shown in the image.

waist band folder

Waist Band Folder

Article by

P. Sivakumar

P. Sivakumar

The author is currently an undergraduate student at the Department of Fashion Technology of Angel college of Engineering and Technology, Tirupur. His area of interests includes standardization, Lean Manufacturing.

Tamil Nadu.

Email: [email protected]

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How to Get a Merchandiser Job

How to Get a Merchandiser Job

Many people ask how to Get a Merchandiser Job, to answer their question I am sharing my own experience so that you can have some idea.

General thinking about getting a job as a merchandiser

For getting a job in as merchandiser we must have a special reference, thinking so is not true. Definitely, you are thinking why am I saying this so confidently? I am saying this so confidently from my experience.

how to get a merchandiser job

How I got my first job as a trainee merchandiser?

After passing BSc engineering from textile I have been also disappointed, I was scared of thinking about my career. Most of my friends already joined on the job but I did not have a job yet.

I also wanted to get help from anybody. But in reality, I have found nothing is going well for seeking my job. Then I have taken a decision that I will not go to anybody for getting a job. I started to prepare myself by meaning that if any interview call will come; I will not let the chance to go. And I started an online application for a job and continue my study for the interview preparation.

After a few days, I have got an interview call from a company for trainee merchandiser. I present myself so confidently in the interview board and answered all questions so confidently. And I found they were so satisfied with my answers. Although there was a long list of candidates I was confident to get that job. And happens also so.

How I got my job in buying house as assistant merchandiser?

I was always eager to do the job as a merchandiser in a buying house. I told to my senior person about this. He told me don’t worry; you can apply for buying house only through this is your dream. Then I have started for applying for buying house job. And in a few days, I have got a call for assistant merchandiser job in a buying house. I never stopped my study and acquiring knowledge.

On the day of the interview, I found a lot of candidates for this post only. Female & male both were there for one post only. Whatever after finishing my interview I was so happy because I was able to answer all questions in a good manner. I was satisfied with my interview and confident also to get this job. Next day I got a call from this office for re-interview next week.

In such a way I faced three times interview for this job and I was doing well confidently. On the last day from four candidates, I was selected and got a confirmation letter. After joining here I heard that there were more than eighty candidates for this post and they found me the best one. This word makes me feel someone special for my sector.

This is my story about my job getting experience. Believe me, there is nothing better than knowledge and smartness in own sector for profession carrier. If anybody can start his/her professional carrier with his/her own way it brings so much satisfaction and confidence which happens to me.

What should you need to do to get a job as a merchandiser?

So, don’t worry if you don’t have any special reference. Avoiding wasting time to find out a reference, try to learn more and more. Read newspaper & magazine, follow up renowned blog & website and try to solve out your problem by exploring. And those are the student now; you should try to prepare your assignment very attentively. And don’t forget to practice frequently speaking English. No competition in the job sector is very high. So make yourself prepare for this competition in a proper way.

how to achieve your dream

I am sharing my story of getting a job as a merchandiser for making you motivated for study. If you have any alternative idea about getting a job then please do not hesitate to share with us. If you have any question please put your question as a comment below the post. In future will try to write about which types of question you will face on the interview board for the post of merchandiser from my experience.

If you like this article please do not forget to share on facebook and put your valuable comment

Written By

Engineer Sheikh Nurja

B.Sc engineer of textile