Denim Washing Process

Denim Washing

Washing is a process which is done in denim garments for increasing its value. It also makes the garment comfortable for the users. Denim without a wash is not always user-friendly. Washing increases the outlook of denim garments added extra value to the customer. A better-washed product ensures a higer standard of denim. Purpose to purpose washing varies and outlook of denim also varies because of different washing methods.

Flow Chart of Denim Washing

Flow chart of Denim Washing, Denim Washing Process

Types of Denim Washing Process

There is two widely used process of washing denim. One is a dry process and other is a wet process.

Dry Process Wet Process
1.  Whiskering 1. Desizing
2.     Brushing 2. Enzyme
3.     Tacking 3. Acid Wash
4.     3DCrinkle 4. Bleaching
5.     P.PSpray 5. Neutralization
6.     Grinding 6. Rinse Wash
7.     Tie 7. Tint
8.     Twist 8. Over Dyeing
9.     Damage 9. Cleaning
10. Laser 10. Softening

Dry Process

This process is done in the unwashed condition. Basically, denim garments are treated here but nowadays twill garments are also treated.

Whisker

Whisker is the most common dry process for denim garments. This is done by making a pattern and put the garments then remove the color from the pattern area. After wash, we can see the pattern mark. It is one kind of design on the garments.

Manual Whisker

This whisker is done in a manual way with the help of a pattern. On denim garments, we have done it by abrasive paper.

Material Needed for Manual whisker

  1. Pattern
  2. Abrasive paper
    For work, a worker is used different types of abrasive paper. Like as –
    I) P-320 (for very rough surface)
    II) P-400 (for very rough surface)
    III) P-600(for less rough surface)
    IV) P-800 (for medium surface)
  3. Marking Chalk

The Procedure of Manual whisker

  • Put the whisker pattern into the garments
  • Then rub the pattern area according to standard intensity by abrasive paper
  • Quality check

Laser Whisker

This whisker is done by laser machine. Here, garments specific area are burned by imposing laser with high intensity. After wash, the burned indigo color will be removed and whisker effect will be visible.

The Procedure of Laser Whisker

  • Making the design by Photoshop/illustrator
  • Put the garments on the machine surface
  • Set the intensity of the burn
  • Burn the garments
  • Quality check

Required Equipment’s for Laser Whisker

  1. Laser Machine
  2. Leather hand gloves and goggles for safety.

Hand Scrapping

This process is used to remove/fade the color from a specific area of the garments with an abrasive paper. The faded effect is nicely visible after wash.

Required Tools for Hand Scrapping

  1. Abrasive paper
  2. Dummy
  3. Chalk for marking and masks

Working Procedure of Hand Scrapping

  1. Specify the area
  2. Put the garments into dummy
  3. Scrapping with emery paper
  4. Quality checking

P.P Spray

Potassium Permanganate is sprayed on the garments at a specific area. Garments are placed on a dummy first and then pp spraying is done with the help of gun by air pressure. After that garments are dried and finally neutralize it to get the desired effect.

Materials Needed for P.P Spray

  • Spray gun.
  • PP solution
  • Air pressure
  • Mask

The procedure of P.P Spray

  • Placement on dummy
  • Spraying
  • Drying
  • Neutralization
  • Quality check

Tagging

Tagging or tacking is the process which is done at the unwashed condition of garments. After wash, we will get its effect. The maximum time we will do it at edge area by folding the garments. Sometimes this process damages the garments by creating a hole.

Materials Needed for Tagging

  • Tag gun
  • Tag pin
  • Chalk
  • Hand Gloves

Procedure of Tagging

  • Marking the garments
  • Fold the garments as per standard
  • Then tag the garments
  • Quality check

Destroy

This process is done by pen grinding machine which destroys only the warp yarns of the fabrics or garments. The destroy look on the garments is best viewed after washing.

Necessary Tools to Destroy

  • Pen grinding machine
  • Marking Chalk
  • Pattern board
  • Hand gloves
  • Masks

Working Procedure of Destroy

  • Marking the area
  • Destruct the garments by pen grinder
  • Check the quality

Grinding

This process is done at edges area of garments. If the garments require two-time wash in that case grinding is done after the first wash to avoid the damages of garments.

Materials Needed for Grinding

  • Grinding machine
  • Hand gloves for safety.

Procedure of Grinding

  • Run the machine
  • Touching the edge of garments according to standard.
  • Quality Check.

Crinkle

This process is done by crinkle machine or by manual clipping of a specific area and the effect is more visible at front and back knee area.

2D Crinkle

This process is done by crinkle machine or by manual clipping of a specific area and the effect is more visible at front and back knee area. In this process, the two-dimensional effect is produced.

Material Needed for Crinkle

  • Crinkle machine
  • Resin
  • Clip
  • White fabric

Process flow of 2D Crinkle

  • Applying Resin
  • Garment Placement on machine
  • Squeeze the garments
  • Keep it up to retention time (Curing)
  • Quality Check.

3D Crinkle

This effect is found by the special treatments of garments. By this system, the 3-dimensional effect is produced. The final is more visible after washing the garments.

Tools used in 3D Crinkle

  • 3D crinkle machine
  • Resin
  • White fabric

The procedure of 3D Crinkle

  • Apply resin
  • Placement into dummy
  • Make 3D crinkle as per standard
  • Pre-cure the garments at 90 degrees C
  • Taken out the garments from the machine
  • Put into curing oven for full cure
  • Quality check

Wet Process

This types of processes are done at the wet condition. There are so many stages in the wet process.

Normal Wash

This wash is the combination of rinse wash and softener wash.

The purposes of Normal Wash

  • To remove dust, oil spot, and other impurities.
  • To make the garments soft.

Problems of Normal Wash

  • Sometimes pocket staining may occur.
  • Colorfastness may be failing.
  • Tone change if wash time is increased.

Enzyme Wash

In this wash, the enzyme is used to create the desired effect. They work basically on the surface of the fabric. The enzyme may be neutral or acidic according to the requirement of shade. The main benefits of using enzyme are that it is biodegradable and hence eco-friendly.

Purpose of Enzyme wash

  • To remove size and starch materials.
  • To make the garments softer.
  • To improve fastness and anti-pilling properties.

Stone Enzyme Wash

Stone and Enzyme are used together for washing. Heavy abrasion occurs in this wash. Typically done for Denim garments.

Problems of Stone Enzyme Wash

  • Sometimes metal may be found after using stone.
  • Hem and seam area can be damaged.

Bleach Wash

In bleach wash, a strong oxidative bleaching agent is added during the washing, with or without pumice stones.

Acid Wash

Acid washing or ice washing is usually done by dry tumbling the garments with pumice stones presoaked in an acid solution.

Problems of Acid Wash

  • Wide variation in effect.
  • PP spot may come.
  • Garments can be damaged due to vigorous action.

Specifications of Front Loading Machine

Washing Capacity 30kg
Drum Size(diameter*depth) 900*500mm
Drum Volume 315L
Washing Speed 37rpm
High Extractor Speed 750rpm
Extractor G Value 285
Motor Power 4kW
Inverter Power 5.5kW

Specifications of Top Loading Machine

Washing Capacity 25kg
Drum Size(diameter*depth) 850*450mm
Drum Volume 290L
Washing Speed 34rpm
High Extractor Speed 680rpm
Extractor G Value 255
Motor Power 3.5kW
Inverter Power 2.5kW
Electric Heating Power 20kW
Steam Consumption Ratio 0.7kg/kg

Specifications of Hydro Extractor Machine

Type/Parameter Model : TG-25
Capacity 25kg
Speed 820rpm
Diameter of Drum (diameter x depth) 570×290mm
Motor Power 1.1kW
Rated Voltage 380V/50HZ/3 P; 220V/60HZ/3 P; 400V/50HZ/3 P; 415V/50HZ/3 P
Width 950mm
Depth 900mm
Height 650mm
Weight 350kg

Another Specifications of Hydro Extractor Machine

Type/Parameter Model : RA-29
Capacity 30kg
Speed 850rpm
The diameter of Drum (diameter x depth) 590×3000mm
Motor Power 1.3kW
Rated Voltage 380V/50HZ/3 P; 220V/60HZ/3 P; 400V/50HZ/3 P; 415V/50HZ/3 P
Width 990mm
Depth 950mm
Height 600mm
Weight 350kg

Related Article You May Love to Read

  1. Garments washing
  2. Washing Defects
  3. R&D Department of Garments washing
  4. Sand Blasting washing
  5. ETP Plant setting up a process for Garments washing
  6. ETP process flow chart of washing

Written by
A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)
Email: [email protected]
Linkedin: A.M. Amirul Islam

Operation Breakdown and SMV of Men’s Long Sleeve Shirt

Operation Breakdown and SMV of Men’s Long Sleeve Shirt

Operation Breakdown for Garments ManufacturingOperation breakdown is a list of processor operation in sequence wise with SMV or SAM and machine Helper list. Style-wise operation breakdown is done by an industrial engineer in an excel chart. Operation breakdown report help to set the line layout of every style. For your better understanding, I made an Operation Breakdown and SMV of Men’s Long Sleeve Shirt in an excel sheet.

Operation Breakdown Report Includes

  1. List of operation
  2. Operation wise needed sewing machine list
  3. Operation wise number of  sewing machine
  4. SMV or SAM of every operation
  5. Production target of every operation

Operation Breakdown and SMV of Men’s Long Sleeve Shirt

OPERATION M/C TYPE Number of Machine Needed SMV Target Production in 100% Efficiency(Pcs) Target Production in 80% Efficiency(Pcs)
MAKE SECTION-SMALL PARTS
COLLER FUSING IRN 2 0.25 240 192
COLLAR MAKE MARK + MATCH HELPER 1 0.25 240 192
COLLAR MAKE WITH HELPER THREAD SNL 2 0.45 133 213
COLLAR ALLOWANCE CUT HELPER 1 0.25 240 192
COLLAR TURN + THREAD REMOVE HELPER 1 0.25 240 192
COLLAR TOP 1/4 STC SNL 2 0.32 188 300
COLLAR + BAND MATCH HELPER 1 0.3 200 160
BAND JOIN SNL 2 0.55 109 175
COLLAR ALLOWANCE NOSE  CUT + SERGING 3 OL 1 0.35 171 137
BAND TOP (MIDDLE)  STC SNL 1 0.3 200 160
COLLAR  MARK SHOULDER PSN HELPER 1 0.3 200 160
FLAP IRN IRN 2 0.45 133 213
FLAP MAKE SNL 2 0.6 100 160
FLAP TOP STC SNL 2 0.55 109 175
FLAP PEN POINT MARK+ROLLING SNL 3 0.4 150 360
MARK FOR CUFF MAKE HELPER 1 0.35 171 137
CUFF MAKE SNL 1 0.5 120 96
CUFF MAKE VERT 1 0.4 150 120
CUFF TOP STC SNL 2 0.6 100 160
BACK PART
BACK PART DART MAKE SNL 1 0.25 240 192
MAIN + FIT LBL ATT WT BACK YK SNL 2 0.3 200 320
BACK YK ATT 3 PARTS SNL 2 0.28 214 343
BACK YK TOP STC SNL 1 0.4 150 120
CARE LBL ATT SNL 1 0.3 200 160
BACK NECK TRIMMING HELPER 1 0.5 120 96
BACK PART CHECK QC
FRONT PART
BOX PLATE MAKE K-S 2 0.55 109 175
THREAD CUT HELPER 1 0.2 300 240
BTN PLATE MAKE SNL 1 0.5 120 96
FRONT NECK TRIMMING HELPER 1 0.3 200 160
ASSEMBLY
BACK + FRONT PART MATCH HELPER 1 0.2 300 240
SHOULDER JOIN SNL 2 0.3 200 320
SHOULDER T/S DNL 1 0.25 240 192
POCKET + FLAP MARK HELPER 2 0.45 133 213
POCKET ROLLING SNL 1 0.2 300 240
POCKET IRN IRN 2 0.2 300 480
PLACKET IRN IRN 2 0.5 120 192
POCKET MATCH HELPER 1 0.25 240 192
POCKET JOIN SNL 2 0.6 100 160
POCKET 1/4 SNL 2 0.55 109 175
FLAP MATCH HELPER 1 0.2 300 240
FLAP JOIN DNL 2 0.5 120 192
NECK SHARING SAFETY STC SNL 1 0.25 240 192
COLLAR + BODY ASSEMBLY HELPER 1 0.25 240 192
COLLAR JOIN SNL 2 0.45 133 213
COLLAR CLOSE  TOP STC SNL 3 0.65 92 222
SLEEVE PLACKET OPEN MARK + CUT HELPER 1 0.3 200 160
GANBLE JOIN( FOLDER) SNL 1 0.35 171 137
GANBLE TACK + EXCESS CUT SNL 1 0.3 200 160
PLACKET JOIN + EDGE TOP STC SNL 2 0.4 150 240
CUFF JNS PSN MARK HELPER 1 0.25 240 192
SLEEVE MATCHING HELPER 1 0.2 300 240
SLEEVE JOIN 3 OL 2 0.5 120 192
SLEEVE INSIDE ALLOWANCE CUT HELPER 1 0.25 240 192
ARMHOLE TOP STC ( FOLDER) DNL 2 0.6 100 160
THEAD CUT + ALLOWANCE CUT 3OL 1 0.35 171 137
SIDE SEAM TOP STC FOA 2 0.45 133 213
CUFF  JOIN PSN MARK HELPER 1 0.35 171 137
CUFF JOIN SNL 3 0.8 75 180
BOTTOM HEM SNL 2 0.45 133 213
COMFORT LBL JOIN SNL 1 0.4 150 120
FINAL THREAD CUT HELPER 2 0.4 150 240

Here,

  • IRN – Iron Machine
  • SNL – Single needle lock stitch
  • 3 OL – 3 thread Overlock
  • VERT – Vertical Machine
  • DNL – Double needle lockstitch machine
  • K-S – Kansai machine
  • FOA – Feed of the arm

Operation Breakdown and SMV of Men’s Long Sleeve Shirt excel

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)
Email: [email protected]

Linkedin: A.M. Amirul Islam

Competitiveness of Indian Textile Industry

Indian Textile Industry

The textile industry employs about 105 million people directly and indirectly. India’s overall textile exports during FY 2017-18 stood at US$ 37.74 billion. The Indian textiles industry is extremely varied, right from fiber to fashion. The Indian textiles industry, currently estimated at around US$ 150 billion, is expected to reach US$ 230 billion by 2020. The Indian Textile Industry contributes approximately 2% to India’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP), 10% of manufacturing production and 14% to overall Index of Industrial Production (IIP). The industry (including dyed and printed) attracted Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) worth US$ 2.82 billion during April 2000 to December 2017. Indian Textile Industry is performing very well although there is huge competitiveness of Indian Textile Industry.

Overview of Indian Textile and Apparel Industry

Major Textile Brands

Top Textile Brands doing Business in India

Projections for India in World Exports

The projected export values to the world by India showing that we will have a positive growth in our export of garments. So this is a good sign for this industry.

Projections for India in World Exports

Competitiveness of Indian Textile Industry

Industry Competitiveness of Indian Textile Industry is very high because, there is a high threat of substitutes, higher bargaining power of buyers, high competitive rivalry, and high threat of new entrants. All of these situations are creating a negative impact on the textile industry. Only positive things are there is low bargaining power of suppliers.

Competitiveness of Indian Textile Industry

 

Challenges for Indian Textile Industries

There are six major challenges for the Indian textile industry. To remain competitive an industry will need to deal with these challenges.

  1. Goods and Service Tax
  2. Increase Labor Wages and Worker’s Salary
  3. Access to Latest Technology
  4. Fierce Competition from China and Bangladesh
  5. Environmental Challenges
  6. Lack of Institutional Support

Opportunities for Indian Textile Industries

Technical Textile

The Technical Textile Industry in India has witnessed one of the fastest growing rates in the recent years and is expected to reach USD 32 billion by 2023, representing CAGR of 9.6% during 2014-2023.

Apparel

The global apparel market size is expected to reach $2.6 trillion in 2025 growing by a projected rate of 4%. By 2025, India will be the second most attractive apparel market adding around $121 bn in the world.

Machine Manufacturing

According to the report of Textile Ministry of India till the year 2012-13 the production of textile machinery was Rs5280 Cr. Indian Market has a lot much potential to be in the machine manufacturing field and has a great future in it.

E-Commerce

The growth of Indian E-Commerce companies provides opportunities for the Indian textile industry in the domestic as well as international market. Amazon, Flipkart, Jabong, and Myntra are some of the examples of E-commerce.

How to Deal with Industry Competition

To deal with extensive industrial competition, the textile industry in India need focus on the following matters:

  1. Identify a need in the industry and satisfy it with a product or service
  2. Improve on existing products or services
  3. Focus on the needs of customers
  4. Do not underestimate competitors
  5. Good Marketing Strategies
  6. Good Industry working culture

Summary of Competitiveness of Indian Textile Industry

  1. Indian Textile Market has the great potential to grow in future
  2. Indian Textile Industry has great competition in Spinning, Weaving and Processing Sectors.
  3. There is not much scope in Technical textiles, Machine Manufacturing, E-commerce, and Apparel sector
  4. To stand out unique in the textile market industries has to do something innovative than the current competitors.
  5. Before entering into a business one must do a market survey and take feedback from people, from the same he or she must make a conclusion to start the business.
  6. Industries must focus on their serviceability and must work according to the customer’s demand in the market.
  7. In order to be a good competitor industry must have a customer focus, good working culture, good promotion strategies with the following ways industries can make a good market as well as profit in the textile market.

Competitiveness of Indian Textile Industry pdf

Written by

Yash Sanjay Trivedi 
VJTI, Mumbai, India
Email: [email protected]

List of Machinery and Their Functions of Apparel Industry

List of Machinery and Their Functions of Apparel Industry

Various types of machine use in the apparel industry from Warehouse to finishing. In this article, you will get a list of machinery and their functions of apparel industry.  Hopefully, this list of all the machinery of the apparel industry with their uses will help you to understand the different machine functions. This list contains all types of Garments machinery.

 List of Machine Used in Garments Factory

List of Machine Used in Garments Factory

  1. Fabrics inspection machine
  2. Plotter printing machine
  3. Cutting machine
  4. Fusing machine
  5. Embroidery machine
  6. Sewing machine
  7. Thread Trimmer machine
  8. Thread sucking machine
  9. Iron machine
  10. Pull test machine
  11. Metal detector machine
  12. Barcode scanning machine
  13. Heat seal joining the machine
  14. Case label printing machine
  15. Moisture checking machine
  16. Digital Hygrometer
  17. Air compressor machine
  18. Boiler machine
  19. Generator
  20. Water pump

List of Machinery and Their Functions of Apparel Industry

Functions of Machinery Used in Garments

List of Machinery and Their Functions of Apparel Industry
SL Name of Machine Functions of Machine Using department
1 Fabrics inspection machine Use to do fabrics inspection to check fabrics defects Fabrics inspection
2 Plotter printing machine Print Garments marker CAD
3 Cutting machine Cut fabrics as per marker Cutting
4 Fusing machine Fuse interlining Fusing-Sewing
5 Embroidery machine To set Embroidery in garments Embroidery
6 Sewing machine Sew garments Sewing
7 Thread Trimmer machine Thread trimming of garments uncut thread Finishing
8 Thread sucking machine Reduce loose and unnecessary thread from garments. Finishing
9 Iron machine Pressing garments to get good appearances Finishing
10 Pull test machine To determine the pulling strength of any type of button Finishing
11 Metal detector machine o get a metal-free final product in carton Packing and Finishing
12 Barcode scanning machine Scan sticker and ticketing of garments Finishing
13 Heat seal joining machine Set up heat seal label in Garments Finishing
14 Case label printing machine Print case label of garments carton Merchandising-Packing
15 Moisture checking machine Find out moisture percentage of finished garments Packing
16 Digital Hygrometer Determine  RH% for every section All section-specially warehouse
17 Air compressor machine Produce compressed air for machine and maintenance department Utility section
18 Boiler machine Generate hot steam for Iron machine Utility section
19 Generator Produce electricity Utility section
20 Water pump Pick water for factory Utility section

List of Machinery and their functions of the apparel industry pdf

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)
Email: [email protected]

Linkedin: A.M. Amirul Islam

Compliance Audit Checklist in Apparel Industry

Compliance Audit in Apparel Industry

A compliance audit is one kind of audit which is specially designed for auditing the compliance issues related with the apparel industry. Different regulatory authorities set different type of regulatory issues. And buyers of garments ask from the company whether they are following their required compliance or not. These issues are checked by the auditing process which is known as compliance audit. After a compliance audit, they provide/ issue certificate. From the Compliance Audit Checklist in Apparel Industry a garments makers will be able to know what are the things buyers may ask from the company.

Compliance Audit in Apparel Industry

Compliance Audit Checklist in Apparel Industry

Compliance Audit is very important for garments manufacturing factory. To get an order from the buyer, your company must have to pass social Compliance Audit. Buyer may cancel the order if your company fails to pass the Compliance Audit. In this article, I am giving a checklist for any buyer Compliance audit preparation.

Compliance Audit Checklist in Apparel Industry

Areas/Categories of Garments Compliance Audit

  1. Licenses, permits and Facility Information
  2. Child and under-aged worker
  3. Forced labor and Discrimination
  4. Freedom of Association and collective bargaining
  5. Right of worker
  6. Disciplinary Practice
  7. Working Hours
  8. Wages, Benefits & Compensation
  9. Workplace Safety
  10. Occupational Health & Welfare
  11. Environment Management
  12. Management Practice & Sub-contractor /supplier control
  13. Training records
  14. Company Policies

Licenses, Permits and Facility Information

  • Factory profile
  • Architectural & Structural Drawing Approval
  • Soil Test Report Approval
  • Trade license
  • Factory license
  • Fire license
  • Boiler license
  • Generator permission
  • Electrical permission/ Sub-station permission
  • TIN certificate
  • Export registration certificate and Import registration certificate
  • Export promotion bureau certificate
  • Bond license
  • Rent agreement

Child and under-aged worker

  • Child labor remediation process
  • Recruitment policy
  • Personal file
  • Agreement with the service provider/sub-contract

Forced labor and Discrimination

  • Any harassment or discrimination issues
  • Policy on a prohibition of forced labor
  • Awareness/Training register
  • Job responsibility of security guard

Freedom of Association and Collective Bargaining

  • Policy on freedom association
  • Awareness/Training register
  • Formation procedure of worker association/trade union
  • Meeting minutes of worker participatory committee
  • Register for complain /Suggestion
  • Grievance handling procedure

Right of Worker

  • Personal file of worker
  • Service book
  • Employee ID card

Disciplinary Practice

  • Policy on disciplinary practice or rules
  • Leave Record
  • Orientation training on factory code of conduct & legal requirement
  • All kind of policy
  • Disciplinary action log & record
  • Awareness/training register
  • Final settlement
  • Others legal facilities

Working Hours

  • Working hour Approval
  • Working hour record for all section
  • Overtime hour record
  • Attendance Register
  • Declared holiday list
  • Manpower list

Wages, Benefits & Compensation

  • Wages/payroll sheet (last 1 year)
  • Overtime wages sheet (last six months)
  • Payslips (last 1 year)
  • Wages Increment record
  • Maternity Benefit register & Record
  • Group Insurance with manpower update list
  • Policy on wages, overtime, payment date, calculation method, leaves & holidays etc.

Workplace Safety

  • Sub-soil/Geological investigation report
  • Building structural plan/approval
  • 3rd party assessment report
  • Firefighting training record
  • Fire drill record
  • Firefighting team
  • Firefighting equipment list
  • Fire safety plan
  • Personal file of Fire Officer
  • Electrical & Mechanical Equipment periodical checklist
  • Competency certificate of Electrician
  • Competency certificate of Boiler Operator
  • Chemical Handling Training
  • Health checkup record
  • Chemical list
  • Safely machine operating training register
  • Needle stock register, Broken & Missing Register
  • Sharp tool policy
  • Emergency evacuation diagrams
  • Emergency exit doors
  • Building structure safety
  • PPE (personal protective equipment) use
  • Aisle or Stairway

Occupational Health & Welfare

  • Personal file of Welfare officer
  • Drinking water test report
  • First aid training & List of the first aider
  • Medical agreement
  • Competency certificate of Doctor
  • Competency certificate of Nurse
  • Personal file of care governance
  • Childcare register
  • Canteen committee

Environment Management

  • Environmental risk assessment as per section
  • Emergency procedure to reduce risk
  • Environmental clearance certificate
  • Waste disposal agreement /procedure
  • Wastewater test report in-house and outside
  • Energy survey/ Assessment record

 Management Practice & Sub-contractor /Supplier Control

  • Awareness training record for new & old workers
  • Mid Management training record
  • Internal Audit record
  • Policy on Sub-contract control
  • Sub-contract control procedure & record

Training Records

  • Emergency evacuation & fire drill record
  • List of firefighters trained by fire service/BGMEA
  • Disciplinary Rules communication
  • First Aid training record
  • Chemical Training record
  • Machinery safety training record
  • Health and safety training record
  • Training on KIABI compliance

Company Policies

  • Child Labor Policy
  • Child labor Remediation Policy
  • Disciplinary Rules/Policy
  • CSR Policy
  • Anti-Corruption/Bribery policy
  • Sub-contractor/Supplier Monitoring
  • Grievance Procedure
  • Environmental Policy
  • Energy efficiency plan
  • Environment emergency procedure
  • Deduction for late/after lunch assentation

Compliance Audit Checklist in Apparel Industry

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)
Email: [email protected]

Linkedin: A.M. Amirul Islam

What is Merchandising

What is Merchandising?

Merchandising is a process of selling goods and services. The process of  starts with identifying target customers, setting a price for a particular product, do the negotiation and finally deliver the product to the target customers.

I asked the question of what do you mean by merchandising to several people who are involved with the apparel industry just to hear from them how they actually define merchandising. Most of them said that all the activities to sell a product is merchandising. So, the scope of the job merchandising is not limited to how we define merchandising is rather than all activities are related to selling.

As a function of merchandising, apparel manufacturer or wholesaler use merchandisers to communicate with the buyer of garments or to bring new customer, negotiate with them and make them induce to place an order. So, in this case merchandising is related to wholesale of merchandise (garments).

Characteristics of Merchandising

If you analyze the term “Merchandising” you may identify the following characteristics:

  • Merchandisers are responsible for merchandising.
  • It helps to sell the product to the target customers or audiences.
  • Works as a communication media for manufactuere or wholesellers and retailer or final consumers.

What is Merchandising

Example of Apparel Merchandising

Suppose H & M buy different types of garments from Epyllion and those people responsible for communicating, placing the order, bargaining, receiving an order, sampling, etc. are a merchandiser and all together these tasks are merchandising.

So, the process by which a merchandiser sells its products to the target customer is called merchandising. Merchandising is a commonly used term, mostly applicable in the apparel industry. Every year in apparel industry many merchandisers are recruited for the purpose of merchandising.

The demand for merchandising is increasing for-profit motive organization but the question is who will deal with merchandising for the organization. A person deals with the selling of products who is known as a merchandiser. Remember one thing that it is not necessary to involve merchandising for an export purpose it also can be used for local business.

There are Basically Two Forms of Merchandising

  1. Retail Merchandising: Retail merchandising is mainly applicable to a retail store. The scope of retail merchandising is broad because we can use it for every type of products sold in the retail store.
  2. Visual Merchandising: On the other hand, visual merchandising is another form of retail merchandising where the main stimulating factor is visualizing the product and service to create attraction and interest and ultimately selling of products.

Recently Another two forms of Merchandising are visible from the functional characteristics of merchandising. These are:

  1. Virtual Merchandising (Online Selling) or Digital Merchandising or Ecommerce Merchandising
  2. Wholesale Selling (Merchandising on behalf of Wholesaler or manufacturer)

Difference Between Merchandising and Marketing

Many people become confused about whether marketing and merchandising are similar or different. There is a difference between merchandising and marketing. Marketing is a broad area of business where merchandising is a part of marketing activities, which deals with the selling of goods and services.

Finally, briefly, we can define merchandising as a set of activities we (Merchandisers) do to sell our product and services to the target customers for the purpose of generating revenue and satisfy our customer. Merchandising is a set of activities for selling products, merchandise, service to the target customer with the help of merchandiser.

Garments Merchandising

Garments merchandising is both applicable for wholesale and retail merchandising in the apparel industry, Where merchandisers work for manufacturer, wholesaler and retail store. It is also known as apparel merchandising. It is one of the popular forms of merchandising because of its extensive use in the apparel industry. Merchandising process make it easier to meet the buyer’s requirement through time to time follow up and ensuring on-time delivery of garments items.

Garments Merchandiser

Garments merchandiser is the person who is responsible for the merchandising of garments products and services. Merchandising is the core function of a merchandiser. A garments merchandiser need to have several qualifications to become a successful merchandising. Garments merchandiser basically contact with garments buyers, negotiate with them, take orders, manage samples and send it to the buyers, take the order and finally, ensure the delivery of the product to the buyers at the right time.

What is Merchandising pdf

Written by

Md. Nahian Mahmud Shaikat