GSM of Fabric: Meaning and Calculation

You will not find anybody who is working in different processing of apparel manufacturing but didn’t have any idea about GSM. Simply, GSM is the unit for the weighing of fabric. Actually not only fabric but GSM is also used specifying the weight of paper, lather or any sheet-like materials.

Meaning and Calculation of GSM

GSM of Fabric: Meaning and Calculation

What GSM Stands for?

GSM is the abbreviation Grams per Square Meter. It says the weight of one square meter of fabric. That means if we make a piece of fabric whose area is just 1 square meter and weighted in a balance what the reading shows will be the GSM of that fabric.

Calculation of Fabric Gram Per Square Meter (GSM)

If we need to check/calculate the weight of any fabric, what we do? We cut a circular shaped piece of fabric by GSM cutter and put it on an electronic balance. Balance shows the reading 1.80gram, we proclaim that the fabric has Gram Per Square Meter (GSM) 180 moving the decimal for two digits from the balance reading. Why we do this? Though GSM is the weight of one-meter fabric why we measure such circular piece fabric?

There is very silly but interesting math in it. Let’s have look.

Measurement of GSM

It is much difficult to measure fabric weight by making a piece of fabric of 1 square meter and it will be a wastage of fabric as we have to check the weight for several times of the same fabric. Then what can we do? If we make the specimen 1/100 of 1sqm i.e., 100 square centimeters, now weigh the piece of fabric of 100square centimeter and multiply the reading by 100, we will find the GSM of the fabric.

That means it is more convenient to measure the weight with a piece of 100square centimeter, rather than 1square meter.

Now the problem is that our GSM cutter is circular shaped, not square. Let us think if the GSM cutter is square-shaped, will that be possible to cut the piece by screwing the cutter?

That’s why GSM cutter is circular shaped. Now we need to find out a circle whose area is 100cm2. It is pretty easy, just back to the High School Geometry. We know, area of a circle is πr2.

Now if we summarized it then comes, the radius of our GSM cutter is 5.64cm and the area of the circular piece of fabric that we found by the GSM cutter is 100cm2. We will find GSM of that fabric by multiplying the weight reading of 100cm2 fabric by 100.

GSM Calculator

Written by

Galib Hossain

Senior Merchandiser at Centro Tex Ltd.

Primary Motion of Loom

Primary Motion of Loom

There are many mechanisms on a modern weaving machine for various purposes. There are five basic mechanisms that are essential for continuous weaving. They are as follows:

  1. Warp let-off
  2. Shedding
  3. Picking
  4. Beat-up
  5. Fabric take-up

primary motion of loom

A power loom

Warp let-off

Warp let-off mechanism releases the warp yarn from the warp beam as the warp yarn is woven into the fabric. The let-off mechanism applies tension to the warp yarns by controlling the rate of flow of warp yarns. The mechanism should keep the proper tension on the warp yarns which controls the crimp rates of warp and weft yarns. Uniform tension is essential in weaving.

Warp Shedding

Shedding is the movement of some warp yarns up and comes down to make an angled opening for the weft yarn to be inserted through. This opening is called a shed. The warp sheet has to be rearranged according to the fabric design before the insertion of the next weft yarn to produce the required fabric structure.

Picking/ Weft Insertion

The weft yarn is inserted through the shed after each changing of the shed. It is possible to select and insert different weft yarns one after another. These weft yarns can be of a different color, weight, etc and a selection mechanism is used for this purpose. Depending on the machine type, several different weft yarns can be used in the same fabrics.


When the weft yarn is inserted through the shed, it lies relatively far from its final position. The newly inserted weft yarn needs to be brought to its final position by pushing through the warp sheet. Beat-up is the process of pushing the last inserted weft yarn to the cloth fell by using a device called reed as shown in the above figure.


As the fabric is woven, it should be removed from the weaving area. This is achieved by the take-up motion. The fabric take-up removes cloth at a rate that controls weft density.

Written by

Engineer Sheikh Nurja

B.Sc engineer of textile

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What is Non Woven Fabric

What is non woven fabric?

Nonwoven fabrics are flexible, porous products consisting of one or more fibre layers. In nonwoven fabric the fibres may either preferentially oriented in one direction or may be deposited in a random manner. They are bonded by chemical, thermal or mechanical processes into textile products.

Nonwoven are mainly planar structures. This is a young branch of the textile industry relatively other branches. It has expanded enormously after the Second World War because of high production rate with lower manufacturing cost.

what is non woven fabric

Nonwoven fabric

History of non woven fabric

In 1930 a few textile companies began experimenting with bonded materials as a way of utilizing cotton waste, which next resulting non woven fabric manufacturing. The first commercial
production of non woven fabrics began in 1942 in the United States. Actually it was the result of effort of manufacturing of fabric directly from fibres. The market of non woven products has experienced tremendous growth and has potential for more.

nonwoven fabric

Classification of non-woven fabrics

Nonwovens may be classified as either disposal or durable goods.

Disposable/non durable

Disposable or nondurable non wovens include such one-time use products as diapers, medical dressings, household wipes, and disposable protective clothing.

Durable Goods

Durable goods are used for apparel interfacing, automobile headliners, road underlayments, and carpets.

Manufacturing Process of nonwoven Fabric

The basic sequence of steps in manufacturing contemporary nonwoven fabrics is as follows:

Preparation of the fibre

manufacturing process of nonwoven fabric

Manufacturing Process

Raw Materials of nonwoven fabric

  • Polyester is the most frequently used fibre in the United States. Olefin and nulon are used for their strength, and cotton and rayon are used for absorbency. Some acrylic, acetate, and vinyon are also being used.
  • Fibres are selected on the basis of their properties and expected performance in end uses. New first quality fibres are preferred over reused or reprocessed fibres.
  • Both staple and filament fibres are used. It is possible to blend different lengths as well as fibres of different generic groups.
  • The selection of fibres depends on the product proposed, the care typically given it, and the expected or desired durability.

Written by

Engineer Sheikh Nurja

B.Sc engineer of textile

Merchandiser at buying house

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Classification of Fabric

Fabric can be defined as any planar substance constructed from solutions, fibers, yarns in combination. But textile fabric can be defined as a slightly different way.

Textile Fabric

The textile fabric is that fabric which can be produced directly from webs or fibers by bonding, fusing or interlocking for making no-woven fabrics and felt also. But manufacturing of fabric from yarn is the most common method for a wide range of versatile use.

classification of fabric

Woven Fabric

What is the Classification of fabric

Here I am going to classified fabric according to the manufacturing process of fabric from yarn. Basically, there are the main mechanical methods to manufacture fabric from yarn. They are

  1. Interweaving
  2. Interloping
  3. Intertwining and twisting


Interweaving is processed in which there is an intersection or interlace of two sets of straight threads. Here one set of yarn is called warp yarn which lay in lengthwise of fabric and another set of yarn is called weft yarn which laid as picks or filling in crosswise of fabric.

It is the most common method of producing a fabric. This process has been used in the ancient period to produce a fabric. In interweaving process, we can get straight-edge fabric continuous length contained.




Interloping consists of forming yarn into loops, each of which is typically only released after a succeeding loop has been formed. There has been intermeshed with the loop so that a secure ground loop structure is achieved. The loops are also held together by the yarn passing from one to the next. Knitting is the most common method of interloping. Knitting is the second most used for producing fabric from yarn.



Intertwining and Twisting

There are various types of techniques of intertwining and twisting such as braiding, knotting, etc. In intertwining the yarn or threads are caused to intertwine in the right angle or in any other angles. These techniques tend to produce special construction whose uses are limited for special using purpose.

Braided fabric

Braided Fabric

Another method is to manipulate directly fiber into textile fabrics is a so-called non-woven process. It is a new branch of the textile industry. But this branch is expanding in great number for its high production rates with lower cost.

Nonwoven fabric

Non-woven Fabric

So, here it is clear that including new branch non-woven process there are four types of fabrics. They are:

  • Woven Fabric (by interweaving method)
  • Knitted fabric (by interloping method)
  • Braided fabric (by intertwining/twisting method)
  • Non woven fabric (by a non-woven process)

Written by

Engineer Sheikh Nurja

B.Sc engineer of textile

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What is Knitted Fabric

What is Knitted Fabric?

Knitted Fabric: Knitted fabrics provide comfortable wear to almost any garment. For making comfortable wear we first think about knitted garments. Though it has an open structure so most of the knitted garments contour to the body’s silhouette. That’s why knitted garments are so much popular as inner-wear, bodywear, and sportswear.

what is knitted fabric

Nice comfortable wear made by knitted fabric

Types of Knitted Fabric

There are basically two types of knit fabrics.

  1. Weft knits
  2. Warp knits

Weft knits

Weft knitting is the simplest method of converting a yarn into fabrics. In weft, knitting loops are made in a horizontal way from a single yarn. In this way, inter-meshing of loops take place in a circular or flat form on a crosswise basis. Most of the weft knitting is of tubular form.

Weft Knitting

Weft Knitting

Warp knits

In warp knits yarn zigzag along the length of the fabric. In warp knits the number of stitches in a row is equal of the number of separate strands of yarn. It is almost done by machine, not by hand.

Warp Knitting

Warp Knitting

Written By

Engineer Sheikh Nurja

B.Sc Engineer of Textile

Fabric Consumption of a Basic T-Shirt

Fabric Consumption of a basic T-shirt

Consumption determination of fabric is a very important term in textile sector. Since it depends on fabric prices therefore accurate and closure consumption will reduce fabric wastage which will be beneficial for us economically. So, we should keep proper knowledge of fabric consumption properly.

Here today I am going to present fabric consumption of a basic T-shirt.

 Calculation of Fabric Consumption

For calculating fabric consumption of a basic T-shirt following measurement will be needed.

  1. Body Length
  2. ½ Chest
  3. Sleeve length

Fabric Consumption of a Basic T-Shirt

Fabric Consumption of a Basic T-Shirt

So, now consider

  • Body length = 76 cm (For body length allowance = 3+1+1 = 5 cm)
  • ½ Chest = 58 cm (For chest allowance = 2+1 = 3 cm)
  • Sleeve length = 23 cm (For sleeve length allowance = 2+1+1 = 4 cm)
  • GSM = 180
  • Wastage % = 8%

Fabric consumption per dozen, (all measurement in cm)

[{(Body length + allowance) + (Sleeve length + allowance)} ×

(1/2 chest + allowance)] ×2 × GSM × 12

=                                                                                                         + wastage % kg/dz


So, from given value we find,

[{(76 + 5) + (23+4)} × (58+3)] × 2 × 180× 12

=                                                                                                       + wastage % kg/dz


= 2.84 + 8 % of 2.84 kg/dz

= 2.84 (1 + .08) kg/dz

= 3.04 kg/dozen

= 0.25 kg/piece
Fabric consumption per dozen, (all measurement in inches)

[{(Body length + allowance) + (Sleeve length + allowance)} ×

(1/2 chest + allowance)] ×2 × GSM × 12

=                                                                                                        + wastage % kg/dz

1550 × 1000



Body length              = 30 inches (allowance = 2 inches)

½ chest                     = 23 inches (allowance = 1.75 inches)

Sleeve length          = 9 inches (allowance = 1.25 inches


So, from given value we find,

[{(30 + 2) + (9 + 1.25)} × (23+1.75)] × 2 × 180 × 12

                                                                                                      + wastage % kg/dz

1550 × 1000

= 2.94 + 8 % of 2.84 kg/dz

= 2.94 (1 + .08 kg/dz

= 3.17 kg/dozen

= 0.26 kg/piece

Result:Fabric consumption of basic t-shirt according to given data is(0.25 0r 0.26) kg/pc