What is Stitch? A stitch is a Loops or loops of one or more threads when bound with each other, either by interlacing, interloping or intra-looping or combination of those when sewing fabric and each unit of such configuration is considered as a stitch. In this article, we will share details of different types of stitch used in garments sewing.
Terminology Related with Different Types of Stitch in Garments
Three-term related to stitch
During stitching when one
loop of one thread passes over another loop of another tread is called
During stitching when a loop of one thread passes through the loop of another thread is called interloping.
When a loop one thread passes through the loop of the same tread during sewing is called intra-looping.
Types of Stitch Used in Garments Sewing
There are about 70 types of stitches are available and among them, 18-20 types of stitches are widely used in garments industries, also 2 to 3 types of stitches are used in making of garments for tailoring and domestic purpose. British standard 3870: part1:1991 have been classified according to ISO 4915:1991 into six basic types of stitch.
Stitch class 100: Chain stitch
Stitch class 200: Hand stitch
Stitch class 300: Lock stitch
Stitch class 500: Overedge stitch
Stitch class 600: Covering chain stitch
Stitch Class 100: Chain
Stitches are formed by intra-looping
Each loop is interconnected with the same thread
There is no lower thread
The needle carries the thread through the fabric and looper holds the thread to enter as it descends for the next stitch
Security of stitch is very poor, in case of breakage of one stitch, it unravels very easily
One or more needle thread is used for stitch formation
From opposite sides, it looks different
Application of Chain Stitch
Temporary stitching (e.g. basting) or for blind stitching
Uses for buttonholing, button attaching, hemming
Stitch Class 200: Hand Stitch
Originally made by hand, now can be formed by machine
Looks like domestic hand stitch
It is produced from a single thread passed from one side of the material to the other side with each successive penetration of the needle
This type of stitch is formed by a special type of needle and sewing machine
The needle is double pointed with Centre eyed
Uses Hand Stitch
The lapel of jacket, coat and expensive clothes
A stripe of cloth is part of the front of the jacket or coat
Disadvantages Hand Stitch
Speed of sewing m\c is very slow
Rare in use
Stitch Class 300: Lock Stitch
Lock stitch requires at least two threads to form a stitch, a needle thread that feeds from the top & a lower thread that feeds from the bobbin.
Needle threads are passed through the fabric & are interlaced by the bobbin threads.
A rotary hook catches the needle threads loop as it passes around the bobbin & interlocks the two threads.
The appearance of the lock stitch is similar in both sides of the fabric; it is a special feature.
Fine yarn is preferable for this type of stitching.
Stitches are secured and security of stitches can be increased by back tacking at starting and finishing ends.
Abrasion resistance of lock stitch is better because the stitches are embedded in the fabric.
Uses of Lock Stitch
Joining of facing, collar, pocket & other parts
Especially for topstitching
Both for domestic and industrial purposes
Class 400: Multi Thread Chain Stitch
Multi-thread chain stitch requires one or more needle that forms loops as they pass through the fabric and interloop with the looper thread on the underside
Threads are bound tighter by interlacing & inter-looping
It looks lock stitch at the top side & double chain at the underside
Looper thread is supplied from cone
Need not back tacking at the starting & finishing ends.
Multi-Thread Chain Types of Stitch Used in Garments
for long length sewing, heavy fabric sewing such as denim, attaching lace,
Stitch Class 500: Over Edge
Stitches are formed by two or more group of threads
Formed from one or two needle threads with a looper thread
At least one group of threads pass around the edge of the material
Width of the fabric may vary from 3-5 mm
Prevents the fabric from fraying
They have high elasticity
They cannot be unraveled easily
Uses of Over Edge Types of Stitch in Garments
Widely used for knit fabric
Used for decorative purpose
Joining of the side seam, armhole of a shirt
Inseam, out-seam of a pant
Stitch Class 600: Covering Chain
Stitches are generally formed with three groups of threads
One thread is needle thread, other is the looper thread & another is the top cover threads
Stitches of this class are the most complex of type it may need up to 9 threads
Covering chain stitches are often called flat lock or flat seam stitches.
Uses of Covering Chain Stitch Types of Stitch in Garments
Sewing operator recruitment is a tough job in the apparel industry. To recruit the best quality and efficient operator, sewing operators have to stitch one, two or three bundle garments with good seam quality by a certain time, recruiter checks his/ her production capacity and product quality and can be seen how many operations an operator can do, these few criteria set his grading. Then, Grade, wise operator salary is fixed by sewing operator recruiter, garments manufacturer have own operator grade wise salary standard. Here in this article, you will have details idea of Sewing Machine Operator Recruitment, Grading and Skill Matrix.
Sewing Machine Operator Recruitment, Grading and Skill Matrix in Garments
Lots of factors have to consider when doing operator grading. First, we have to know what type of operation operator does, then the operator’s production efficiency and many others factor. Here you can see below information on how to grade sewing operator.
For the each A grade operation giving 10 marks for 100% efficiency level up to a maximum of 8 operations, marks will be multiplying by the efficiency Percentage. (Example: 10X 0.7, if the efficiency level 70%.)
For each B grade operation giving 7 marks for 100% efficiency level up to a maximum of 8 operations, marks will be multiplying by the efficiency Percentage. (Example: 7X 0.7, if the efficiency level 70 %.)
For each C grade operation giving 5 marks for 100% efficiency level up to a maximum of 8 operations, marks will be multiplying by the efficiency Percentage. (Example: 5 X 0.7, if the efficiency level 70 %.)
General Grading of Sewing Machine Operator
10 marks will be given if the absenteeism less than 3%
5 Marks will be given for over one-year service in the factory
1 to 10 Marks will be given for types in satisfaction level of production management.
To be an ‘A’ grade operators must have the ability to operate 3 different machine
To be a ‘B’ grade operators, must have the ability to operate 3 different machine
Final Grading Based Marks of Sewing Machine Operator
80> GRADE A
70 > 80 GRADE B
60 > 70 GRADE C
Sewing Operator Skills Matrix
Sewing operator skill matrix or summary is a database of operator production capacity of different operation, number of machine and operation with the name he can operate, these process efficiency, salary, date of join. The database makes in Excel (spreadsheet), keeping by IE department in the apparel industry. This database help factory to migrate operator to another operation, to find out best sewing operator easily, to do operator grading easily.
The overlock machine is different from the lockstitch sewing machine, cut the edge of fabrics and cover two parts of fabrics by stitching. Overlock machine has different types of specification, from 2/3 to 6 threads can be used. Here in this article, we will have detail discussion of Overlock Sewing Machine Types, Specifications and Technical Adjustment.
Overlock Sewing Machine Types, Specifications and Technical Adjustment
Types of Overlock Sewing Machine
An overlock / over edge machine is a high-speed sewing machine. This is the quickest performing machine for giving overedge stitches. Overlock Machines Are available in following Specifications
2 Thread Overlock machine
3 Thread Overlock Machine
4 Thread Overlock Machine
5 Thread Overlock Machine
6 Thread Overlock Machine
The Relationship between Overlock Machine and Number of Thread Used
No. Of Threads use
Total threads use
2 Thread Overlock Machine
3 Thread Overlock Machine
4 Thread Overlock Machine
5 Thread Overlock Machine
6 Thread Overlock Machine
Features of Overlock Sewing Machine
Maximum Machine speed 6500 SPM (vary operation wise)
Stitch can be made using 2,3,4,5 or 6 threads, depending on the no. of needles and looper
Stitch length 2 to 4 mm
Stitching type- Overlock stitch
Used feed is Deferential feed
Oil lubrication system- Automatic
Used in Woven, knit; all types of garments
Technical Adjustment of Overlock Machine
Technical adjustments which are to be taught while dealing with OVERLOCK machines are given below. Trainers should keep the following points in mind during the session of OVERLOCK machine
First, demonstrate the adjustment then ask trainee to practice on the machine.
Use the Instructional manual given by the machinery supplier during Session
Make sure, all the trainees are able to understand the Instructional manual.
The practice of sewing on a machine is also necessary.
Our study found that about 48 Sewing Machine Parts and Functions  you need to know to replace them. Earlier people used to sew by hand but after the industrial revolution mechanical machine was created which is a handheld sewing machine. Because of continuous development now we have automated sewing machines available for home use, commercial use and industrial use. Although basic sewing functions remain the same, the pattern of stitches is different and improved. By using the modern sewing machine, you can put different types of stitch as required. For a good finished product, you need to buy a good quality sewing machine, either you can buy a manual or automated. For personal use, you can buy a handheld sewing machine.
Sewing Machine Parts and Functions
Now with a modern machine, you can not only sew your cloth but also can do embroidery. A good quality thread is required for getting better finishing and sewing strength. Here I will discuss all the different parts of a sewing machine both for the traditional and modern, manual and automatic sewing machine.
Choice of Right Brand of Sewing Machine
You may think about what brand you should choose among available sewing machine brands. My suggestion for you first determines for what purpose you are going to purchase the sewing machine. There are many popular sewing machine brands available out there.
If it is for home use then the singer machine you can purchase. For industrial garments production Juki and Brother these two brands are highly used all over the world because of its good quality.
Therefore to get long-term service from a sewing machine, you have to take care of it. Regular maintenance and cleaning are necessary. You also need to put lubricants or oil into the required parts. Sewing Machine Parts can be imported from China, Europe or buy from the local market. Needle, bobbin, bobbin case, oil, and lubricants are commonly needed parts and require regular maintenance. Buy a good quality sewing machine to ensure long-lasting service.
Popular Sewing Machine Brands
All Parts of Traditional and Modern Sewing Machine
All parts of the sewing machine with pictures are giving below for your better understanding.
List of Parts of a Sewing Machine
Face Plate Thumb Screw
Needle Bar Bushing
Needle Bar Thread Guide
Needle Clamp Thumb Screw
Presser Bar Lifter
Presser Foot Thumb Screw
Pressure Regulating Thumb Screw
Thread Take-Up Lever
Thread Take-Up Spring
Stitch Indicator Plate
Stitch Regulator Thumb Screw
Bobbin Winder Thread Tension
Bobbin Winder Spool Pin
Different Parts of a Sewing Machine with Functions
Here, we are giving details of 14 common parts of a sewing machine which we found common parts of a singer sewing machine, Juki sewing machine, and another common sewing machine. So that you can know the function and repair and maintenance mechanism and as well as the sourcing of the parts.
Balance Wheel of Sewing Machine
In a traditional handheld sewing machine and a semi-auto sewing machine, you can see that there is a wheel on the top right corner of a sewing machine. Basically, it is used to run the machine manually.
The Needle of Sewing Machine
A needle is a sharp metal, very sharp in nature which has a small hole (eye) in which a thread goes through. Basically, a needle is used for sewing. In a sewing machine, a needle is attached. In a needle, you may find 5 parts. They are a shank, Shaft, Front Groove, Point Scarf, and eye. However, for woven fabric and denim, lather, knit fabric, different types of Needle are used and Needle made of steel coated with chrome or titanium.
Different Size of Sewing Machine Needle
According to the purpose, Different sizes of a needle are used for different types of fabric.
Sourcing of Sewing Machine Needles
Sewing machine needle is mainly sourced from China because of a cheap price. So you can also source it locally if the order quantity is less.
Spool Pin of Sewing Machine
Spool pin in a sewing machine is placed vertically or horizontally which actually used for holding the spool of threads and this is a fixed part of a sewing machine.
The Bobbin of Sewing Machine
In a sewing machine bobbin is one of an integral part and it is non-electrical parts of a sewing machine. Bobbins can be found in different electric devices. In a bobbin, threads are wired which is used for sewing. You need to set the required thread into a bobbin. After finishing you have to refill the bobbin to continue the sewing process.
Sourcing of Sewing Machine Bobbin
There are many popular brands of bobbin manufacturer, you can collect bobbin from them. You can source either by importing or if locally available then purchase it locally because it will be cheaper. Different manufacturers of sewing machine bobbins are:
Bobbin Holder of Sewing Machine
Bobbin holder is used to holding the bobbin into the sewing machine. Bobbin holder also is known as the bobbin case which is one of the key sewing machine parts. Time to time you may need to conduct cleaning and maintenance or change of bobbin case. It is one of the commonly used spare parts of a sewing machine.
Presser Foot of Sewing Machine
A presser foot is used in a sewing machine to hold the fabric in the right place on the throat plate so that fabric cannot slip around. Sometimes it may require to change the sewing machine pressure foot if you use your machine for commercial garments production or small household business.
Tension Discs and Tension Spring
The tension discs used to control the thread tension to give proper stitch on the fabric. If there is a problem of tension then you may see that stitch is not placing properly, it may loose or tight. Tension spring is added to control the pressure so that two different fabrics can join together with proper stitch. Tension discs and spring may need to change if it is damaged. Sourcing options are local or source it from China or any other region if you need a large quantity.
Remember that you have to clean dust from time to time from the tension discs otherwise, you may find improper stitch.
Face Plate Thumb Screw
The faceplate thumb screw is used for attaching the faceplate of a sewing machine. You may find it a traditional sewing machine but normally this part is not required to replace.
Thread guide is a small part of a machine that has a hole inside, is responsible for properly guide the threads from the spool pin to the hole of a needle. Thread guide is made of steel or metal.
Throat plate is placed between pressure foot and bobbin case. This plate also is known as needle plate. It is made of metal and at the time of sewing, pressure foot is placed on top of the throat plate.
Stitch Indicator Plate
Stitch Indicator plate indicates the stitching type where different stitching number is written. This plate is a fixed part of the machine that is not required to change but you should clean the surface of the plate so that the written number is visible.
By using a stitch regulator you can regulate the type of stitch on the fabric. In accordance with your requirements, you can switch into a different stitch or adjust your sewing stitch.
Bobbin winder basically ensures the right direction of the threads from the spool to the bobbin. An automated mechanical process works inside the machine.
Feed dog helps to feed the fabric to the required direction, either backward or forward using its teeth. It is a metal-based product. Normally it is not a visible part of a machine. But if you look closely into the needle plate then you can see. If the feed dog is damaged then you must need to change it.
Juki Industrial Sewing Machine Parts
Following spare parts may need to source for your machine
Assy Cloth Dust Plate
Balance Thread Guide
Bobbin Device Asm
Bobbin Thread Tension Asm
Bushing Lms Middle
Clutch Sleeve Left (Assy)
Clutch Sleeve Right (Assy)
Collar Lifter Lever
Crank Rod All Asm
Ctl Pcb Assy (Sc510)
Feed Lifter Rod
Fork Rear Ndl Guard
Front Ndl Guard
Guide Support Asm
Holder Front Ndl Guard
Intermediate Presser A
Lifter Lever Link Short
Manifold Valve Assy
Needle Thread Strike Off
Needle Bar Thread Guide H
Needle Bearing (A)
Needle Bearing (B)
Needle Bearing (C)
Needle Bearing (D)
Oil Pump Asm
Pedal Sensor Asm
Pedal Sensor Unit C Assy
Pre Tension Controller Asm
Pwr Circuit Board A Asm
Rear Needle Guard
Roller Drive Arm
Roller Drive Link
Take Up Base
Thread Tension Assy
Top Cover Gasket
Siruba Sewing Machine Parts
Cam Thread Guide Set
Differential Feed Dog
Double Side Cut Presser Foot C.Set
Looper Thread Take-Up Guide
Lower Looper Holder
Main Feed Dog
Needle Thread Takeup
Spring Plate for Pressure Foot(Left)
Presser Foot Spring Plate (Right)
Sewing Head Cover (Left)
Maintenance of Sewing Machine
Finally, a machine should be properly maintained to get long-lasting service. If you do not clean and add lubricant properly then you may find a technical problem or not functioning properly. Different defects you may identify and how you can ensure proper maintenance?
First, read the manual provided with the sewing machine and follow the guidelines for setting the machine and starting sewing.
Please clean after using it if there is any dust.
Do not give extra pressure if a thread is stuck in the bobbin case
Use good quality accessories
Regularly put good quality lubricants to the right place
Purchase Sewing Machine Parts Online
In addition to the option of physically going and buying You can purchase sewing machine parts through an online platform which can be easier for your sourcing. Commonly available solutions are:
A sewing machine is a unique designed machine that is used for stitching different parts of fabric together to make garments products. Sewing machines are used in both the lather and apparel industries. The main functions of the sewing machine are sewing fabric or any other parts of the materials.
Single needle lock stitch machine is called a plain needle sewing machine. Single needle lock stitch machine is mostly used as an industrial sewing machine. Modern single needle lockstitch has a thread trimmer which operates at the highest speed of its kind. Lockstitch machine is the most commonly used sewing machine in the apparel industry, especially in woven garments. Here in this article, I am going to share Features of Single Needle Lock Stitch Machine with you for a clear understanding of single needle lock stitch sewing machine.
Types of Lock Stitch Sewing Machine
There are two types of lock stitch sewing machine used in a garments factory.
Single needle lockstitch machine
Double(two) needle lockstitch machine
Single Needle Lock Stitch Machine
Single needle lock stitch machine is stitch by one needle of a machine by lock stitch.
Double Needle Lock Stitch Machine
Double-needle /twin/two needle is a needle with a single shank and two shafts, proceed stitching with the double stitching you will get two parallel rows on the face of the fabric and a zig-zag stitch on the back of the fabric.