What is Stitch
Loops or loops of one or more threads when bound with each other, either by interlacing, interloping or
Some Terminology Related with Stitch
During stitching when one loop of one thread passes over another loop of another tread is called interlacing.
During stitching when loop of one thread passes through the loop of another thread is called interloping.
When a loop one thread passes through the loop of same tread during sewing is called intralooping.
Types of Stitch Used in Garments Sewing
There are about 70 types of stitches are available and among them, 18-20 types of stitches are
British standard 3870: part1:1991 have been classified according to ISO 4915:1991 into six basic types of stitch.
- Stitch class 100: Chain stitch
- Stitch class 200: Hand stitch
- Stitch class 300: Lock stitch
- Stitch class 500: Over edge stitch
- Stitch class 600: Covering chain stitch
Stitch Class 100: Chain Stitch
- Stitches are formed by intralooping.
- Each loop is inter connected with same thread.
- There is no lower thread.
- The needle carries the thread through the fabric and looper holds the thread to enter as it descends for the next stitch.
- Security of stitch is very poor, in case of breakage of one stitch, it unravels very easily.
- One or more needle thread is used for stitch formation.
- From opposite sides it looks different.
Application of Chain Stitch
- Temporary stitching (e.g. basting) or for blind stitching.
- Uses for button holing, button attaching, hemming.
Stitch Class 200: Hand Stitch
- Originally made by hand, now can be formed by machine.
- Looks like domestic hand stitch.
- It is produced from single thread passed from one side of the material to the other side with each successive penetration of the needle.
- This type of stitch is formed by special type of needle and sewing machine.
- Needle is double pointed with Centre eyed.
Uses Hand Stitch
- Lapel of jacket, coat and expensive clothes.
A stripe of cloth is part of the front of the jacket or coat.
Disadvantages Hand Stitch
- Time consuming process.
- Higher cost.
- Speed of sewing m\c is very slow.
- Rare in use.
Stitch Class 300: Lock Stitch
- Lock stitch requires at least two threads to form a stitch, a needle threads that feeds from the top & a lower thread that feeds from the bobbin.
- Needle threads are passed through the fabric & are interlaced by the bobbin threads.
- A rotary hook catches the needle threads loop as it passes around the bobbin & interlocks the two threads.
- Appearance of the lock stitch is similar in both sides of the fabric; it is a special feature.
- Fine yarn is preferable for this type of stitching.
- Stitches are secured and security of stitches can be increased by back tacking at starting and finishing ends.
- Abrasion resistance of lock stitch is better because the stitches are embedded in the fabric.
Uses of Lock Stitch
- Joining of facing, collar, pocket & other parts.
- Specially for top stitching.
- Both for domestic and industrial purposes.
Stitch Class 400: Multi Thread Chain Stitch
- Multi-thread chain stitch requires one or more needle that
formloops as they pass through the fabric and interloop with the looper thread on the underside.
- Threads are bound tighter by interlacing & interlooping.
- It looks lock stitch at the top side & double chain at the underside.
- Looper thread is supplied from cone.
- Need not back tacking at the starting & finishing ends.
Uses Multi Thread Chain Stitch
- Used for long length sewing, heavy fabric sewing such as denim, attaching lace, elastic.
Stitch Class 500: Over Edge Stitch
- Stitches are formed by two or more group of threads.
- Formed from one or two needle threads with looper thread.
- At least one group of threads pass around the edge of the material.
- Width of the fabric may vary from 3-5 mm.
- Prevents the fabric from fraying.
- They have high elasticity.
- They cannot be unraveled easily.
Uses of Over Edge Stitch
- Widely used for knit fabric.
- Used for decorative purpose.
- Joining of side seam, armhole of a shirt.
- Inseam, out-seam of a pant.
Stitch Class 600: Covering Chain Stitch
- Stitches are generally formed with three groups of threads.
- One thread is needle thread, other is the looper thread & another is the top cover threads.
- Stitches of this class are the most complex of type it may need upto 9 threads.
- Covering chain stitches are often called flat lock or flat seam stitches.
Uses of Covering Chain Stitch
- Mainly used for knitted apparels.
- Attaching lace, elastic etc.
- Decorative purpose in apparels.
Overall Stitches of a Basic Shirt
B.Sc. in Textile Engineering (Major in Apparel Manufacturing Technology) (BUBT)
EMBA (studying) (JnU).
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