Woven Fabric Costing and Structure Factors

Woven Fabric Costing and Structure Factors

In garments you may find different types of fabric is used and fabric is depends on what type of garments you want to produce. Based on the requirement different forms of manufacturing process are followed in the factory. A merchandiser has to consider lots of things to calculate costing because based on this costing he/she will make contract with buyers. So if you are a merchandiser or wanted to be a merchandiser then you have to have knowledge of woven fabric costing and structure factors.

From my own experience I am going to share about fabric costing and structure factors for your better understanding.

woven fabric costing and structure factorsFactors of Woven Fabric Costing and Structure

  • Fiber content
  • Spinning type
  • Yarn count
  • Twist per inch(TPI) of yarn
  • Number of picks per inch
  • Number of ends per inch
  • GSM
  • Fabric width
  • Dyeing/Printing type
  • Finishing type
  • Fabric Weave type
  • Shade Quality
  • Fabric Quality
  • Shrinkage percentage

Fabric Specification: Very commonly use following formula to know about fabric = (Warp yarn count X weft yarn count) / (Ends/inch X Picks/inch) X Fabric width.

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A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

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List of Trimmings and Accessories use in Garments

The main material of garments making is fabric. In addition to fabric, there are lots of auxiliary material used in garments manufacturing, these materials are called trims and accessories.

List of Trimmings and Accessories use in Garments

list of trimmings and accessories use in garments

Trims are used to complete a garment, where as accessories are used to decorate garments. Trims attached with fabric by sewing, where as accessories make cloth more attractive.

List of All Trimmings in Garments


List of all Trimmings in Garments

1. Sewing Thread

-Monofilament Thread

-Multifilament Thread

-Textured Thread

-Core spun Thread

11. Zipper

-Nylon Zipper

-Metal Zipper

-Plastic Zipper


2. Button 12. Motif
3. Rivet 13. Shoulder pad
4. Lining 14. Hook & Loop
5. Interlining 15. Twill tape
6. Stopper 16. Velcro tape
7. Lace 17. Pon pom
8. Braid 18. Wadding
9. Elastic 19. Ribbon
10. Label -Main label -Size label -Care label


List of Accessories Used in Garments

List of Accessories Used in Garments

1. Hanger 14. Scotch tape
2. Hangtag 15. P.P Band
3. Tissue paper 16. Inner Carton
4. Backboard 17. Outer carton
5. Neck board 18. Iron seal
6. Paper Band 19. Tarpaulin paper
7. Pin/Clip 20. Carton Sticker
8. Tag pin 21. Safety sticker
9. Poly bag 22. Arrow sticker
10. Elastic bag 23. Butterfly
11. Mini poly bag 24. Both side tape
12. Collar stand 25. Plastic staple
13. Gum tape 26. Barcode, UPC

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A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

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Quality Control of Garments Cutting Section

Quality Control of Garments Cutting Section

Quality control of garments cutting section plays a vital role in garments because right measured cutting is required to get the right shape of garments product.Cutting is the first working department of garments production.  Before making a cloth you have to cut of individual parts as per approved pattern, where as proper measurement must be ensured so that all cutting parts are 100% accurate.

quality control of garments cutting section

Parts of Quality Control Cutting Section

Quality control of cutting section mainly divided into four parts. Those are:

  1. Marker Inspection
  2. Spreading Control
  3. Cutting Quality control
  4. Piece Goods Inspection

In Marker Inspection following things are inspected

  • Marker Length
  • Marker width
  • Lay quantity
  • Style/Lot
  • Ratio
  • Measure of all individual parts marked in marker

garments cutting

Following work in Spreading Quality control

  • Cut numbers
  • Ends
  • Leaning
  • Tension
  • Narrow Goods
  • Remnants
  • Counts
  • Ply Height
  • Fabric Fault

Cutting Quality Control

  • Number of parts
  • Miss cut
  • Ragged cutting
  • Notches
  • Matching plies

piece goods inspection

Piece Goods Inspection

  • Quantity
  • End out
  • Knot
  • Spot
  • Hole
  • Thick yarn
  • Missing yarn
  • Shading
  • Slab

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A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

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Factors of Garments Costing

Factors of Garments Costing

The price of a garments product is depends on the all cost incurred to make it available for selling. Whenever we talk about the garments product costing, we have to consider all cost related with that product acquired or production. As merchandisers are responsible to negotiate with the buyers for selling the product, they need to calculate/ costing by considering several factors of garments costing. Basically merchandisers have to calculate cost on lot basis, and lot size may vary from company to company or factory to factory.

Factors of Garments Costing

Remember one thing is that all expenses of factory related with the product must be included in costing. As cost is the main determinants of product price for this reason at the time of costing in apparel industry more importance is given by the respective parties. After determining the cost, merchandisers contact with the potential buyers for getting orders and negotiate about the price of garments.

The following factors of garments costing normally can be identified

  • Fabric cost
  • Dyeing/printing cost
  • Fabric consumption
  • Number of order
  • Cost of making the product
  • Overhead cost (direct material, direct labor and factory)
  • Utility cost (electricity cost, or any other power and energy)
  • Washing cost (depends on what kinds of washing is required)
  • Trims and accessories cost
  • Finishing cost
  • Product specification
  • Freight cost (Sea or air)
  • Payment mode (It can be 60 days or 90 days)
  • Shrinkage % of fabric
  • Wastage
  • Inspection (at the time of production and after completing production)
  • Style, size, color
  • Distance of factory to Shipment place (port or airport)
  • Commercial cost
  • Fabric construction
  • Weight of fabric (GSM)

Not necessarily all these factors must be considered when costing because these factors may varies depending on the production and product and also the product destination.

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

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Number One Environmental Friendly Factory

Number One Environmental Friendly Factory in the World

Can you guess which one is the number one environmental friendly factory in the world? I think you would not be able to guess the right one.

You will be surprised to know that a factory from the developing country recently attains the achievement of world’s number one environmental friendly factory which is located in Bangladesh. Although a factory from a developing country like Bangladesh; from their current economic condition right now it is impossible to ensure all the factors for becoming an environmental friendly factory because of lack of developed infrastructure. But we are trying to improve our factory environment according to the guidelines provided by the government and from this, we get the positive outcome of improvement of factory condition by the success of Plummy Fashion.

number one environmental friendly factory

Factory of Plummy Fashions

Plummy Fashions is number one environmental friendly factory in the world certified by the United States Green Building Council (USGBC) which is located in Bangladesh near Dhaka city, Narayangonj. This is a great achievement by the Bangladeshi company. USGBC basically works for ratings of the company’s/ factories environmental condition and green building. The rate is based on different factors related to the company/factory. There are four categories of rating points first one is certified (40-49 points), second one silver (50-59 points), third one gold (60-70) and last one platinum (80 plus).

If a company or factory which gets 80+ points then it is considered as an environmental friendly factory; whereas Plummy Fashions got 92 points which is the highest point ever a company get from the USGBC ratings around the world. Because of this achievement by the Bangladeshi company we are getting a positive indication of doing, what is good for our employees working condition and environmental factors.

After the deathly incident (Rana Plaza crashed, Tazreen factory fire, Spectrum factory, KTS textile mill) happened in the recent year’s buyers are now more concerned about the work environment, a safety measure for the workers and for the factories. To ensure the safety of workers huge pressure is coming from the foreign buyers and from the government of Bangladesh. Now each and every company trying to ensure safety and a good working environment in Bangladesh and many companies attain a good overview from the regulatory body that the company is secured enough to work.

Now come to the point that what makes it possible for the Plummy Fashions to achieve this recognition of world’s number one environmental friendly factory?

For ensuring and maintaining the standard of SUGBC Plummy Fashions actually tried to do the followings very much strictly.

  • A proper building code is maintained when making building and infrastructures.
  • It follows LEED manufacturing standard for installing machinery and installed calibrated machinery.
  • For using solar energy this company setup larger solar plant in Bangladesh.
  • Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) free cooling system is adapted
  • Ensure proper use of water which is collected from the rainwater and underground water. Also, they ensure reuse of water for minimizing water wastage.
  • Use of LED light in the factory
  • Use of low energy consuming machine
  • Also, their system ensures a lower level of carbon footprint.

Not only limited to these factors, but also there are many other factors which are strictly controlled and maintained by the Plummy Fashions, which working behind their achievement.

Advantages an Environmental Friendly Factory can get

As we all know that now people around the world are more conscious about the health of the people and the environment, so if a company can ensure to meet the expectation of people then definitely they will be treated differently and for their product, they will be ready to spend more money.

Hope all other company will be inspired by watching the achievement of Plummy Fashions and will try to improve their factory condition and finally they will become an environmentally friendly factory.

Features of Denim Fabric

Features of Denim Fabric

Now a day’s Denim is a most popular and demanding fabric around the world because of unique features of denim fabric. Denim came from the French word “Serge de Nimes”. “Jeans” produced by denim is preferable by the teenagers because it can be worn as a fashionable or casual dress in different conditions. The production of denim is more than 50 percent of the world’s production is done by the South Asian countries where as China and Bangladesh are one of the larger contributors.

features of denim fabric

The following features of denim fabric can be identified

  • Denim is one of the highly demanding international commercial fabric
  • Produce by 100% cotton yarn but you may find there are few denim fabric blended with spandex and polyester.
  • Manufactured by Twill weave
  • Warp yarn dyed by indigo/blue eye
  • Weft yarn remain white/grey as its natural color
  • Denim jeans is very strong and does not tear easily that’s why it is long lasting.
  • Denim can be ironed at a high temperature
  • Denim is very long lasting fabric but after certain period it becomes fade
  • Denim is durable, drape and flexible in nature
  • Denim is woven fabric make by interlacing warp and weft yarn
  • To control shrinkage, wrinkling commonly blended with spandex
  • Blended denim fabric has very good stretch ability, comfortable wear for slim figure
  • Use of denim: Jacket, jeans, shirts, skirts, swimsuit, belts, handbags etc.

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A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

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Bottom Close Shed

The divination of warp threads into two groups for insertion of weft threads is called shed and the process mechanism of shed is called shedding. Shedding is the primary motion of weaving.

Types of shed

  1. Bottom close shed
  2. Centre close shed
  3. Semi-open shed
  4. Open shed

Today here I am going to discuss about Bottom close shed

Bottom close shed

This type of shedding is produced by giving motion only to threads that are to form the upper line. Under this condition, the warp is level on the bottom line. In order to form a top shed , it is necessary to move some threads through a space equal to twice the depth of a shed, once up and down, before a fresh selection is made.
A shed of this kind is known as stationary bottom with a rising and falling top.

bottom close shed

Bottom Close Shed

A : Bottom line of warp

B: Rising and falling line

C: An arrow showing the space passed through

Advantages of bottom close shed

  • In this method alternate tightening and slackening the warp threads produce a covered cloth.
  • Fine fabric i.e. silk can be produced in this method.
  • This method mostly is used in hand loom

Disadvantages of bottom close shed

  • In this method there remain more stress or tension on the top warp line and less tension on bottom warp line.
  • There is more chance of breakage on top warp line.
  • Unequal warp tension produces poor quality fabric.
  • By this type of shed loom speed/ weaving speed is slower.
  • By this shed type it is impossible to produce compact fabric.
  • More power consumption is required in this shed type.
  • It also requires more time for this type of shed.

Written by

Engineer Sheikh Nurja

B.Sc engineer of textile

Merchandiser at buying house

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Classification of Textile Testing

Classification of Textile Testing and Quality Control

Textile Testing & Quality control (TTQC)

TTQC is an important factor in textile and garments sector. Everybody want qualitative goods. Textile testing and quality control related to each other and this ensure production and supply of good quality.

textile testing

Textile testing

Textile testing

Textile testing means the test of textile materials. It refers quality standard.

Quality control

Quality control means improving product standard. Quality control depends on customers demand. With different textile, process quality can be control.

textile testing and quality control

Textile Testing and Quality Control

Objectives of Textile testing

  • Monitoring product quality.
  • To know the product standard.
  • To research & development product.
  • Checking quality.
  • To know performance at every stage.
  • To know product specification 7.To Qualify every product.

Types/ Classification of Textile Testing

classification of textile testing

Classification of Textile Testing

Routine process testing: a Routine process for checking quality in the running of process or after a process.

Quality Record testing: Quality record testing to record test result for different purpose and activities in future.

Textile testing & Quality control also classified as given below:

Two kinds of TTQC:

  • Online process control
  • Offline process control.

Online process control: In running a process or after a process, testing called online Textile testing & quality control.

Offline process control: Textile testing after finishing all production process called offline Textile testing & Quality control.

There two types of offline process control:

  1. Physical test: To determine physical properties and calibration.
  2. Chemical test: To know chemical properties using chemical

Testing of Fibre, Yarn, and Fabric: In the case testing of fibre, yarn and fabric generally following properties are made to check

For Fibre

  • Identification of fibres
  • Grading
  • Color of fibres
  • Fibre length
  • Fibre strength and elongation
  • Fibre fineness
  • Fibre Maturity
  • Trash
  • Naps
  • Short fibre index(SFI)
  • Short fibre content(SFC)
  • Immature fibre content(IFC)

For Yarn

  • Warp Yarn count
  • Weft Yarn count
  • Twist per unit length
  • Single yarn strength
  • Lee strength and elongation
  • Appearance
  • Evenness and regularity.
  • Hairiness

For fabric

  • Number of ends per inch
  • Number of picks per inch
  • Fabric strength and elongation
  • Width
  • Thickness
  • Weight
  • Design and construction of cloth
  • Shrinkage
  • Air permeability
  • Crimp
  • Stiffness, handle, drape
  • Crease resistance and recovery
  • Abrasion
  • Thermal properties
  • Water absorbency
  • Pilling
  • Color fastness

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A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

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An Overview of Wet Processing

An overview of wet processing

Wet process must have to do for both Woven and knit fabrics. It’s a textile engineering department. It is very sensitive process done by chemicals and water. Mainly wet processing includes three processes. These are:

  1. Pretreatment
  2. Coloration
  3. Finishing
an overview of wet processing

Wet Processing


Pretreatment is the treatment before Coloration process. The main objective of pretreatment is to make ready for coloration. All the steps of pretreatment should follow:

  • Singeing
  • Desizing
  • Scouring
  • Bleaching
  • Mercerizing


Coloration is to color the textile material using dyes or pigment. Two process of coloration are:

  • Dyeing
  • Printing


Finishing is done to make useable, getting comfortable wear. Some Finishing process are:

  • Soft Finish
  • Hard Finish
  • Medium Finish
  • Urea Finish
  • Curing
  • Heat setting

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Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)
E-mail: [email protected]
Cell : +8801929643301

Properties of Cotton

Physical and chemical Properties of Cotton

Cotton fibre:

Cotton is natural celllosic fibre.Cotton is called the king of textile fibre. Now cotton is the most used textile fibre in the world. Cotton is soft fibre that grows around the seed of the botto plant. The long cotton fibres are use to make cloth. The other short fibre can be use in the paper industry.

Botanical names of cotton:

  1. Gossypium Herbaceum
  2. Gossypium Arboreum
  3. Gossypium Hirsutum
  4. Gossypium Barbedense
properties of cotton

Cotton in the Field

Chemical composition of cotton fibre:

  • Cellulose -94%
  • Protein -1.3%
  • Ash -1.2%
  • Pectin -1.2%
  • Oil,Fat,Wax-0.6%
  • Sugar -0.3%
  • Others -1.4%

Physical properties of Cotton:

  • Comfortable soft hand
  • Good absorbency
  • Prints well
  • Machine washable
  • Dry cleanable
  • Good strength
  • Drapes well
  • Easy to handle and sew
Use of cotton:
  • Shirts
  • Blouses
  • Childrenwear
  • Active year
  • Swimwear
  • Suits
  • Jacket
  • Skirts
  • Pants
  • Sweaters
  • Hosiery
  • Table cloths
  • Table mats
  • Napkins

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)
E-mail: [email protected]
Cell : +8801929643301