Compliance Audit Checklist in Apparel Industry

Compliance Audit in Apparel Industry

A compliance audit is one kind of audit which is specially designed for auditing the compliance issues related with the apparel industry. Different regulatory authorities set different type of regulatory issues. And buyers of garments ask from the company whether they are following their required compliance or not. These issues are checked by the auditing process which is known as compliance audit. After a compliance audit, they provide/ issue certificate. From the Compliance Audit Checklist in Apparel Industry a garments makers will be able to know what are the things buyers may ask from the company.

Compliance Audit in Apparel Industry

Compliance Audit Checklist in Apparel Industry

Compliance Audit is very important for garments manufacturing factory. To get an order from the buyer, your company must have to pass social Compliance Audit. Buyer may cancel the order if your company fails to pass the Compliance Audit. In this article, I am giving a checklist for any buyer Compliance audit preparation.

Compliance Audit Checklist in Apparel Industry

Areas/Categories of Garments Compliance Audit

  1. Licenses, permits and Facility Information
  2. Child and under-aged worker
  3. Forced labor and Discrimination
  4. Freedom of Association and collective bargaining
  5. Right of worker
  6. Disciplinary Practice
  7. Working Hours
  8. Wages, Benefits & Compensation
  9. Workplace Safety
  10. Occupational Health & Welfare
  11. Environment Management
  12. Management Practice & Sub-contractor /supplier control
  13. Training records
  14. Company Policies

Licenses, Permits and Facility Information

  • Factory profile
  • Architectural & Structural Drawing Approval
  • Soil Test Report Approval
  • Trade license
  • Factory license
  • Fire license
  • Boiler license
  • Generator permission
  • Electrical permission/ Sub-station permission
  • TIN certificate
  • Export registration certificate and Import registration certificate
  • Export promotion bureau certificate
  • Bond license
  • Rent agreement

Child and under-aged worker

  • Child labor remediation process
  • Recruitment policy
  • Personal file
  • Agreement with the service provider/sub-contract

Forced labor and Discrimination

  • Any harassment or discrimination issues
  • Policy on a prohibition of forced labor
  • Awareness/Training register
  • Job responsibility of security guard

Freedom of Association and Collective Bargaining

  • Policy on freedom association
  • Awareness/Training register
  • Formation procedure of worker association/trade union
  • Meeting minutes of worker participatory committee
  • Register for complain /Suggestion
  • Grievance handling procedure

Right of Worker

  • Personal file of worker
  • Service book
  • Employee ID card

Disciplinary Practice

  • Policy on disciplinary practice or rules
  • Leave Record
  • Orientation training on factory code of conduct & legal requirement
  • All kind of policy
  • Disciplinary action log & record
  • Awareness/training register
  • Final settlement
  • Others legal facilities

Working Hours

  • Working hour Approval
  • Working hour record for all section
  • Overtime hour record
  • Attendance Register
  • Declared holiday list
  • Manpower list

Wages, Benefits & Compensation

  • Wages/payroll sheet (last 1 year)
  • Overtime wages sheet (last six months)
  • Payslips (last 1 year)
  • Wages Increment record
  • Maternity Benefit register & Record
  • Group Insurance with manpower update list
  • Policy on wages, overtime, payment date, calculation method, leaves & holidays etc.

Workplace Safety

  • Sub-soil/Geological investigation report
  • Building structural plan/approval
  • 3rd party assessment report
  • Firefighting training record
  • Fire drill record
  • Firefighting team
  • Firefighting equipment list
  • Fire safety plan
  • Personal file of Fire Officer
  • Electrical & Mechanical Equipment periodical checklist
  • Competency certificate of Electrician
  • Competency certificate of Boiler Operator
  • Chemical Handling Training
  • Health checkup record
  • Chemical list
  • Safely machine operating training register
  • Needle stock register, Broken & Missing Register
  • Sharp tool policy
  • Emergency evacuation diagrams
  • Emergency exit doors
  • Building structure safety
  • PPE (personal protective equipment) use
  • Aisle or Stairway

Occupational Health & Welfare

  • Personal file of Welfare officer
  • Drinking water test report
  • First aid training & List of the first aider
  • Medical agreement
  • Competency certificate of Doctor
  • Competency certificate of Nurse
  • Personal file of care governance
  • Childcare register
  • Canteen committee

Environment Management

  • Environmental risk assessment as per section
  • Emergency procedure to reduce risk
  • Environmental clearance certificate
  • Waste disposal agreement /procedure
  • Wastewater test report in-house and outside
  • Energy survey/ Assessment record

 Management Practice & Sub-contractor /Supplier Control

  • Awareness training record for new & old workers
  • Mid Management training record
  • Internal Audit record
  • Policy on Sub-contract control
  • Sub-contract control procedure & record

Training Records

  • Emergency evacuation & fire drill record
  • List of firefighters trained by fire service/BGMEA
  • Disciplinary Rules communication
  • First Aid training record
  • Chemical Training record
  • Machinery safety training record
  • Health and safety training record
  • Training on KIABI compliance

Company Policies

  • Child Labor Policy
  • Child labor Remediation Policy
  • Disciplinary Rules/Policy
  • CSR Policy
  • Anti-Corruption/Bribery policy
  • Sub-contractor/Supplier Monitoring
  • Grievance Procedure
  • Environmental Policy
  • Energy efficiency plan
  • Environment emergency procedure
  • Deduction for late/after lunch assentation

Compliance Audit Checklist in Apparel Industry

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)
Email: [email protected]

Linkedin: A.M. Amirul Islam

What is Merchandising

What is Merchandising?

Merchandising is a process of selling goods and services. The process of merchandising starts with identifying target customers, setting a price for a particular product, do negotiation and finally deliver the product to the customer. I asked the question what is merchandising to several people who are involved with apparel industry just to hear from them how they actually define merchandising. Most of them said that all the activities to sell a product is merchandising. So, the scope of merchandising is not limited to how we define merchandising is rather than all activities are related to selling is merchandising.

As a process of merchandising in the apparel industry, wholesaler/manufacturer use merchandiser to communicate with the buyer of garments or to bring new customer, negotiate with them and make them induce to place an order. So, in this case merchandising is related with wholesale of merchandise (garments).

What is Merchandising

Example of Apparel Merchandising

Suppose H & M buy different types of garments from Epyllion and those people responsible for communicating, placing the order, bargaining, receiving an order, sampling etc. are merchandiser and all together these tasks are merchandising.

So, the process by which a merchandiser sells their products to the target customer is called merchandising. Merchandising is a commonly used term, mostly applicable in the apparel industry. Every year in apparel industry many merchandisers are recruited for the purpose of merchandising.

The demand for merchandising is increasing for-profit motive organization but the question is who will deal with merchandising for the organization. A person deals with the selling of products who is known as a merchandiser. Remember one thing that it is not necessary to involve merchandising for an export purpose it also can be used for local business.

There are basically two forms of Merchandising

  1. Retail Merchandising
  2. Visual Merchandising

Recently Another two forms of Merchandising are visible from the functional characteristics of merchandising. These are

  1. Virtual Merchandising (Online Selling)
  2. Wholesale Selling (Merchandising on behalf of Wholesaler or manufacturer)

Garments Merchandising

Garments merchandising is both applicable for wholesale and retail merchandising in the apparel industry. Where merchandisers work for manufacturer, wholesaler and retail store. Garments Merchandising is one of the popular forms of merchandising because of its extensive use in the apparel industry. Merchandising process make it easier to meet the buyer’s requirement through time to time follow up and ensuring on-time delivery of garments items.

Difference Between Merchandising and Marketing

Many people become confused about whether marketing and merchandising are similar or different. There is a difference between merchandising and marketing. Marketing is a broad area of business where merchandising is a part of marketing activities, which deals with the selling of goods and services.

Finally, briefly, we can define merchandising as a set of activities we (Merchandisers) do to sell our product and services to the target customers for the purpose of generating revenue and satisfy our customer.

Merchandising is a set of activities for selling products, merchandise, service to the target customer with the help of merchandiser.

10 Future Challenges of Apparel Industry

Future Challenges of Apparel Industry

The demand for garments is increasing day by day with the increase in world population. Bangladesh, India, China, Vietnam are contributing a huge amount to the production of garments which increase their market share to the apparel industry. Textile and garments always had challenges and now still has challenges and in future, more challenges will come. Those are involved with the apparel industry will need to carefully manage future challenges to stay in the line of success, otherwise, they will have to either bear monetary loss or decrease their business growth or decrease their market share. From my experiences right now, I can see there are 10 Future Challenges of Apparel Industry with which we have to deal with. If you are aware of these challenges, then hopefully you will be the gainer by planning for the future.

10 Future Challenges of Apparel Industry

10 Future Challenges of Apparel Industry

  1. The increase of Utility Cost
  2. Special Skilled Manpower
  3. Political Instability
  4. Higher Demand for Specialized Garments Items
  5. Adaptation of Automation
  6. An increase of Labor Cost
  7. Extreme Competitive Pressure
  8. Worker Turnover
  9. Extra Pressure from Environmental Regulatory Authority
  10. Obtain Low-Cost Leadership

Challenges of Apparel Industry

The Increase of Utility Cost

Utility cost will likely to increase by a significant amount within next few years. In a textile and garments factory, four types of utilities are commonly used; Electricity, Water, Steam, Compressed Air. Among these, electricity is the main part of utility because electricity can be used to get other three. Normally there are two types of a generator is used to generate electricity in the garments factory in Bangladesh or any other country. One is Gas Fuel and other is Furnish Oil/Diesel Generator. The cost of Electricity generated by Gas Generator is lower. But if you use diesel generator then the cost of electricity production will increase by two to three times. Here in Bangladesh, we have a very limited source of natural gas. Soon or later our natural gas will be finish then we will not get natural gas for industrial electricity generation purpose, so we have to rely on the diesel or any other renewable energy source. If we can not get a solution for lower cost electricity generation then this will increase our overall garments production cost.

The solution to this problem is the government can provide electricity to the industry with the power distribution authority. To do this first of all government need to ensure high capacity power plant across the country. The Bangladeshi government is already taken initiative for the nuclear power plant, although it has a high risk for the environment if an accident takes place.

Special Skilled Manpower

To make some innovation it is required to get some skilled manpower. Through special skills, special and specific tasks can be done effectively and efficiently. Special skills like; handling CNC machine, Design PLC, use of CAD etc. For the garments sector, most of the garments works are not well educated, it is not easy to get and manage especially skilled manpower. So, this will be a big challenge for apparel industry owners.

The solution to this problem is, adapt more skill development program, like SEIP- Skilled Employment Investment Program taken by the Bangladesh Government under Finance Ministry. This program is designed in such a way that people will get training then development and also ensure related job placement. This development is a role model that can be followed by other countries those are in the development stage of the apparel industry.

Political Instability

One of the main problems for Bangladeshi entrepreneurs is political instability. A democratic government is required where the will be political stability which is a pre-requisite for the positive growth of the industry. The country which experiences frequent strike on the transport system will face the problem of a delay in shipment. And a delay of shipment can be the reason for canceling the shipment, or monetary loss or losing the valuable customer. So, for positive garments business require a positive political condition. Near future, Bangladesh is at high risk of political instability. It is the time of thinking by the owner of the garment’s how they will deal with this challenge.

The easiest solution can be taken by the ruling government to ensure a stable political condition for their country.

Higher Demand for Specialized Garments Items

The main target market for apparel export is for USA, Europe. As their living standard is higher and becoming more higher, they were concerned about fashion and will more concerned about a special fashionable dress. So, it is a huge challenge to industrially make fashionable garments at low cost. To deal with this future challenge of the apparel industry, garments owners have to think about it and invest in research and development of fashionable clothing.

To minimize the risk of a demand for diversified fashionable garments, lots of creative fashion designer and industrial engineer will be required to make specialized garments item.

Adaptation of Automation

Advanced technology helping us with the adaptation of automation in every industry. Lots of innovation already has been done by which many garments already increased their productivity, where fewer men power is used. Men power is replaced by the advanced technology; this means the machine is replacing the human being. Although automation is not possible for every section of the textile and garments industry some of the section of garments can be automated which will not only increase the effectivity of the resources but also increase the effectiveness of overall operations. As an industrialist, you will face this challenge if you do not have enough knowledge of technology and how and from where you can adapt automation for your industry.

To deal with this challenge you must invest in developing skilled mechanical and industrial engineer who will be responsible for bringing automation to your factory. They will design and make a customized machine for the different section of your factory.

An Increase of Labor Cost

We have found that worldwide labor cost is increasing year after year. China and India are facing these challenges much compared with other countries. As garments industry is more labor-intensive industry, this industry requires more men power. So, this challenge is unavoidable challenges. This is the reason why Chinese companies are shifting around the world, they are choosing Africa, Bangladesh for their suitable investment region.

To deal with this increased labor cost challenge, garments industry should work with increasing the productivity of the workers which will reduce the per unit manpower cost. Another thing is, proper training and development plan must be adapted so that you can ensure disruption-free production.

Extreme Competitive Pressure

You know, competition is always there for you, it does not matter where you do your business. The apparel industry is a very lucrative investment opportunity for business personnel because it brings a huge profit for them. But it is not easy to gain a huge amount from this competitive industry, the first condition is you need to offer a competitive price for their product.

To deal with this challenge, all you need to do, first analyze the market, analyze the sourcing of materials and your export market and then target accordingly. If you conduct a proper analysis you will definitely find a market for your product from which you can generate enough revenue for your company.

Worker Turnover

Worker Turnover or employee turnover is one of the common problems and it is a challenging task for textile and garments owners because as long as they are unskilled they will like your job but when they become skilled, they try to switch one company to another company. The problem is, you provide training to the unskilled worker to make them skilled but after becoming skilled they are not always promised to give their valuable output to your company. It is something like you are extracting juice from lemon but cannot take the juice on your own. You are losing your skilled worker, losing your invested money and also opening scope your competitors to steal your best workers. I personally consider this problem as the biggest challenge for the apparel industry.

But the question is, how to get rid of this problem? The easiest solution is; you need to provide a competitive benefit to your workers. First, understand their needs and provide their needs, it can be a monetary or non-monetary benefit.

Extra Pressure from Environmental Regulatory Authority

In the apparel industry, the textile is producing a huge amount of waste, especially chemical is used for dyeing, printing, washing which is ultimately dumped into the river water. A huge quantity of water is used for garments washing and there is no efficient scope for reusing this water. Because of the apparel industry, our water is not only polluted by the industrial waste but also underground water level is dropping. This is the reason why environmental regulatory authority is now more concern about environmental pollution. Garments buyers are now also concerned about the environmental effect of dumping of garments waste. Now it is mandatory to have ETP-Effluent Treatment Plant in textile and garments factory so that effluent can be treated before dumping into the river. Here the challenge is to set up an effluent treatment plant and manage it according to the guidelines of respective authorities which is a costly operation.

To get rid of this challenge, as a garments owner, you need to find a solution from three different types of an effluent treatment plant and choose which is least costly for you.

Obtain Low-Cost Leadership

Nowadays, low-cost leadership is a challenging task because everyone related with apparel industry trying to get the best solution where they will get low-cost leadership. As a part of low-cost leadership, they choose decision among make or buy decision. In addition to this, they are always working for setting good supply chain management for their garments resources.

So, as an industrialist how you can ensure low-cost leadership? All you need to do recruit a good financial analyst. Let him understand your business and its process properly. After doing a proper analysis, he will help you to decide which one is the best option for you. Another thing you can do is always ensure that you are well informed about what is going on in the industry and how trends are moving forward. If you are aware enough and take the right decision, then you must be able to obtain low-cost leadership in the apparel industry.

After these discussions, hopefully, you understand what can be the future challenges for the apparel industry and how you need to move forward to stay in the right path of your business which may help you to generate enough revenue for your company.

10 Future Challenges of Apparel Industry

Effluent Treatment in Textile Industry

Effluent Treatment in Textile Industry (ETP)

As a human being, we must wear clothing to hide our body, especially private parts of our body. There are no other alternatives to textile to make garments products. Every year the textile industry is producing a huge amount of effluent which is ultimately dumping into river, canal. This effluent creates extensive environmental pollution. It’s polluting our water, air, and soil. As we are responsible for creating effluent in textile, we must take effective measure to minimize this problem. Environmental expert and regulatory agencies suggest that we must do effluent treatment in the textile industry to get rid of environmental hazards. It is the time to think of effluent treatment in textile industry otherwise our water environment will be a curse for us.

Effluent Treatment in Textile Industry

In a textile industry effluent is produced because we use a different chemical which is not environmentally friendly and also because of using different chemical components at a time, it creates effluent. Basically, the effluent is produced especially in the dyeing section, washing section and printing section of textile. Environmental regulatory authority and garments buyers are now more concern about management of effluent created by textile. That’s why the textile owner is now investing a huge amount of money to make effluent treatment plant.

Scientists have developed many processes of effluent treatment of textile. Normally we find there are three broad categories of a treatment process.

Methods of Effluent Treatment in Textile Industry

  1. Filtration Using Membrane
  2. Chemical Treatment and
  3. Biological Treatment

Filtration Using Membrane

Reverse Osmosis: Reverse osmosis is one of the costly treatment procedure where effluent is pressed and passes across a semipermeable membrane. After that, a relatively clean effluent and concentrate of toxins are formed which need to dispose of separately.  The permeate will still contain a small amount (about 20%) effluent is to be there as untreated. And cleaning of the membrane is required to done time to time.

Nanofiltration: Nano Filtration uses membrane as a filter of effluent. In this process of filtration, it retains any materials contains a molecular mass of more than 200. But permeate may still contain a high level of inorganic salt and for this reason, it cannot be used for recycling. The concentrate will contain organic impurities and many organic impurities may require further treatment. If you require more than one filtration process, then it will add more cost which is not expected.

Microfiltration: Microfiltration is used to reduce suspended solids and organic materials. The size of the materials is .02mm or more. By this process, you will get solid sludge which is needed to be carefully disposed of. Microfiltration is suitable for minimizing chemical oxygen demand and suspended solids.

Chemical Treatment

Chemical treatment is popular for its effectiveness and economic beneficial perspective. In this process, sedimentation is used for separating effluent. Normally chemical is used to form a precipitate and it will absorb the color and other unwanted materials in the effluent.

Biological Treatment

For biological treatment, effluent should contain nitrogen and phosphorous so that it can populate good microorganism. In a biological treatment plant bacteria and microorganisms convert effluent into bacteria which is environment-friendly and is not bad for the water. Although the biological treatment plant is more environmental friendly for this type of plant, the initial investment is more.

Effluent Treatment in Textile Industry

Implementation of 5S in Apparel Industry

5S comes from 5 Japanese words and each of them starts with S. These are seiriseitonseisoseiketsu, and shitsuke, if we translate these 5 Japanese words into English then we get Sort, Set in Order, Shine, Standardize, and Sustain. In garment industry 5S works as a basic tool of Lean Manufacturing, a technique to set well organized, clean and visual attractive workplace. That’s why the implementation of 5S in Apparel Industry is required.

Implementation of 5S in Apparel Industry

Implementing 5’S method is a base to implement quality improvement/lean procedures. Expecting the team to be and they do activities in each department: like monitoring, evaluate and drive the aspects very clean and organized so that, your Factory will look very planned and well Set-up.

Let’s have a look at the difference in English and Japanese words for 5S

5S Implementation Meaning in English and Japanese

Basic Concepts for 5S Implementation in Apparel

S1. Sort (Seiri)

5S start with sort. Sort means to sort out unnecessary items, use all machine, tools, equipment for regular use. Define daily needed items, weekly needed items, and monthly needed items and keeping separate. Store is broken, unusable or occasionally used items also should be defined. Keep records for eliminating unnecessary items exist and new in items. Each and every section of garments you may find many things are kept in a haphazard way. So for these, you need to follow first S from the 5S, i.e Sort. Sorting according to items characteristics and importance.

S2 – Set in Order – SEITON

Setting order is important for 5S. All items, section, and area (In, exist) are clearly identified by a label and everything should be well organized. Never mix/store two category items in one place. Dividing lines, aisle mark, Stairway is clearly identified and clean as per standard. Confirm that the exits are accessible and unlocked during working hours. Confirm that, where necessary, the emergency exit doors have no panic hardware or lever style (one hand, one motion door openers). If you keep all of your store materials in your garments warehouse in a planned order basis, then whenever required that materials you can easily find out and get those materials. That’s why all materials should be kept in accordance with set in order.

5s system in garment industry

S3 – Shining – SEISO

The third S from 5S is Shine, actually mean cleanliness. All items/place of workplace Floors, walls, stairs, ceilings, pipework Racks, cabinets, shelves, Machines, equipment, tools, Stored items, materials, products and lighting everything required to be kept clean. All cleaning tools and materials are easily accessible. Cleaning assignments are defined and are being followed by checklist and hang checklist on visible board. Do periodical pest control to make sure there is no insect. Cleanliness is not only the compliance issue but also this increase the healthy working environment in garments factory or office.

Shine-3rd S-Cleaning Schedule

Download: S3: Shine, Cleaning Schedule (Excel 20kb)

S4 – Standardize – SEIKETSU

First three steps of 5S are the key to implement 5S in the workplace. This section is about visualization by Information displays, related SOPs, signs, color coding and other markings are established everywhere of the factory also included procedures for maintaining the first three S’s are being displayed. Do regular 5’s audit using a checklist, give & post rating to each area. Need formal training, keep training records to approach towards improvement. These standardizations increase the operating efficiency of the apparel industry.

5S in Apparel Manufacturing Industry Store

S5 – Sustain – SHITSUKE

This section is to sustain 5S in the textile and garments factory to be the way of life rather than just a routine. Success stories are being displayed (i.e. before and after pictures) in every section of the 5S board. Give rewards and recognition is part of the 5S system to sustain 5S.

S6 and S7(Extension of 5S)

Now, 5S have two additional points 6th “S” for “Safety” and the 7th “S’’ is “Security”. These two new points objective is to make safe workplace for all employees. It is employer’s responsibility to provide safety and security for both factory and office place in apparel industry.

Advantages of 5S for Garments

If you properly follow 5S for your textile and garments industry, then you will get following benefits:

  • Health and Safety is ensured
  • Base of implementation of quality improvement
  • Productivity Increase
  • Save time, cost and storage space
  • Minimization of accidents & mistakes
  • Increases efficiency
  • Creates workplace ownership
  • First step for Lean procedures
  • Increase customer satisfaction
  • Reduce inventory time
  • Reduce downtime, wastage
  • Good working environment
  • Visualization and labeling
  • Boost morale
  • Improve company image
  • Optimize organization and workplace as per requirement
  • Routine wise work schedule and visual Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) everywhere
  • Everybody knows their working responsibility where and when
  • Disciplined housekeeping

Implementation of 5S in Apparel Industry
5S in Sewing Section

For implementing 5S in Apparel Industry you need to follow the followings:

  1. Need central 5S committee and section wise subcommittee
  2. 5S organogram and committee list as enclosed
  3. Section wise 5S checklist
  4. 5S display board in every section
  5. Make a separate T-shirt for a committee
  6. Conduct 5s training and drive for good housekeeping
  7. Conduct section wise 5S audit and submit a report.
  8. Evaluate score and take corrective action for improvement in every department.

Actions Need to Implement 5S in Garments Industry

  1. Take “before” photographs.
  2. Check that the first three S’s are implemented properly.
  3. All team activity documents/checklists should be publicly displayed on a 5S board.
  4. Establish the routines and standard practices for regularly and systematically repeating the first three S’s.
  5. Standardize red tag procedures and holding area rules (see Seiri).
  6. Create a maintenance system for housekeeping. Make a schedule for cleaning of the workplace. A common approach is to ask a cross-functional team to do it.
  7. Inter-departmental competition is an effective means of sustaining and enhancing interest in 5S.
  8. Assign responsibility to individuals for a work area and machinery.
  9. Regular inspection/audit and evaluation by a special team (including senior management persons) to be continued.
  10. Instead of criticizing poor cases, praise and commend good practices or good performers.
  11. Take “after” photographs and post them on the 5S board(s).
  12. Give a reward for the top scoring section.

You can download Presentation File on 5S if you need.

5S Presentation: PowerPoint (6.3MB)

5S Training: PowerPoint (5.1MB)

5S Presentation (English & Bangla): PowerPoint (6.9MB)

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

Facebook: Amirul Islam Washim
E-mail: [email protected]

Garments Washing

Garments Washing:

Normally we use the word ‘washing’ to mean cleaning. But in case of garments, washing is not limited to this function. For garments, washing is not only required for cleaning but also required for improving fabric quality, increase softness of fabric, reduce shrinkage, removing of dirt and for creating color effects. In other sense washing is a technique which used to remove impurities dirt, dust, oil etc. from the surface of garments, softness feeling of cloths, outlook fashion of the apparel and increasing color fastness.

Garments Washing Process

Garments Washing

Classification of Garments Washing

According to the process of washing, garments washing is basically of two types; one is wet process and other is dry process.

Objectives of Garments Washing

Though garments washing is done to meet several objectives, but among those followings are the most common.

  • To remove size materials
  • Impurities remove
  • To increase color fastness
  • For color fading
  • For soft hand feel
  • Fashion Garments.

Chemicals use for Garments Washing

Several chemicals are used for garments washing. Here is the list of chemicals use in garments washing.

  • Detergent
  • Bleaching agent ( H2O2, KMNO4)
  • Acid ( Acetic acid, phosphoric acid)
  • Desizing agent
  • Softener
  • Enzime ( Bio- Chemicals)
  • Anti-staining agent
  • Soda
  • Salts Etc.

Washing plant of Garments

Washing plant can be automated, semi-automated. An engineer is responsible for all process to control such as Garments, m/c, H2O, Chemicals, PH etc.

Washing Condition of Garments

  • Temperature up to 60̊ C
  • Time Up to 60 min
  • PH
  • Concentration of chemicals Up to 15 g/L

Process Flow of Garments Washing

Batch selection => Loading into washing m/c => M: L (add water) => M/c running => Add chemical at adjust temp. and set time => Drain out => Hot wash/ cold wash => Softening => Unload => Hydro extracting => Drying => Quality check => Finishing

Flow Chart of Garments Washing

Flow Chart of Garments Washing

Written By: Mashud Rana Opurbo

Bsc in Textile Engineering (DIU) “24th Batch”

Industrial Engineer at Radisson Garments Ltd.

Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/sec.thita

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Financing for Textile and Garments

Financing for Textile and Garments

A good financing decision works as a driving force for an organization to build a strong financial position. Financing decision varies from industry to industry, organization to organization according to their financing requirement, financial strength and risk-taking behavior of that particular parties. Here in this article, you will have basic ideas of Financing for Textile and Garments business and how you can take a financial decision.

Basically, the objective of financing is to collect money from the least cost sources and then invest in the profitable sectors. Here the challenge is to minimize the cost and maximize the profit of the investment. Financing is required for different stages of business, like an initial startup of the business, or for maintaining the operational expenditures or for expansion of a business. The mechanism of these financing need varies from business to business.

If you are going to finance for the manufacturing industry then you will be required a large amount of fund for startup or for expansion of your business, and for operating expenditure you will be required working capital which is much less than the initial investment. On the other hand in the service industry, you have to invest a large amount of capital in the initial year and the operation cost is not that much high.

Requirement of Money for Textile and GarmentsNow come to the point of financing for textile and garments industries, as this one is manufacturing industry which requires to buy different types of equipment (power and electricity generator, spinning machine, knitting machine, dyeing machine, printing machine, sewing machine, cutting machine and many more) we have to spend lots of money and our huge amount of capital will be invested for this purpose. In addition to this thousand of garments, the worker will be working here, for payment of salary and wages you will be required a larger amount of working capital. On the other hand for importing raw materials you will also be required a huge amount of money.

If you want to expand your business to increase production capacity you have to invest a huge amount of money on a long-term basis.

The question is how you can manage this required money and from where you can source this money. At the time of sourcing of money/ fund you always have to be careful about the cost of that fund, least costing source will be preferable.

Financing for Textile and GarmentsFinancing for Textile and Garments can be for:

  • Initial startup of business.
  • Maintaining daily expenditures.
  • Expansion of Business/ Production Capacity.

Initial Expenditure for Starting a Textile and Garments Business

You already know that for starting a new setup for textile and garments you must spend a large amount of capital for purchasing capital machinery. The important thing is how you are going to finance for this, my suggestion is, and as capital machinery and equipment’s for long-term it will be a better decision of financing from the long-term sources. Available options for financing are:

  1. Long-term bank loan (Debt Financing).
  2. Selling share (Equity Financing); in case of public limited company.
  3. Or you can choose both debt financing and equity financing (the ratio of debt to equity will depend on the financial strength and the business risk of that company).

From the above alternatives, my personal suggestion is to choose the third one because you cannot usefully debt financing because you have to bear a fixed cost (interest) for a certain interval of time for a period.

  • Fixed cost financing may increase your financial risk, so try to avoid fully debt financing.
  • On the other hand, equity financing is more costly as you have to share all of your profit proportionately according to the contribution of equity capital.

The right choice is to use debt and equity to minimize the weighted average cost of capital. And you have to form your optimal capital structure by considering two major factors (business risk & financial strength). Taking a loan for a new business is not that much easy, that’s why initially we have to depend upon our own capital first. With the passes of time, for a successful business, it will be better to increase the debt percent so that taxable income can be reduced.

Financing for Maintaining Daily Expenditures

Actually maintaining daily expenditures means, managing working capital funds for your business operations or management of current assets and current liabilities. You may source your working capital either from long term or short term sources and the decision will depend on the working capital management policy (hedging, conservative, aggressive) of yours. Before choosing working capital management policy you have to have a brief idea of these policies:

  • Hedging Policy of Working Capital Management: Hedging policy is one of the popular policy of managing funds where a matching principle is used. Financing for current obligation is done from the current assets (current sources) and on the other hand financing for long-term obligation is done for the long-term assets (long-term sources). That means for a short-term requirement of funds you need to collect from short-term sources and for long-term requirements you have to collect from long-term sources.
  • Conservative Policy of Working Capital Management: In case of conservative policy company has the intention of taking a low risk for financing the current asset. Additional fund required for fixed assets company keeps the extra fund for using as a current asset. Here company financing (collecting) more funds from the long-term sources for both the current asset and fixed/long-term assets. The main intention is to lower the risk of financing for current asset.
  • Aggressive Policy of Working Capital Management: the Aggressive policy of working capital management is a risky policy in a sense that most of the required funds for current and long-term assets is to be financed from the short term sources, a lower amount of funds will be collected from the long-term sources. Basically, money will be kept less than the required amount for working capital that why risk is higher.

Before taking a policy form all these above-mentioned policies you must evaluate your ability to liquid your asset and liquid (cash) required for your business. Another thing is your risk-taking behavior towards working capital management.

The question is from which sources you can finance for the maintaining daily expenditures? The probable source available for the textile and garments are:

  • Lowering the collection period of accounts receivables.
  • Delaying the payment of accounts payable.
  • Delaying the payment of salaries and wages.
  • Taking short-term bank loan.
  • Purchasing raw materials on credit.

Financing for Expansion of Textile and Garments Business

As you already know that for the business of textile and garments you will be required a lot of money. Expansion of business or expansion of production capacity requires a larger investment to for purchase machinery and equipment, land, construct building etc. This is more or less similar to the initial investment for your business. In addition to acquiring capital assets, you have to hire workers and employees for supporting your business expansion. The thing is you have to pay wages and salaries, purchase of additional raw materials or any other operating expenditures. So you can manage this extra money from both long-term sources and from short-term sources. Whether you choose long term or short term source, is mainly depends on your financial strength and adequacy of money for your existing business. Normally a profitable textile and garments company has the intention to expand when they find that the business is profitable and they can manage their extra required fund from their own profit.

Financing for Textile and Garments

After these discussions, I think that it is clear how you can finance your textile and garments and which sources are available for financing. Careful analysis is to be done before any larger investment because large investment risk is higher and involve cost also.

If you have any confusion then you can comment here. I will try to give you suggestion about financing and different problematic situations.

Written by: Md. Nahian Mahmud Shaikat

Financial Analyst

Email: [email protected]

Types of Garments Defects

Types of Garments Defects

You may find several types of garments defects in a production process. First of all, let have some idea of what basically defect is? Any variation from quality standard (QS) that affects appearance, durability, safety or fitness of a product is called a defect.

 garments defects

Defects are classified into following three categories

  1. Critical Defects
  2. Major Defects
  3. Minor Defect

Critical Defects: It refers that the product is unsafe or hazardous for the end user or violate mandatory regulations.

Major Defects: Major defects can result in the product visual or performance failure, reducing its marketability or usability. Because of this defect product cannot be sold as a 1st quality. If it is possible to repair or eliminate this defect then it will be possible to upgrade that product as a first quality.

Minor Defect: If a product has a minor defect then this type of product can be marketable and usable, but this will lose the standard quality. Because of this type of defects product fall short of defined specifications or quality standard.

types of garments defects

Different Types of Garments Defects

  1. Construction Defects
  2. Color Defects
  3. Fabric Defects
  4. Trims Defects
  5. Packing Defects
  6. Measurement Defect

We can further classify garments defects into the following categories

Construction Defects

This defects created in garments manufacturing, actually occur at the time of product construction.

Color defects

Shading problem in garments contains a color defect. If there is wrong shade of color is applied on the product. The color defect is one kind of visual defect which can be the reason of reject of the product by the customers.

Fabric Defects

Garments are manufactured by using fabric. If there is any defect in the fabric then it will produce defected garments. That’s why fabric defect is sure will be visible in garments.

Trims Defect

Wrong trims and accessories considered as a trims defect.

Packing Defect

Packing is a very crucial and sensitive process for export garments. Choice of wrong packing materials may create defected package. On the other hand, wrong size packaging also considered as defected packaging. As because there are lots of defects found in packing, caution need to be taken when packaging.

Fit and Measurement Defect

You can’t make 100% accurate garments in maintaining measurement as buyer expectation. But there is a certain tolerance of measurement, you can’t cross that limit.

I have made a list of every category defect. See in the below.

Check the following list to get an idea of defects under different categories of garments defects

Different Types of Garments Defects

  1. Construction Defect

ALIGNMENT PLEAT POOR REPAIR
BARTACK MISSING POOR HEAT MELTING TWISTED LEG
BARTACK PLACEMENT OFF POOR SEAM SEALING MISSING BELTLOOP
BARTACK POOR PUCKERING WHITE SPOTS
BROKEN STITCHES RAVEL BACK ADHESION SEPARATION
BURNT MARK ROPING WRINKLED-FOOTWEAR
CONCAVE SCUFFS / BRUISED POOR LASTING
CONVEX SEE THROUGH / VISIBLE POOR ATTACHMENT-FOOTWEAR
CROOKED SEWN CAUGHT POOR MOULDED
CUT SPI INCORRECT POOR INJECTION
DEFECTIVE STICKER SPI UNEVEN LUMPY
DISTORTED STITCHES EXCESS / OVERRUN UNSTABLE-FOOTWEAR
DOWN LEAKAGE STITCHES EXPOSED POOR CLENCHED-FOOTWEAR
EXCESS FABRIC STITCHES LOOSE MISMATCHED-FOOTWEAR
EXPOSED STITCHES MISSING WATERPROOF LEAKAGE
FOLD BACK STITCHES SKIP NON-WICKING FAILED
FRAYING EDGE / RAW EDGE STITCHING INSECURE POOR ZIG-ZAG STITCHING
FULLNESS STITCHING UNEVEN DAMAGED
HI-LOW TIGHT TENSION POOR EDGE STAIN
HI-KING UNEVEN GATHERING CRACKING
HOLE UNEVEN LENGTH POOR HEEL SHAPE CURVE-FW
INCOMPLETE OPERATION UNTRIMMED THREADS HARD EDGE-FOOTWEAR
INCORRECT OPERATION WAVY STITCHING ENDS NOT LOCK-FW
INCORRECT STITCH MARGIN WIDTH VARIATION PU HYDROLYSIS
JOINT STITCHES YARN END NOT SECURED UNDER CURING – FOOTWEAR
MENDING MARK LAMINATION POOR NONUV OF CE/INJECT EVA-FW
MISSING OPERATION MISALIGNMENT VISIBLE/DEEP PARTING LINE
NEEDLE CUTS LOPSIDED CONTAMINATION – FOOTWEAR
NEEDLE HOLE PEELING OFF OFF SPEC-FOOTWEAR/EQUIPMENT
NOT CUT APART EXCESS / LESS DOWN FILL WHITE SPOTS
OFF TRACK / RUNOFF NONFUNCTIONAL ARM CAN’TBE CLOSED COMPLEX
OPEN SEAM LOOSING STUD GAPPING
OVERLAPPED SHIFTING WHEEL
PLACEMENT OFF ROCKING

2. Color Defect

DYE LOTS INFILTRATION
CLR COMBINATION COLOR BLEEDING
SHADE OFF YELLOWING
SHADING WITHIN PRODUCT POOR DYED COLOR SHADE
SUBLAMINATION CONTAMINATION ON WHITE/LT

3. Fabric Defect

BARRIE STREAK
BLEEDING THICK YARN
BOWING THIN YARN
BROKEN YARN UNEVEN DYE
COARSE YARN WAVY EDGE
COLOR MIGRATION YELLOWING
CREASE LINE CROSS STAIN
DELAMINATION SCAR / LEATHER
DROP STITCHES BELLY CUT / LEATHER
FABRIC DAMAGE HAIRY LONG/SHORT/LEATHER
FOREIGN YARN UNMATCHED GRAIN/LEATHER
HOLE INFERIOR QUALITY/LEATHER
INCORRECT FIBER CONTENT POOR HARDNESS/LEATHER
KNOTS SCRATCHED MARK/LEATHER
LOOPS CUT MARK/LEATHER
LOOSE YARN END DEFECTIVE MARK/LEATHER
MISSING YARN INSUFFICIENT OIL/LEATHER
NAPS POOR POLISH/LEATHER
NEEDLE LINE POOR ROUGH/GRIND/LEATHER
ODOR SMELL POOR SKIVED LEATHER EDGE
PULLING YARN SCRATCHED MARK/LEATHER
SHADE BAR / STOP MARK IMPURITY
SHADE OFF SCRATCHED
SKEWING DIFF. DEGREE OF TIGHTNESS
SLUBS PEEL OFF LACQUER
SNAGGING

4. Trims Defect

ATTACHMENT DEFECTIVE RIVET UPSIDE DOWN
ATTACHMENT INCORRECT SEAM TAPING DEFECTIVE
ATTACHMENT MISSING SEAM TAPING INCORRECT
ATTACHMENT OXIDIZED SEAM TAPING MISSING
ATTACHMENT PLACEMENT OFF SEAM TAPING PLACEMENT OFF
ATTACHMENT UPSIDE DOWN SEAM TAPING UPSIDE DOWN
BUCKLE DEFECTIVE SNAP DEFECTIVE
BUCKLE INCORRECT SNAP INCORRECT
BUCKLE MISSING SNAP MISSING
BUCKLE OXIDIZED SNAP OXIDIZED
BUCKLE PLACEMENT OFF SNAP PLACEMENT OFF
BUCKLE UPSIDE DOWN SNAP UPSIDE DOWN
BUTTON DEFECTIVE STRAP DEFECTIVE
BUTTON INCORRECT STRAP INCORRECT
BUTTON MISSING STRAP MISSING
BUTTON OXIDIZED STRAP PLACEMENT OFF
BUTTON PLACEMENT OFF STRAP UPSIDE DOWN
BUTTON UPSIDE DOWN TAG DEFECTIVE
DRAW CORD DEFECTIVE TAG INCORRECT
DRAW CORD INCORRECT TAG MISSING
DRAW CORD MISSING TAG PLACEMENT OFF
DRAW CORD PLACEMENT OFF TAG UPSIDE DOWN
DRAW CORD UPSIDE DOWN THREAD DEFECTIVE
ELASTIC DEFECTIVE THREAD INCORRECT
ELASTIC INCORRECT THREAD MISSING
ELASTIC MISSING THREAD PLACEMENT OFF
ELASTIC PLACEMENT OFF THREAD UPSIDE DOWN
ELASTIC UPSIDE DOWN VELCRO DEFECTIVE
EYELET DEFECTIVE VELCRO INCORRECT
EYELET INCORRECT VELCRO MISSING
EYELET MISSING VELCRO PLACEMENT OFF
EYELET OXIDIZED VELCRO UPSIDE DOWN
EYELET PLACEMENT OFF WHEEL DEFECTIVE
EYELET UPSIDE DOWN WHEEL INCORRECT
HANDLE DEFECTIVE WHEEL MISSING
HANDLE INCORRECT WHEEL OXIDIZED
HANDLE MISSING WHEEL PLACEMENT OFF
HANDLE OXIDIZED WHEEL UPSIDE DOWN
HANDLE PLACEMENT OFF ZIPPER DEFECTIVE
HANDLE UPSIDE DOWN ZIPPER INCORRECT
HOOK & EYE DEFECTIVE ZIPPER MISSING
HOOK & EYE INCORRECT ZIPPER OXIDIZED
HOOK & EYE MISSING ZIPPER PLACEMENT OFF
HOOK & EYE OXIDIZED ZIPPER UPSIDE DOWN
HOOK & EYE PLACEMENT OFF POLY BAG INCORRECT
HOOK & EYE UPSIDE DOWN POLY BAG MISSING
LABEL DEFECTIVE POLY BAG DAMAGED
LABEL INCORRECT POLY BAG LABEL INCORRECT
LABEL MISSING POLY BAG LABEL MISSING
LABEL PLACEMENT OFF POLY BAG LABEL DAMAGED
LABEL UPSIDE DOWN POLYBAG LABEL PLACE OFF
PATCH DEFECTIVE INFERIOR HF WELDED/PEELOF
PATCH INCORRECT LOOP/D-RING INSECURE
PATCH MISSING EYELET CRACKAGE-FOOTWEAR
PATCH PLACEMENT OFF MALFUNCTION BOA
PATCH UPSIDE DOWN BROKEN LACE TAG
POLE DEFECTIVE MISALIGNED BOA EYESTAY
POLE INCORRECT INCORRECT CABLE LENGTH-FW
POLE MISSING MALFUNCTIONING FIT AID SY
POLE OXIDIZED POORLY SECURED PLASTIC SC
POLE PLACEMENT OFF MISSING LOGO
POLE UPSIDE DOWN DEFECTIVE LOGO
RIVET DEFECTIVE INCORRECT LOGO
RIVET INCORRECT OFF PLACE LOGO
RIVET MISSING RIVET PLACEMENT OFF

5. Packing Defect

CARTON DAMAGED MISSING TAG
CARTON PROTUBERATED MIXED COLOR
CARTON QUALITY POOR MIXED PO#
CARTON SIZE INCORRECT MIXED SIZE
CASE LABEL CORRECTION OVERWEIGHT
CASE LABEL INCORRECT INCORRECT TAG
INCORRECT BARCODE INCORRECT GMT PACKED
INCORRECT COLOR INCORRECT POLYBAG PRINT
INCORRECT COUNT MISSED SILICA GEL
INCORRECT FOLDING INCORRECT INNER BOX
INCORRECT SHIPPING MARK MISMATCHED ODD PAIR-FOOTW
INCORRECT SIZE MISS SHOE TREE SUPPORT-FW
INCORRECT PO INFERIOR POLYBAG
MISSING DETACHABLE ACCESS EMPTY INNER BOX
MISSING GARMENT TEST REPT MISSED HANGER
MISSING PLASTIC STRAP TORN/DAMAGED/WRINKLED LAB
MISSING STICKER POOR ADHESION OF LABEL
MISSED SHOES DIRT MARKS

6. Fit and Measurement Defect

After crossing certain limit garments measurement, there will be a defect. There are defined measurement of all parts of garments. I have made an example of how measurement up down expressing:

– 1 1/4″ – 3/8″
 – 1 1/2″  – 5/8″
 – 1 3/4″  – 7/8″
 – 2″  – 1 1/8″
 – 2 1/4″  – 1 3/8″
 – 2 1/2″  – 1 5/8″
 – 2 3/4″  – 1 7/8″
 – 3″  – 2 1/8″
 – MORE THAN 3″  – 2 3/8″
 + 1/4″  – 2 5/8″
 + 1/2″  – 2 7/8″
 + 3/4″  + 1/8″
 + 1″  + 3/8″
 + 1 1/4″  + 5/8″
 + 1 1/2″  + 7/8″
 + 1 3/4″  + 1 1/8″
 + 2″  + 1 3/8″
 + 2 1/4″  + 1 5/8″
 + 2 1/2″  + 1 7/8″
 + 2 3/4″  + 2 1/8″
 + 3″  + 2 3/8″
 + MORE THAN 3″  + 2 5/8″
 – 1/8″  + 2 7/8″


Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

Facebook: Amirul Islam Washim
E-mail: [email protected]

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Purchase Order Sheet of Garments Manufacturing

Purchase Order Sheet of Garments Manufacturing

Purchase Order sheet is simply known as PO sheet. Purchase order sheet of garments manufacturing (PO sheet) is commonly used important document for Garments Manufacturing. Basically purchase order sheet contains the information of confirmation of buyer order. To clarify some important manufacturing and technical issues buyer has to provide PO Sheet. In a PO sheet there may have information of product style, PO number, fabric cost, trims cost, garments unit cost, order quantity, shipment date, shipment destination and many others important things.

purchase order sheet of garments manufacturing

Purchase Order (PO) sheet is necessary for every department of Apparel Industry. Without PO sheet you will not be able to know about your shipment date, shipping destination, over ship or under ship tolerance, payment term. That’s why this document (PO sheet) is such an important.

Information Include in Purchase Order (PO)

Considering the importance of this document I have made a list of basic information which may include in PO Sheet.

  1. PO Number
  2. Style/Lot Number
  3. Order Quantity
  4. Shipment Date
  5. Unit Cost
  6. Total Cost of that PO
  7. Factory Name
  8. Vendor Name
  9. Shipping Address
  10. Overseas Port reach Date
  11. Sourcing Agent
  12. Shipment Terms
  13. LC Number
  14. Fabric Supplier Name and Code
  15. Fabric Content
  16. EXIT COUNTRY PORT
  17. Trims and Accessories cost
  18. Product Category
  19. Season
  20. Description
  21. Goods Description
  22. Size wise Order Quantity
  23. Transaction Policy
  24. Payment Terms
  25. Necessary Instruction
  26. Terms and Conditions
  27. Overship Tolerance
  28. Undership Tolerance

Explanation of key terms of Purchase Order

Following explanation may help you to understand the key terms of PO sheet

PO Number: PO number is unique purchase order number which is fixed by buyer.

Style: As per garments category or Color buyer separated by different style name.

Season: Buyer divide a year in 3 or 4 or more seasons as per overseas weather and their consumer demand.

Unit Cost: Unit cost mean cost of single garments. It can be FOB, Cnf or C.I.F.

Goods Description: Description about goods which can be long or short. Top or Bottom wear.

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

Facebook: Amirul Islam Washim

Phone: +8801929643301
E-mail: [email protected]

Pre Production Meeting in Apparel Industry

Pre Production Meeting in Apparel Industry

Pre production meeting is known as PP meeting in Garments/Apparel industry. In pre production meeting in apparel industry, discussion of every important issues related with bulk production is done, so that respected parties can ensure successful shipment of ordered goods. What kind of precautionary measures that need to be taken by the company is being set in PP meeting.

Pre Production Meeting in Apparel Industry

Working Procedure of Pre Production Meeting

  1. Make a plan of bulk Production
  2. Make layout
  3. Review PP sample/Size set sample/ 1st Production.
  4. Discussing all process parameter of every section.
  5. Review all checklist of PP meeting.
  6. Giving special instruction for bulk production.
  7. Find out all construction and structural defects of PP sample/Size set/1st production

Merchandiser confirm that all necessary items are already in housed for finished garments.

Some Important Documents to Present in PP Meeting

  • Purchase order sheet (PO Sheet)
  • Fabric inventory Report
  • Trims and Accessories inventory Report
  • Shade Grading Report
  • Shrinkage Report
  • Fabric Inspection Report
  • Trims and Accessories inspection Report

Attendances of Parties in Pre Production Meeting

PP meeting can be held in buying house or factory or in both. These respective person need to be present in Pre-Production Meeting:

  1. Buying QC
  2. Merchandiser
  3. Technical Team
  4. Head of Warehouse
  5. Head of cutting
  6. Head of Sewing
  7. Head of Finishing
  8. Production Representative/PM
  9. Quality Representative
  10. Industrial Engineer

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

Facebook: Amirul Islam Washim

Phone: +8801929643301
E-mail: [email protected]