Garments Washing

Garments Washing:

Normally we use the word ‘washing’ to mean cleaning. But in case of garments, washing is not limited to this function. For garments, washing is not only required for cleaning but also required for improving fabric quality, increase softness of fabric, reduce shrinkage, removing of dirt and for creating color effects. In other sense washing is a technique which used to remove impurities dirt, dust, oil etc. from the surface of garments, softness feeling of cloths, outlook fashion of the apparel and increasing color fastness.

Garments Washing Process

Garments Washing

Classification of Garments Washing

According to the process of washing, garments washing is basically of two types; one is wet process and other is dry process.

Objectives of Garments Washing

Though garments washing is done to meet several objectives, but among those followings are the most common.

  • To remove size materials
  • Impurities remove
  • To increase color fastness
  • For color fading
  • For soft hand feel
  • Fashion Garments.

Chemicals use for Garments Washing

Several chemicals are used for garments washing. Here is the list of chemicals use in garments washing.

  • Detergent
  • Bleaching agent ( H2O2, KMNO4)
  • Acid ( Acetic acid, phosphoric acid)
  • Desizing agent
  • Softener
  • Enzime ( Bio- Chemicals)
  • Anti-staining agent
  • Soda
  • Salts Etc.

Washing plant of Garments

Washing plant can be automated, semi-automated. An engineer is responsible for all process to control such as Garments, m/c, H2O, Chemicals, PH etc.

Washing Condition of Garments

  • Temperature up to 60̊ C
  • Time Up to 60 min
  • PH
  • Concentration of chemicals Up to 15 g/L

Process Flow of Garments Washing

Batch selection => Loading into washing m/c => M: L (add water) => M/c running => Add chemical at adjust temp. and set time => Drain out => Hot wash/ cold wash => Softening => Unload => Hydro extracting => Drying => Quality check => Finishing

Flow Chart of Garments Washing

Flow Chart of Garments Washing

Written By: Mashud Rana Opurbo

Bsc in Textile Engineering (DIU) “24th Batch”

Industrial Engineer at Radisson Garments Ltd.

Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/sec.thita

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Financing for Textile and Garments

Financing for Textile and Garments

A good financing decision works as a driving force for an organization to build a strong financial position. Financing decision varies industry to industry, organization to organization according to their financing requirement, financial strength and risk taking behavior of that particular parties. Here in this article you will have basic ideas of financing and how you can take financial decision for your textile and garments business.

Basically the objective of financing is to collect money from the least cost sources and then invest in the profitable sectors. Here the challenge is minimize the cost and maximize the profit of the investment. Financing is required for different stages of business, like initial startup of business, or for maintaining the operational expenditures or for expansion of business. The mechanism of these financing need varies business to business.

If you are going to finance for the manufacturing industry then you will be required a large amount of fund for startup or for expansion of your business, and for operating expenditure you will be required working capital which is much less than the initial investment. On the other hand for service industry you have to invest a large amount of capital in the initial year and the operation cost is not that much high.

Requirement of Money for Textile and GarmentsNow come to the point of financing for textile and garments industries, as this one is manufacturing industry which requires to buy different types of equipment (power and electricity generator, spinning machine, knitting machine, dyeing machine, printing machine, sewing machine, cutting machine and many more) we have to spends lots of money and our huge amount of capital will be invested for this purpose. In addition to this thousands of garments worker will be working here, for payment of salary and wages you will be required a larger amount of working capital. On the other hand for importing raw materials you will also be required huge amount of money.

If you want to expand your business to increase production capacity you have to invest huge amount of money for long term basis.

The question is how you can manage these required money and from where you can source this money. At the time of sourcing of money/ fund you always have to be careful about the cost of that fund, least costing source will be preferable.

Financing for Textile and GarmentsFinancing for Textile and Garments can be for:

  • Initial startup of business.
  • Maintaining daily expenditures.
  • Expansion of Business/ Production Capacity.

Initial Expenditure for Starting a Textile and Garments Business

You already know that for starting a new setup for textile and garments you must spend a large amount of capital for purchasing capital machinery. The important thing is how you are going to finance for this, my suggestion is, and as capital machinery and equipment’s for long term it will be a better decision of financing from the long term sources. Available options of financing are:

  1. Long term bank loan (Debt Financing).
  2. Selling share (Equity Financing); in case of public limited company.
  3. Or you can choose both debt financing and equity financing (the ratio of debt to equity will be depend on the financial strength and the business risk of that company).

From the above alternatives, my personal suggestion is to choose third one because you cannot use fully debt financing because you have to bear a fixed cost (interest) for a certain interval of time for a period.

  • Fixed cost financing may increase your financial risk, so try to avoid fully debt financing.
  • On the other hand, equity financing is more costly as you have to share your all of your profit proportionately according to the contribution of equity capital.

The right choice is to use debt and equity to minimize the weighted average cost of capital. And you have to form your optimal capital structure by considering two major factors (business risk & financial strength). Taking loan for new business is not that much easy, that’s why initially we have to depend upon our own capital first. With the passes of time, for a successful business, it will be better to increase the debt percent so that taxable income can be reduced.

Financing for Maintaining Daily Expenditures

Actually maintaining daily expenditures means, managing working capital funds for your business operations or management of current assets and current liabilities. You may source your working capital either from long term or short term sources and the decision will be depend on the working capital management policy (hedging, conservative, aggressive) of yours. Before choosing working capital management policy you have to have brief idea of these policies:

  • Hedging Policy of Working Capital Management: Hedging policy is one of the popular policy of managing funds where a matching principle is used. Financing for current obligation is done from the current assets (current sources) and on the other hand financing for long term obligation is done for the long term assets (long term sources). That means for short term requirement of funds you need to collect from short term sources and for long term requirements you have to collect from long term sources.
  • Conservative Policy of Working Capital Management: In case of conservative policy company has the intention of taking low risk for financing current asset. Additional fund required for fixed assets company keeps extra fund for using as current asset. Here company financing (collecting) more funds from the long term sources for both current asset and fixed/long term assets. The main intention is to lowering the risk of financing for current asset.
  • Aggressive Policy of Working Capital Management: Aggressive policy of working capital management is risky policy in a sense that most of required funds for current and long term assets is to be financed from the short term sources, lower amount of funds will be collected from the long term sources. Basically money will be kept less than the required amount for working capital that why risk is higher.

Before taking a policy form all these above mentioned policies you must evaluate your ability to liquid your asset and liquid (cash) required for your business. Another thing is your risk taking behavior towards working capital management.

The question is from which sources you can finance for the maintaining daily expenditures? The probable source available for the textile and garments are:

  • Lowering the collection period of accounts receivables.
  • Delaying the payment of accounts payable.
  • Delaying the payment of salaries and wages.
  • Taking short term bank loan.
  • Purchasing raw materials on credit.

Financing for Expansion of Textile and Garments Business

As you already know that for business of textile and garments you will be required a lot of money. Expansion of business or expansion of production capacity requires larger investment to for purchase machinery and equipment, land, construct building etc. This is more or less similar with the initial investment for your business. In addition with acquiring capital assets, you have to hire workers and employees for supporting your business expansion. The thing is you have to pay wages and salaries, purchase of additional raw materials or any other operating expenditures. So you can manage these extra money from both long term sources and from short term sources. Whether you choose long term or short term source, is mainly depends on your financial strength and adequacy of money of your existing business. Normally a profitable textile and garments company has intention to expand when they find that the business is profitable and they can manage their extra required fund from their own profit.

Financing for Textile and Garments

After these discussion, I think that it is clear how you can finance for your textile and garments and which sources are available for financing. Careful analysis is to be done before any larger investment because for large investment risk is higher and involve cost also.

If you have any confusion then you can comment here. I will try to give you suggestion about financing and different problematic situations.

Written by: Md. Nahian Mahmud Shaikat

Financial Analyst

Mail: [email protected]

Types of Garments Defects

Types of Garments Defects

You may find several types of garments defects in a production process. First of all let have some idea of what basically defect is? Any variation from quality standard (QS) that affects appearance, durability, safety or fitness of a product is called defect.

 garments defects

Defects are classified into following three categories

  1. Critical Defects
  2. Major Defects
  3. Minor Defect

Critical Defects: It refers that the product is unsafe or hazardous for the end user or violate mandatory regulations.

Major Defects: Major defects can result in the product visual or performance failure, reducing its marketability or usability. Because of this defect product cannot be sold as a 1st quality. If it is possible to repair or eliminate this defect then it will be possible to upgrade that product as a first quality.

Minor Defect: If a product has minor defect then this type of product can be marketable and usable, but this will loss the standard quality. Because of this type of defects product fall short of defined specifications or quality standard.

types of garments defects

Different Types of Garments Defects

We can further classify garments defects into following categories

Construction Defects: This defects created in garments manufacturing, actually occur at the time of product construction.

Color defects: Shading problem in garments contain color defect. If there is wrong shade of color is applied on the product. Color defect is one kind of visual defect which can be the reason of reject of the product by the customers.

Fabric Defects: Garments are manufactured by using fabric. If there is any defect in the fabric then it will produce defected garments. That’s why fabric defect is surely will be visible in garments.

Trims Defect: Wrong trims and accessories considered as a trims defect.

Packing defect: Packing is very crucial and sensitive process for export garments. Choice of wrong packing materials may create defected package. On the other hand wrong size packaging also considered as defected packaging. As because there are lots of defects found in packing, caution need to be taken when packaging.

Fit and Measurement Defect: You can’t make 100% accurate garments in maintaining measurement as buyer expectation. But there are a certain tolerance of measurement, you can’t cross that limit.

I have made a list of every category defect. See in the below.

Check the following list to get idea of defects under different categories of garments defects

Different Types of Garments Defects

  1. Construction Defect

ALIGNMENT PLEAT POOR REPAIR
BARTACK MISSING POOR HEAT MELTING TWISTED LEG
BARTACK PLACEMENT OFF POOR SEAM SEALING MISSING BELTLOOP
BARTACK POOR PUCKERING WHITE SPOTS
BROKEN STITCHES RAVEL BACK ADHESION SEPARATION
BURNT MARK ROPING WRINKLED-FOOTWEAR
CONCAVE SCUFFS / BRUISED POOR LASTING
CONVEX SEE THROUGH / VISIBLE POOR ATTACHMENT-FOOTWEAR
CROOKED SEWN CAUGHT POOR MOULDED
CUT SPI INCORRECT POOR INJECTION
DEFECTIVE STICKER SPI UNEVEN LUMPY
DISTORTED STITCHES EXCESS / OVERRUN UNSTABLE-FOOTWEAR
DOWN LEAKAGE STITCHES EXPOSED POOR CLENCHED-FOOTWEAR
EXCESS FABRIC STITCHES LOOSE MISMATCHED-FOOTWEAR
EXPOSED STITCHES MISSING WATERPROOF LEAKAGE
FOLD BACK STITCHES SKIP NON-WICKING FAILED
FRAYING EDGE / RAW EDGE STITCHING INSECURE POOR ZIG-ZAG STITCHING
FULLNESS STITCHING UNEVEN DAMAGED
HI-LOW TIGHT TENSION POOR EDGE STAIN
HI-KING UNEVEN GATNERING CRACKING
HOLE UNEVEN LENGTH POOR HEEL SHAPE CURVE-FW
INCOMPLETE OPERATION UNTRIMMED THREADS HARD EDGE-FOOTWEAR
INCORRECT OPERATION WAVY STITCHING ENDS NOTLOCK-FW
INCORRECT STITCH MARGIN WIDTH VARIATION PU HYDROLYSIS
JOINT STITCHES YARN END NOT SECURED UNDER CURING – FOOTWEAR
MENDING MARK LAMINATION POOR NONUV OF CE/INJECT EVA-FW
MISSING OPERATION MISALIGNMENT VISIBLE/DEEP PARTING LINE
NEEDLE CUTS LOPSIDED CONTAMINATION – FOOTWEAR
NEEDLE HOLE PEELING OFF OFF SPEC-FOOTWEAR/EQUIPMT
NOT CUT APART EXCESS / LESS DOWN FILL WHITE SPOTS
OFF TRACK / RUN OFF NONFUNCTIONAL ARM CAN’TBE CLOSED COMPLE
OPEN SEAM LOOSING STUD GAPPING
OVERLAPPED SHIFTING WHEEL
PLACEMENT OFF ROCKING

2. Color Defect

DYE LOTS INFILTRATION
CLR COMBINATION COLOR BLEEDING
SHADE OFF YELLOWING
SHADING WITHIN PRODUCT POOR DYED COLOR SHADE
SUBLAMINATION CONTAMINATION ON WHITE/LT

3. Fabric Defect

BARRIE STREAK
BLEEDING THICK YARN
BOWING THIN YARN
BROKEN YARN UNEVEN DYE
COARSE YARN WAVY EDGE
COLOR MIGRATION YELLOWING
CREASE LINE CROSS STAIN
DELAMINATION SCAR / LEATHER
DROP STITCHES BELLY CUT / LEATHER
FABRIC DAMAGE HAIRY LONG/SHORT/LEATHER
FOREIGN YARN UNMATCHED GRAIN/LEATHER
HOLE INFERIOR QUALITY/LEATHER
INCORRECT FIBER CONTENT POOR HARDNESS/LEATHER
KNOTS SCRATCHED MARK/LEATHER
LOOPS CUT MARK/LEATHER
LOOSE YARN END DEFECTIVE MARK/LEATHER
MISSING YARN INSUFFICIENT OIL/LEATHER
NAPS POOR POLISH/LEATHER
NEEDLE LINE POOR ROUGH/GRIND/LEATHER
ODOR SMELL POOR SKIVED LEATHER EDGE
PULLING YARN SCRATCHED MARK/LEATHER
SHADE BAR / STOP MARK IMPURITY
SHADE OFF SCRATCHED
SKEWING DIFF. DEGREE OF TIGHTNESS
SLUBS PEEL OFF LACQUER
SNAGGING

4. Trims Defect

ATTACHMENT DEFECTIVE RIVET UP SIDE DOWN
ATTACHMENT INCORRECT SEAM TAPING DEFECTIVE
ATTACHMENT MISSING SEAM TAPING INCORRECT
ATTACHMENT OXIDIZED SEAM TAPING MISSING
ATTACHMENT PLACEMENT OFF SEAM TAPING PLACEMENT OFF
ATTACHMENT UP SIDE DOWN SEAM TAPING UP SIDE DOWN
BUCKLE DEFECTIVE SNAP DEFECTIVE
BUCKLE INCORRECT SNAP INCORRECT
BUCKLE MISSING SNAP MISSING
BUCKLE OXIDIZED SNAP OXIDIZED
BUCKLE PLACEMENT OFF SNAP PLACEMENT OFF
BUCKLE UP SIDE DOWN SNAP UP SIDE DOWN
BUTTON DEFECTIVE STRAP DEFECTIVE
BUTTON INCORRECT STRAP INCORRECT
BUTTON MISSING STRAP MISSING
BUTTON OXIDIZED STRAP PLACEMENT OFF
BUTTON PLACEMENT OFF STRAP UP SIDE DOWN
BUTTON UP SIDE DOWN TAG DEFECTIVE
DRAW CORD DEFECTIVE TAG INCORRECT
DRAW CORD INCORRECT TAG MISSING
DRAW CORD MISSING TAG PLACEMENT OFF
DRAW CORD PLACEMENT OFF TAG UP SIDE DOWN
DRAW CORD UP SIDE DOWN THREAD DEFECTIVE
ELASTIC DEFECTIVE THREAD INCORRECT
ELASTIC INCORRECT THREAD MISSING
ELASTIC MISSING THREAD PLACEMENT OFF
ELASTIC PLACEMENT OFF THREAD UP SIDE DOWN
ELASTIC UP SIDE DOWN VELCRO DEFECTIVE
EYELET DEFECTIVE VELCRO INCORRECT
EYELET INCORRECT VELCRO MISSING
EYELET MISSING VELCRO PLACEMENT OFF
EYELET OXIDIZED VELCRO UP SIDE DOWN
EYELET PLACEMENT OFF WHEEL DEFECTIVE
EYELET UP SIDE DOWN WHEEL INCORRECT
HANDLE DEFECTIVE WHEEL MISSING
HANDLE INCORRECT WHEEL OXIDIZED
HANDLE MISSING WHEEL PLACEMENT OFF
HANDLE OXIDIZED WHEEL UP SIDE DOWN
HANDLE PLACEMENT OFF ZIPPER DEFECTIVE
HANDLE UP SIDE DOWN ZIPPER INCORRECT
HOOK & EYE DEFECTIVE ZIPPER MISSING
HOOK & EYE INCORRECT ZIPPER OXIDIZED
HOOK & EYE MISSING ZIPPER PLACEMENT OFF
HOOK & EYE OXIDIZED ZIPPER UP SIDE DOWN
HOOK & EYE PLACEMENT OFF POLY BAG INCORRECT
HOOK & EYE UP SIDE DOWN POLY BAG MISSING
LABEL DEFECTIVE POLY BAG DAMAGED
LABEL INCORRECT POLY BAG LABEL INCORRECT
LABEL MISSING POLY BAG LABEL MISSING
LABEL PLACEMENT OFF POLY BAG LABEL DAMAGED
LABEL UP SIDE DOWN POLYBAG LABEL PLACE’T OFF
PATCH DEFECTIVE INFERIOR HF WELDED/PEELOF
PATCH INCORRECT LOOP/D-RING INSECURE
PATCH MISSING EYELET CRACKAGE-FOOTWEAR
PATCH PLACEMENT OFF MALFUNCTION BOA
PATCH UP SIDE DOWN BROKEN LACE TAG
POLE DEFECTIVE MISALIGNED BOA EYESTAY
POLE INCORRECT INCORRECT CABLE LENGTH-FW
POLE MISSING MALFUNCTIONING FIT AID SY
POLE OXIDIZED POORLY SECURED PLASTIC SC
POLE PLACEMENT OFF MISSING LOGO
POLE UP SIDE DOWN DEFECTIVE LOGO
RIVET DEFECTIVE INCORRECT LOGO
RIVET INCORRECT OFFPLACED LOGO
RIVET MISSING RIVET PLACEMENT OFF

5. Packing Defect

CARTON DAMAGED MISSING TAG
CARTON PROTUBERATED MIXED COLOR
CARTON QUALITY POOR MIXED PO#
CARTON SIZE INCORRECT MIXED SIZE
CASE LABEL CORRECTION OVER WEIGHT
CASE LABEL INCORRECT INCORRECT TAG
INCORRECT BARCODE INCORRECT GMT PACKED
INCORRECT COLOR INCORRECT POLYBAG PRINT
INCORRECT COUNT MISSED SELICA GEL
INCORRECT FOLDING INCORRECT INNER BOX
INCORRECT SHIPPING MARK MISMATCHED ODD PAIR-FOOTW
INCORRECT SIZE MISS SHOE TREE SUPPORT-FW
INCORRECT PO# INFERIOR POLYBAG
MISSING DETACHABLE ACCESY EMPTY INNER BOX
MISSING GARMENT TEST REPT MISSED HANGER
MISSING PLASTIC STRAP TORN/DAMAGED/WRINKLED LAB
MISSING STICKER POOR ADHESION OF LABEL
MISSED SHOES DIRT MARKS

6. Fit and Measurement Defect

After crossing certain limit garments measurement, there will be defect. There are defined measurement of all parts of garments. I have make an example how measurement up down expressing:

– 1 1/4″ – 3/8″
 – 1 1/2″  – 5/8″
 – 1 3/4″  – 7/8″
 – 2″  – 1 1/8″
 – 2 1/4″  – 1 3/8″
 – 2 1/2″  – 1 5/8″
 – 2 3/4″  – 1 7/8″
 – 3″  – 2 1/8″
 – MORE THAN 3″  – 2 3/8″
 + 1/4″  – 2 5/8″
 + 1/2″  – 2 7/8″
 + 3/4″  + 1/8″
 + 1″  + 3/8″
 + 1 1/4″  + 5/8″
 + 1 1/2″  + 7/8″
 + 1 3/4″  + 1 1/8″
 + 2″  + 1 3/8″
 + 2 1/4″  + 1 5/8″
 + 2 1/2″  + 1 7/8″
 + 2 3/4″  + 2 1/8″
 + 3″  + 2 3/8″
 + MORE THAN 3″  + 2 5/8″
 – 1/8″  + 2 7/8″

 

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

Facebook: Amirul Islam Washim

Phone: +8801929643301
E-mail: [email protected]

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Purchase Order Sheet of Garments Manufacturing

Purchase Order Sheet of Garments Manufacturing

Purchase Order sheet is simply known as PO sheet. Purchase order sheet of garments manufacturing (PO sheet) is commonly used important document for Garments Manufacturing. Basically purchase order sheet contains the information of confirmation of buyer order. To clarify some important manufacturing and technical issues buyer has to provide PO Sheet. In a PO sheet there may have information of product style, PO number, fabric cost, trims cost, garments unit cost, order quantity, shipment date, shipment destination and many others important things.

purchase order sheet of garments manufacturing

Purchase Order (PO) sheet is necessary for every department of Apparel Industry. Without PO sheet you will not be able to know about your shipment date, shipping destination, over ship or under ship tolerance, payment term. That’s why this document (PO sheet) is such an important.

Information Include in Purchase Order (PO)

Considering the importance of this document I have made a list of basic information which may include in PO Sheet.

  1. PO Number
  2. Style/Lot Number
  3. Order Quantity
  4. Shipment Date
  5. Unit Cost
  6. Total Cost of that PO
  7. Factory Name
  8. Vendor Name
  9. Shipping Address
  10. Overseas Port reach Date
  11. Sourcing Agent
  12. Shipment Terms
  13. LC Number
  14. Fabric Supplier Name and Code
  15. Fabric Content
  16. EXIT COUNTRY PORT
  17. Trims and Accessories cost
  18. Product Category
  19. Season
  20. Description
  21. Goods Description
  22. Size wise Order Quantity
  23. Transaction Policy
  24. Payment Terms
  25. Necessary Instruction
  26. Terms and Conditions
  27. Overship Tolerance
  28. Undership Tolerance

Explanation of key terms of Purchase Order

Following explanation may help you to understand the key terms of PO sheet

PO Number: PO number is unique purchase order number which is fixed by buyer.

Style: As per garments category or Color buyer separated by different style name.

Season: Buyer divide a year in 3 or 4 or more seasons as per overseas weather and their consumer demand.

Unit Cost: Unit cost mean cost of single garments. It can be FOB, Cnf or C.I.F.

Goods Description: Description about goods which can be long or short. Top or Bottom wear.

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

Facebook: Amirul Islam Washim

Phone: +8801929643301
E-mail: [email protected]

Pre Production Meeting in Apparel Industry

Pre Production Meeting in Apparel Industry

Pre production meeting is known as PP meeting in Garments/Apparel industry. In pre production meeting in apparel industry, discussion of every important issues related with bulk production is done, so that respected parties can ensure successful shipment of ordered goods. What kind of precautionary measures that need to be taken by the company is being set in PP meeting.

Pre Production Meeting in Apparel Industry

Working Procedure of Pre Production Meeting

  1. Make a plan of bulk Production
  2. Make layout
  3. Review PP sample/Size set sample/ 1st Production.
  4. Discussing all process parameter of every section.
  5. Review all checklist of PP meeting.
  6. Giving special instruction for bulk production.
  7. Find out all construction and structural defects of PP sample/Size set/1st production

Merchandiser confirm that all necessary items are already in housed for finished garments.

Some Important Documents to Present in PP Meeting

  • Purchase order sheet (PO Sheet)
  • Fabric inventory Report
  • Trims and Accessories inventory Report
  • Shade Grading Report
  • Shrinkage Report
  • Fabric Inspection Report
  • Trims and Accessories inspection Report

Attendances of Parties in Pre Production Meeting

PP meeting can be held in buying house or factory or in both. These respective person need to be present in Pre-Production Meeting:

  1. Buying QC
  2. Merchandiser
  3. Technical Team
  4. Head of Warehouse
  5. Head of cutting
  6. Head of Sewing
  7. Head of Finishing
  8. Production Representative/PM
  9. Quality Representative
  10. Industrial Engineer

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

Facebook: Amirul Islam Washim

Phone: +8801929643301
E-mail: [email protected]

What is Woven Fabric Features of Woven Fabric

What is woven Fabric Features of Woven Fabric

Many people looking for the answer what is woven fabric features of woven fabric, for this reason i tried to explain this in a easiest way so that you can understand it in a better way. Basically woven is produced by weaving process in loom. In manufacturing Structure of Woven fabric, it is made by interlacement of Warp and Weft yarn. Warp yarn is used in lengthwise and weft yarn in used in width-wise.

There are three structural design of woven fabric. These are

  1. Plain weave
  2. Twill Weave
  3. Stain Weave

Woven fabric construction

Basic Construction of Woven fabric is used as = (Ends per inch X Picks per inch)/ (Warp count X Weft Count) X Width.

As per example,

If, EPI (Ends per inch) = 128

PPI (Picks per inch) =64

Warp Count=30

Weft Count=20

Fabric width=60

So fabric construction will be = (128X60)/ (30X20) X 60

what is woven fabric features of woven fabric

Features of Woven fabric

  1. It is produced in Weaving
  2. Both Warp and Weft yarn is used in Woven fabric manufacturing
  3. It is more durable than knit and non-woven fabric
  4. Fabric width generally 59/60/61 inch
  5. Generally no stretch-ability in woven fabric
  6. Generally woven fabric in made by plain, twill or stain weave.
  7. usually smooth
  8. Iron in medium temperature

Different types of woven fabrics

  • Twill Fabric
  • Denim
  • Gabardine
  • Georgette
  • Oxford Fabric
  • Velvet
  • Khadi
  • Dobby Fabric
  • Solid Fabric
  • Grey fabric
  • Muslin
  • Organdy
  • Poplin
  • Voile
  • Bedford Cord
  • Chiffon
  • Canvas
  • Calico
  • Cambric
  • Drill
  • Jamdani
  • Gabardine
  • Linen
  • Ninon
  • Flannel
  • Y/D Fabric
  • S/D Fabric
  • T/C Fabric
  • Tappet
  • Printed Fabric
  • Brushed fabric
  • Pocketing Fabric
  • Wild silk
  • Warp Printing
  • Waxed Cotton

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

Facebook: Amirul Islam Washim

Phone: +8801929643301
E-mail: [email protected]

Top Garment Buyers of Bangladesh

List of Top Garment Buyers of Bangladesh

Now Bangladesh is one of the largest RMG exporters serving in the world. In recent time, Bangladesh is developing their apparel sector. Top garment buyers of Bangladesh; RMG (Ready Made Garments) buyers of Bangladesh are mainly from USA, UK, Canada, Australia, Switzerland, Italy, France, and from entire Europe continent and many other countries. Bangladesh apparel industry is growing so rapidly because of lower cost of production with capacity to produce quality goods. We have acquired expertise to produce according to the buyers demand around the world that’s why our market demand is increasing day by day. Because of easier communication system buyers from the European countries contact with garment product sellers and they get quick response because we have higher interest to serve the buyers according to their demand.

Top Garment Buyers of Bangladesh

I have tried to make a list of top garment buyers of Bangladesh so that you can get the idea of who are the main buyers of garments. This article will be helpful for the merchandisers or any other person is interested to engage in exporting garments. If you are a merchandiser of local or multinational company located in Bangladesh then this will definitely help you to get the buyers name and contact with them. So that you can increase your company’s total exporting.

Here is the list of top Garments buyers of Bangladesh from around the world

  1. H&M
  2. Wal-Mart
  3. Li & Fung
  4. Adidas
  5. Levis
  6. VF Asia
  7. Nike
  8. GAP
  9. Tesco
  10. C&A
  11. Target
  12. ASDA
  13. .Next
  14. Zara
  15. Old Navy
  16. PVH
  17. S. Oliver
  18. Puma
  19. K-mart
  20. M&S
  21. BHS
  22. Mother care
  23. Wool-worth
  24. Otto
  25. American Eagle
  26. US polo
  27. Tom Tailor
  28. European Eagle
  29. IC Company
  30. New look
  31. Banana
  32. Tema
  33. Terco
  34. Tally
  35. Peri Ellis
  36. Hugo boss
  37. Esprit
  38. Fashion link
  39. Reebok
  40. Armani
  41. First textile
  42. G-star
  43. NKD
  44. Decathlon
  45. Carretow
  46. Carrefour
  47. Laredoute
  48. Lindex
  49. Vertbaudet
  50. Uniquelo
  51. Best Seller
  52. Promod
  53. Black Berry
  54. Tom tailor
  55. New look
  56. Ramond
  57. Up-2-date
  58. Damart
  59. ITC
  60. Mahindra
  61. P. P.-Tex
  62. F.G
  63. Umbro
  64. Asmara
  65. Ed Ward wang
  66. Esprit
  67. Erima
  68. Spider
  69. Greenville
  70. MB Fashion
  71. Maskos
  72. Gastrok
  73. Maxim
  74. OBS
  75. Texco
  76. Multiline
  77. DR & S
  78. Katag
  79. Colince
  80. Octagon
  81. Cream Soda
  82. Trig Lobe
  83. Shobi Fashion
  84. Kiabi
  85. Brice
  86. Sumi tomo
  87. Algodon
  88. Zaogora
  89. Vood Bridge
  90. Air Soluation
  91. Evrozon
  92. Ginkana
  93. Lion star
  94. TKI
  95. Ulla popken
  96. New Yorker
  97. Terma tex
  98. Mister & Lady
  99. BTX
  100. Q. Solution
  101. Jules
  102. Delta plus
  103. EWM
  104. Hema
  105. Neck & Neck
  106. Momo prix
  107. YSL
  108. Carrera
  109. Giordano
  110. Quick Silver
  111. Inter sport
  112. Etam
  113. Shobey
  114. Women secret
  115. B. Young
  116. Matteo
  117. Liugo
  118. Pierre Cardin
  119. Francesca
  120. Mustang
  121. Silvian Heach
  122. Spring Field
  123. Gor Factory
  124. Sains Burry
  125. P&C
  126. Mexx
  127. KHOL’S
  128. JCP
  129. CK
  130. 3 Suisse’s
  131. South Pole
  132. V&D
  133. Guess
  134. Jack & Jones
  135. Mango (Turnkey)
  136. River Island
  137. Wallis
  138. Topshop
  139. Matalan
  140. Primark
  141. Debenhams
  142. Helly Hansen
  143. John Lewis
  144. Dunnes Store
  145. Heaton”s
  146. Securex
  147. Jacadi
  148. Kitaro
  149. Car Erra
  150. Catch Catch
  151. Sears
  152. Hot Source
  153. Beniton

If you know other than these buyers name then please let us know through your valuable comment. We are eagerly waiting for your response. Hope this article will enrich your knowledge about who are the top garments buyers of Bangladesh.

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

Facebook: Amirul Islam Washim

Phone: +8801929643301
E-mail: [email protected]

Productivity Improvement Techniques in Apparel Manufacturing Industry

Productivity Improvement Techniques in Apparel Manufacturing Industry

In this article, a study was conducted in the sewing section under a garment manufacturing company. We have mentioned many techniques where you can focus and start working on improving productivity. Most of the techniques mentioned in this article are mainly on

Productivity Improvement Techniques in Apparel Manufacturing Industry

Productivity Improvement Techniques

To get excellent result you may need external recommendation and support but without the external help you can surely get measurable improvement once you start implementing the above mentioned techniques.

Production

The processes used to transform material inputs (raw materials, semi finished goods, sub-assemblies) and immaterial inputs (plans, ideas, information, knowledge) into goods or services. Basically resources are used in this transformation process is to create a goods or services which has value and contributes to the utility of individuals or groups.

Productin process in apparel manufacturing industry

Productivity

Productivity is a measure of the efficiency and effectiveness to which organizational resources (inputs) are utilized for the creation of products and/or services (outputs). Productivity measurement is both a measure of input utilization and an assessment as to whether or not input utilization is growing faster than output.

Productivity Improvement Techniques

  1. Conducting Work Study

There is a saying “Even best can be improved”. Prepare a check list for good methods and movements. At time of motion study observe operator’s movement and compare with you checklist. If you found wrong movements or unnecessarily extra movement is present in the operation cycle correct it. By doing this you can reduce operation cycle time and can improve labor productivity up to 100%* in individual operations. Also it will help to reduce operator fatigue.

  1. Hourly Operator Performance Check

There must be a system which will responsible to check the operators performance hourly basis so that, effective corrective measure can be taken to ensure the efficient operation and production. If it can be ensured that there must have an improvement in the technology.

  1. Research& Development for Improving Productivity

A non-value added (NVA) process but having a strong Research and Development (R&D) team in the factory brings lot of benefits.

  1. Following Systems such as 5S and Kaizen

  • 5S

5S is also a known method of reducing waste, increasing productivity and clear visibility of

Nonconformance at workplace.

  • Kaizen

Kaizen Chinese and Japanese for “continuous improvement” when used in the business sense and applied to the workplace, kaizen refers to activities that continually improve all functions and involve all employees from the CEO to the assembly line workers.

  1. Select suitable line layout

Line layout means placing of machines and center table (trolley with wheel) as per style requirement. The main purpose of choosing a better layout is to reduce transportation time in the line as much as possible.

  1. Reduce Line Setting Time

Reason – lot of time is lost during setting of the line for a new style. This reduces overall machine productivity and line efficiency. There may have several production line in a production process. And it is engineers responsibility to use that type of line structure which not only ensure the less duration in the setting process but also increase the productivity through reducing the time used to assign task to each and every parts of production line.

  1. Improve Line Balancing

Purpose of balancing a line is to reduce operator’s idle time or maximize operator utilization. In a balanced line work will flow smoothly and no time will be lost in waiting for work. Always select operators for the operation matching operator skill history and skill required. Following this method you will select highly skilled operators for higher work content operations. Once line is set conduct capacity study at a regular interval then find bottlenecks inside the line. You have to think how you will reduce the WIP (Work in Progress) at bottleneck operation.

  1. Use Work Aids

Work aids are Additional devices that can be added to basic sewing machines such as folders, guides and pressure foots. If work aids are used effectively operation cycle time can be reduced many fold than existing cycle time.

  1. Continuous Feeding to the Sewing Line

It is not a fault of production department if they did not get cuttings to sew. All plans and efforts towards productivity will fail. Once operators get the rhythm, they should be given non-stop feeding until style changeover to keep up the productivity.

  1. Feed Fault Free Garment Components to Line

Inspect each and every garment components and accessories before starting production. It will help to prevent the defective garments.

  1. Leadership Training for Line Supervisors

Line supervisor play a vital role in production. Their main job is providing instruction, transferring information.

  1. Skill Training to Sewing Operators

Operators are main resources in the apparel manufacturing. They are most valuable resource to the company. So, factory must work on developing operator skill where required. “Training is not cost but an investment” said by many experts. Production from an operator depends on his skill level to the task. A low skilled operator will consume higher resources (time) and give less output. You will find quality related issues with low skilled and untrained operators. As the skill level of the operators is increased through training lines output will improve. Training does mean lot of time and money.

  1. Fixing Individual Operator Target

Instead of giving equal target to all operators working in a line, give individual target as per operator’s skill level and capacity. Set an achievable target for each operator so that they would try to reach the target. This will help improving operator’s individual efficiency.

  1. Eliminate Idle Time

Utilize operator’s time as much as you can. If there is idle time in a production process then this idle time will delay the overall operation of the process. And delay in operation reduce the production of the production. So to ensure the effective use of the time you must work for the elimination the idle time.

  1. Using UBT Sewing Machine (Under Bed Trimmer)  

Just think how many pieces an operator is producing in a day? Each time an operator trims thread using a trimmer or scissors consume time minimum 10% of cycle time (approx). Even machine without auto trimmer consumes more sewing thread.

  1. Inline Quality Inspection at Regular Interval

Effective inspection will help to reduce defect generation at source. Less number of defective seam is made less the time will be lost in repairing it. Inline checking system will alert operators in concentrating their job. It helps to find quality issues earlier and prevent that.

  1. Give Pleasant Working Environment

It may sound unlikely, but some research shows outfitting an office with aesthetically pleasing elements–like plants–can increase productivity by up to 15 percent. Jazz up your office space with pictures, candles, flowers, or anything else that puts a smile on your face.

  1. Operator Motivation

Employee motivation generally depends on various factors like work culture, HR policies, incentives, bonus on extra effort or achieving target. In case of garments employee motivations there may have monetary and non monetary benefit, but monetary benefit is more preferable because its visible benefit.

  1. Plan for Operator’s Incentive Scheme

Based on the efficiency of the operator incentives should be allotted to the operator.

Example:

  • Operator efficiency 70% – 10 INR
  • Operator efficiency 80% – 20 INR
  • Operator efficiency 85% – 30 INR
  • Operator efficiency 90% – 40 INR
  • Operator efficiency 95% – 50 INR
  1. Take Regular Breaks

It sounds counter intuitive, but taking scheduled breaks can actually help improve concentration. Some research has shown that taking short breaks during long tasks helps you to maintain a constant level of performance. While working at a task without breaks lead to a steady decline in performance.

  1. Use ERP Software’s

It will help to reduce the communication time, easy monitoring of production details and can able to easily find out bottle necks and balance that.

Conclusion

The suggestive techniques developed in this article cover a comprehensive series of aspects in minimizing reworks in the sewing section of apparel industries by ensuring quality Production also helps to improve the productivity. Productivity help to reduce the cost of product and Quality is ultimately gives customer satisfaction. Good Quality increases the value of a product or service, establishes brand name, and builds up good reputation for the garment exporter, which in turn results into consumer satisfaction, high sales. The study clearly indicates that by eliminating non-productive activities will improve the productivity of apparel manufacturing industry.

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AUTHORS BIOGRAPHIES

 LAKSHMIIN ARAYANAN.G

LAKSHMIIN ARAYANAN.G

The author is currently an undergraduate student at the Department of Fashion Technology, Angel college of Engineering and Technology, Tirupur. His area of interests is production, product development.

Email: [email protected]

 

SIVAKUMAR.P

P. Sivakumar

The author is currently an undergraduate student at the Department of Fashion

Technology, Angel college of Engineering and Technology, Tirupur. His area of interests includes standardization, Lean Manufacturing.

Email:[email protected]

You can download this article here Productivity Improvement Techniques in Apparel Manufacturing Industry

Factors that Decrease the Garments Production

Factors that Decrease the Garments Production

Based on the demand of garments, production process continues small scale to large scale. Many production managers get the notification that their factory production of garments are decreasing and it is a one of the common problem managers have to think about. By taking effective measures it can be possible to minimize the problem of the factors those actually responsible for decreasing the garments production.

Factors that Decrease the Garments ProductionThis article is written based on the problem summery which has a considerable influence on reduction of garments production. After reading the full article hope you will have a complete idea of problematic factors.

The main key factors that decrease the garments production are

Machine Problem

Machine Problem (m/c) is one of the common problems of garment manufacturing factory where frequently m/c break down occurs. Due to needle break or destroy needle head production process stopped and any other process directly related with core process like sewing process may hamper. So because of machine break down or there is any problem in the machine may decrease the garments production.

Sewing problem

Another problematic factor which is responsible for garments production is sewing problem. Some time it is seen that garment piece make gathering under Q.C table is responsible for production hamper which is known as “Alter”.

Shad Variation

Shad variation problem is one of the big problems in garment manufacturing factory. When different type of fabric lot is mixed with each other in the cutting section then it may create deviation in the production floor and which ultimately decrease garments production.

Late Come

If operators and helpers come late to the work place or become absent then the starting of the production is to be delayed and for this consequence the production of garments also decrease for that day.

Accessories Problem

When trims and accessories are not available or respective parties failed to supply in proper time in the production floor that may delay in operations. Sometimes invalid trims and accessories make bottle neck in production process and for this problematic factor production of garments reduced.

Cutting Problem

If there is a deviation of cutting of fabric asking by the production department from the cutting department then there will a problem of mismatch which will decrease the production. Cutting problem such as improper cutting is one of the main problems we normally found in factory and this problem arises because of unskilled workers.

Size Mistake

In a factory you may find garments of different size (XS, S, M, L, XL, and XXL). If mixed with each other than it will decrease the garments production.

Delay in Input

When input supervisor doesn’t bring the required input timely then it creates ultimate production loss.

Power Failure

Inadequate power supply or failure of power is one of the considerable problematic factors which are responsible for decrease in garments production. Although you have enough man power but you do not sufficient power to run your production process, so ultimately your production will reduce.

In addition to the above mentioned factors there are some other important factors which are also responsible for decrease the garments production:

  • QC problems
  • Change over time schedule
  • New layout
  • Air compressor problem
  • Embroidery problem
  • Printing problem
  • Problem of planning and proper coordination etc.

If you like this article please do not forget to share on facebook and put your valuable comment.

Written by

MD.Mukter hossain

Employee at Tejgaon Textile Mills Ltd.

As An Executive officer (IE)

Phone: 01736530666

Woven Fabric Costing and Structure Factors

Woven Fabric Costing and Structure Factors

In garments you may find different types of fabric is used and fabric is depends on what type of garments you want to produce. Based on the requirement different forms of manufacturing process are followed in the factory. A merchandiser has to consider lots of things to calculate costing because based on this costing he/she will make contract with buyers. So if you are a merchandiser or wanted to be a merchandiser then you have to have knowledge of woven fabric costing and structure factors.

From my own experience I am going to share about fabric costing and structure factors for your better understanding.

woven fabric costing and structure factorsFactors of Woven Fabric Costing and Structure

  • Fiber content
  • Spinning type
  • Yarn count
  • Twist per inch(TPI) of yarn
  • Number of picks per inch
  • Number of ends per inch
  • GSM
  • Fabric width
  • Dyeing/Printing type
  • Finishing type
  • Fabric Weave type
  • Shade Quality
  • Fabric Quality
  • Shrinkage percentage

Fabric Specification: Very commonly use following formula to know about fabric = (Warp yarn count X weft yarn count) / (Ends/inch X Picks/inch) X Fabric width.

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

Facebook: Amirul Islam Washim
E-mail: [email protected]

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