Denim Washing Process

Denim Washing

Washing is a process which is done in denim garments for increasing its value. It also makes the garment comfortable for the users. Denim without a wash is not always user-friendly. Washing increases the outlook of denim garments added extra value to the customer. A better-washed product ensures a higer standard of denim. Purpose to purpose washing varies and outlook of denim also varies because of different washing methods.

Flow Chart of Denim Washing

Flow chart of Denim Washing, Denim Washing Process

Types of Denim Washing Process

There is two widely used process of washing denim. One is a dry process and other is a wet process.

Dry Process Wet Process
1.  Whiskering 1. Desizing
2.     Brushing 2. Enzyme
3.     Tacking 3. Acid Wash
4.     3DCrinkle 4. Bleaching
5.     P.PSpray 5. Neutralization
6.     Grinding 6. Rinse Wash
7.     Tie 7. Tint
8.     Twist 8. Over Dyeing
9.     Damage 9. Cleaning
10. Laser 10. Softening

Dry Process

This process is done in the unwashed condition. Basically, denim garments are treated here but nowadays twill garments are also treated.


Whisker is the most common dry process for denim garments. This is done by making a pattern and put the garments then remove the color from the pattern area. After wash, we can see the pattern mark. It is one kind of design on the garments.

Manual Whisker

This whisker is done in a manual way with the help of a pattern. On denim garments, we have done it by abrasive paper.

Material Needed for Manual whisker

  1. Pattern
  2. Abrasive paper
    For work, a worker is used different types of abrasive paper. Like as –
    I) P-320 (for very rough surface)
    II) P-400 (for very rough surface)
    III) P-600(for less rough surface)
    IV) P-800 (for medium surface)
  3. Marking Chalk

The Procedure of Manual whisker

  • Put the whisker pattern into the garments
  • Then rub the pattern area according to standard intensity by abrasive paper
  • Quality check

Laser Whisker

This whisker is done by laser machine. Here, garments specific area are burned by imposing laser with high intensity. After wash, the burned indigo color will be removed and whisker effect will be visible.

The Procedure of Laser Whisker

  • Making the design by Photoshop/illustrator
  • Put the garments on the machine surface
  • Set the intensity of the burn
  • Burn the garments
  • Quality check

Required Equipment’s for Laser Whisker

  1. Laser Machine
  2. Leather hand gloves and goggles for safety.

Hand Scrapping

This process is used to remove/fade the color from a specific area of the garments with an abrasive paper. The faded effect is nicely visible after wash.

Required Tools for Hand Scrapping

  1. Abrasive paper
  2. Dummy
  3. Chalk for marking and masks

Working Procedure of Hand Scrapping

  1. Specify the area
  2. Put the garments into dummy
  3. Scrapping with emery paper
  4. Quality checking

P.P Spray

Potassium Permanganate is sprayed on the garments at a specific area. Garments are placed on a dummy first and then pp spraying is done with the help of gun by air pressure. After that garments are dried and finally neutralize it to get the desired effect.

Materials Needed for P.P Spray

  • Spray gun.
  • PP solution
  • Air pressure
  • Mask

The procedure of P.P Spray

  • Placement on dummy
  • Spraying
  • Drying
  • Neutralization
  • Quality check


Tagging or tacking is the process which is done at the unwashed condition of garments. After wash, we will get its effect. The maximum time we will do it at edge area by folding the garments. Sometimes this process damages the garments by creating a hole.

Materials Needed for Tagging

  • Tag gun
  • Tag pin
  • Chalk
  • Hand Gloves

Procedure of Tagging

  • Marking the garments
  • Fold the garments as per standard
  • Then tag the garments
  • Quality check


This process is done by pen grinding machine which destroys only the warp yarns of the fabrics or garments. The destroy look on the garments is best viewed after washing.

Necessary Tools to Destroy

  • Pen grinding machine
  • Marking Chalk
  • Pattern board
  • Hand gloves
  • Masks

Working Procedure of Destroy

  • Marking the area
  • Destruct the garments by pen grinder
  • Check the quality


This process is done at edges area of garments. If the garments require two-time wash in that case grinding is done after the first wash to avoid the damages of garments.

Materials Needed for Grinding

  • Grinding machine
  • Hand gloves for safety.

Procedure of Grinding

  • Run the machine
  • Touching the edge of garments according to standard.
  • Quality Check.


This process is done by crinkle machine or by manual clipping of a specific area and the effect is more visible at front and back knee area.

2D Crinkle

This process is done by crinkle machine or by manual clipping of a specific area and the effect is more visible at front and back knee area. In this process, the two-dimensional effect is produced.

Material Needed for Crinkle

  • Crinkle machine
  • Resin
  • Clip
  • White fabric

Process flow of 2D Crinkle

  • Applying Resin
  • Garment Placement on machine
  • Squeeze the garments
  • Keep it up to retention time (Curing)
  • Quality Check.

3D Crinkle

This effect is found by the special treatments of garments. By this system, the 3-dimensional effect is produced. The final is more visible after washing the garments.

Tools used in 3D Crinkle

  • 3D crinkle machine
  • Resin
  • White fabric

The procedure of 3D Crinkle

  • Apply resin
  • Placement into dummy
  • Make 3D crinkle as per standard
  • Pre-cure the garments at 90 degrees C
  • Taken out the garments from the machine
  • Put into curing oven for full cure
  • Quality check

Wet Process

This types of processes are done at the wet condition. There are so many stages in the wet process.

Normal Wash

This wash is the combination of rinse wash and softener wash.

The purposes of Normal Wash

  • To remove dust, oil spot, and other impurities.
  • To make the garments soft.

Problems of Normal Wash

  • Sometimes pocket staining may occur.
  • Colorfastness may be failing.
  • Tone change if wash time is increased.

Enzyme Wash

In this wash, the enzyme is used to create the desired effect. They work basically on the surface of the fabric. The enzyme may be neutral or acidic according to the requirement of shade. The main benefits of using enzyme are that it is biodegradable and hence eco-friendly.

Purpose of Enzyme wash

  • To remove size and starch materials.
  • To make the garments softer.
  • To improve fastness and anti-pilling properties.

Stone Enzyme Wash

Stone and Enzyme are used together for washing. Heavy abrasion occurs in this wash. Typically done for Denim garments.

Problems of Stone Enzyme Wash

  • Sometimes metal may be found after using stone.
  • Hem and seam area can be damaged.

Bleach Wash

In bleach wash, a strong oxidative bleaching agent is added during the washing, with or without pumice stones.

Acid Wash

Acid washing or ice washing is usually done by dry tumbling the garments with pumice stones presoaked in an acid solution.

Problems of Acid Wash

  • Wide variation in effect.
  • PP spot may come.
  • Garments can be damaged due to vigorous action.

Specifications of Front Loading Machine

Washing Capacity 30kg
Drum Size(diameter*depth) 900*500mm
Drum Volume 315L
Washing Speed 37rpm
High Extractor Speed 750rpm
Extractor G Value 285
Motor Power 4kW
Inverter Power 5.5kW

Specifications of Top Loading Machine

Washing Capacity 25kg
Drum Size(diameter*depth) 850*450mm
Drum Volume 290L
Washing Speed 34rpm
High Extractor Speed 680rpm
Extractor G Value 255
Motor Power 3.5kW
Inverter Power 2.5kW
Electric Heating Power 20kW
Steam Consumption Ratio 0.7kg/kg

Specifications of Hydro Extractor Machine

Type/Parameter Model : TG-25
Capacity 25kg
Speed 820rpm
Diameter of Drum (diameter x depth) 570×290mm
Motor Power 1.1kW
Rated Voltage 380V/50HZ/3 P; 220V/60HZ/3 P; 400V/50HZ/3 P; 415V/50HZ/3 P
Width 950mm
Depth 900mm
Height 650mm
Weight 350kg

Another Specifications of Hydro Extractor Machine

Type/Parameter Model : RA-29
Capacity 30kg
Speed 850rpm
The diameter of Drum (diameter x depth) 590×3000mm
Motor Power 1.3kW
Rated Voltage 380V/50HZ/3 P; 220V/60HZ/3 P; 400V/50HZ/3 P; 415V/50HZ/3 P
Width 990mm
Depth 950mm
Height 600mm
Weight 350kg

Related Article You May Love to Read

  1. Garments washing
  2. Washing Defects
  3. R&D Department of Garments washing
  4. Sand Blasting washing
  5. ETP Plant setting up a process for Garments washing
  6. ETP process flow chart of washing

Written by
A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)
Email: [email protected]
Linkedin: A.M. Amirul Islam

Operation Breakdown and SMV of Men’s Long Sleeve Shirt

Operation Breakdown and SMV of Men’s Long Sleeve Shirt

Operation Breakdown for Garments ManufacturingOperation breakdown is a list of processor operation in sequence wise with SMV or SAM and machine Helper list. Style-wise operation breakdown is done by an industrial engineer in an excel chart. Operation breakdown report help to set the line layout of every style. For your better understanding, I made an Operation Breakdown and SMV of Men’s Long Sleeve Shirt in an excel sheet.

Operation Breakdown Report Includes

  1. List of operation
  2. Operation wise needed sewing machine list
  3. Operation wise number of  sewing machine
  4. SMV or SAM of every operation
  5. Production target of every operation

Operation Breakdown and SMV of Men’s Long Sleeve Shirt

OPERATION M/C TYPE Number of Machine Needed SMV Target Production in 100% Efficiency(Pcs) Target Production in 80% Efficiency(Pcs)
COLLER FUSING IRN 2 0.25 240 192
COLLAR TOP 1/4 STC SNL 2 0.32 188 300
BAND JOIN SNL 2 0.55 109 175
BAND TOP (MIDDLE)  STC SNL 1 0.3 200 160
FLAP IRN IRN 2 0.45 133 213
FLAP MAKE SNL 2 0.6 100 160
FLAP TOP STC SNL 2 0.55 109 175
CUFF MAKE SNL 1 0.5 120 96
CUFF MAKE VERT 1 0.4 150 120
CUFF TOP STC SNL 2 0.6 100 160
BACK PART DART MAKE SNL 1 0.25 240 192
BACK YK ATT 3 PARTS SNL 2 0.28 214 343
BACK YK TOP STC SNL 1 0.4 150 120
CARE LBL ATT SNL 1 0.3 200 160
BOX PLATE MAKE K-S 2 0.55 109 175
THREAD CUT HELPER 1 0.2 300 240
BTN PLATE MAKE SNL 1 0.5 120 96
SHOULDER JOIN SNL 2 0.3 200 320
SHOULDER T/S DNL 1 0.25 240 192
POCKET + FLAP MARK HELPER 2 0.45 133 213
POCKET ROLLING SNL 1 0.2 300 240
POCKET IRN IRN 2 0.2 300 480
PLACKET IRN IRN 2 0.5 120 192
POCKET MATCH HELPER 1 0.25 240 192
POCKET JOIN SNL 2 0.6 100 160
POCKET 1/4 SNL 2 0.55 109 175
FLAP MATCH HELPER 1 0.2 300 240
FLAP JOIN DNL 2 0.5 120 192
COLLAR JOIN SNL 2 0.45 133 213
GANBLE JOIN( FOLDER) SNL 1 0.35 171 137
SLEEVE JOIN 3 OL 2 0.5 120 192
THEAD CUT + ALLOWANCE CUT 3OL 1 0.35 171 137
SIDE SEAM TOP STC FOA 2 0.45 133 213
CUFF JOIN SNL 3 0.8 75 180
BOTTOM HEM SNL 2 0.45 133 213
COMFORT LBL JOIN SNL 1 0.4 150 120


  • IRN – Iron Machine
  • SNL – Single needle lock stitch
  • 3 OL – 3 thread Overlock
  • VERT – Vertical Machine
  • DNL – Double needle lockstitch machine
  • K-S – Kansai machine
  • FOA – Feed of the arm

Operation Breakdown and SMV of Men’s Long Sleeve Shirt excel

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)
Email: [email protected]

Linkedin: A.M. Amirul Islam

Competitiveness of Indian Textile Industry

Indian Textile Industry

The textile industry employs about 105 million people directly and indirectly. India’s overall textile exports during FY 2017-18 stood at US$ 37.74 billion. The Indian textiles industry is extremely varied, right from fiber to fashion. The Indian textiles industry, currently estimated at around US$ 150 billion, is expected to reach US$ 230 billion by 2020. The Indian Textile Industry contributes approximately 2% to India’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP), 10% of manufacturing production and 14% to overall Index of Industrial Production (IIP). The industry (including dyed and printed) attracted Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) worth US$ 2.82 billion during April 2000 to December 2017. Indian Textile Industry is performing very well although there is huge competitiveness of Indian Textile Industry.

Overview of Indian Textile and Apparel Industry

Major Textile Brands

Top Textile Brands doing Business in India

Projections for India in World Exports

The projected export values to the world by India showing that we will have a positive growth in our export of garments. So this is a good sign for this industry.

Projections for India in World Exports

Competitiveness of Indian Textile Industry

Industry Competitiveness of Indian Textile Industry is very high because, there is a high threat of substitutes, higher bargaining power of buyers, high competitive rivalry, and high threat of new entrants. All of these situations are creating a negative impact on the textile industry. Only positive things are there is low bargaining power of suppliers.

Competitiveness of Indian Textile Industry


Challenges for Indian Textile Industries

There are six major challenges for the Indian textile industry. To remain competitive an industry will need to deal with these challenges.

  1. Goods and Service Tax
  2. Increase Labor Wages and Worker’s Salary
  3. Access to Latest Technology
  4. Fierce Competition from China and Bangladesh
  5. Environmental Challenges
  6. Lack of Institutional Support

Opportunities for Indian Textile Industries

Technical Textile

The Technical Textile Industry in India has witnessed one of the fastest growing rates in the recent years and is expected to reach USD 32 billion by 2023, representing CAGR of 9.6% during 2014-2023.


The global apparel market size is expected to reach $2.6 trillion in 2025 growing by a projected rate of 4%. By 2025, India will be the second most attractive apparel market adding around $121 bn in the world.

Machine Manufacturing

According to the report of Textile Ministry of India till the year 2012-13 the production of textile machinery was Rs5280 Cr. Indian Market has a lot much potential to be in the machine manufacturing field and has a great future in it.


The growth of Indian E-Commerce companies provides opportunities for the Indian textile industry in the domestic as well as international market. Amazon, Flipkart, Jabong, and Myntra are some of the examples of E-commerce.

How to Deal with Industry Competition

To deal with extensive industrial competition, the textile industry in India need focus on the following matters:

  1. Identify a need in the industry and satisfy it with a product or service
  2. Improve on existing products or services
  3. Focus on the needs of customers
  4. Do not underestimate competitors
  5. Good Marketing Strategies
  6. Good Industry working culture

Summary of Competitiveness of Indian Textile Industry

  1. Indian Textile Market has the great potential to grow in future
  2. Indian Textile Industry has great competition in Spinning, Weaving and Processing Sectors.
  3. There is not much scope in Technical textiles, Machine Manufacturing, E-commerce, and Apparel sector
  4. To stand out unique in the textile market industries has to do something innovative than the current competitors.
  5. Before entering into a business one must do a market survey and take feedback from people, from the same he or she must make a conclusion to start the business.
  6. Industries must focus on their serviceability and must work according to the customer’s demand in the market.
  7. In order to be a good competitor industry must have a customer focus, good working culture, good promotion strategies with the following ways industries can make a good market as well as profit in the textile market.

Competitiveness of Indian Textile Industry pdf

Written by

Yash Sanjay Trivedi 
VJTI, Mumbai, India
Email: [email protected]

List of Machinery and Their Functions of Apparel Industry

List of Machinery and Their Functions of Apparel Industry

Various types of machine use in the apparel industry from Warehouse to finishing. In this article, you will get a list of machinery and their functions of apparel industry.  Hopefully, this list of all the machinery of the apparel industry with their uses will help you to understand the different machine functions. This list contains all types of Garments machinery.

 List of Machine Used in Garments Factory

List of Machine Used in Garments Factory

  1. Fabrics inspection machine
  2. Plotter printing machine
  3. Cutting machine
  4. Fusing machine
  5. Embroidery machine
  6. Sewing machine
  7. Thread Trimmer machine
  8. Thread sucking machine
  9. Iron machine
  10. Pull test machine
  11. Metal detector machine
  12. Barcode scanning machine
  13. Heat seal joining the machine
  14. Case label printing machine
  15. Moisture checking machine
  16. Digital Hygrometer
  17. Air compressor machine
  18. Boiler machine
  19. Generator
  20. Water pump

List of Machinery and Their Functions of Apparel Industry

Functions of Machinery Used in Garments

List of Machinery and Their Functions of Apparel Industry
SL Name of Machine Functions of Machine Using department
1 Fabrics inspection machine Use to do fabrics inspection to check fabrics defects Fabrics inspection
2 Plotter printing machine Print Garments marker CAD
3 Cutting machine Cut fabrics as per marker Cutting
4 Fusing machine Fuse interlining Fusing-Sewing
5 Embroidery machine To set Embroidery in garments Embroidery
6 Sewing machine Sew garments Sewing
7 Thread Trimmer machine Thread trimming of garments uncut thread Finishing
8 Thread sucking machine Reduce loose and unnecessary thread from garments. Finishing
9 Iron machine Pressing garments to get good appearances Finishing
10 Pull test machine To determine the pulling strength of any type of button Finishing
11 Metal detector machine o get a metal-free final product in carton Packing and Finishing
12 Barcode scanning machine Scan sticker and ticketing of garments Finishing
13 Heat seal joining machine Set up heat seal label in Garments Finishing
14 Case label printing machine Print case label of garments carton Merchandising-Packing
15 Moisture checking machine Find out moisture percentage of finished garments Packing
16 Digital Hygrometer Determine  RH% for every section All section-specially warehouse
17 Air compressor machine Produce compressed air for machine and maintenance department Utility section
18 Boiler machine Generate hot steam for Iron machine Utility section
19 Generator Produce electricity Utility section
20 Water pump Pick water for factory Utility section

List of Machinery and their functions of the apparel industry pdf

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)
Email: [email protected]

Linkedin: A.M. Amirul Islam

Compliance Audit Checklist in Apparel Industry

Compliance Audit in Apparel Industry

A compliance audit is one kind of audit which is specially designed for auditing the compliance issues related with the apparel industry. Different regulatory authorities set different type of regulatory issues. And buyers of garments ask from the company whether they are following their required compliance or not. These issues are checked by the auditing process which is known as compliance audit. After a compliance audit, they provide/ issue certificate. From the Compliance Audit Checklist in Apparel Industry a garments makers will be able to know what are the things buyers may ask from the company.

Compliance Audit in Apparel Industry

Compliance Audit Checklist in Apparel Industry

Compliance Audit is very important for garments manufacturing factory. To get an order from the buyer, your company must have to pass social Compliance Audit. Buyer may cancel the order if your company fails to pass the Compliance Audit. In this article, I am giving a checklist for any buyer Compliance audit preparation.

Compliance Audit Checklist in Apparel Industry

Areas/Categories of Garments Compliance Audit

  1. Licenses, permits and Facility Information
  2. Child and under-aged worker
  3. Forced labor and Discrimination
  4. Freedom of Association and collective bargaining
  5. Right of worker
  6. Disciplinary Practice
  7. Working Hours
  8. Wages, Benefits & Compensation
  9. Workplace Safety
  10. Occupational Health & Welfare
  11. Environment Management
  12. Management Practice & Sub-contractor /supplier control
  13. Training records
  14. Company Policies

Licenses, Permits and Facility Information

  • Factory profile
  • Architectural & Structural Drawing Approval
  • Soil Test Report Approval
  • Trade license
  • Factory license
  • Fire license
  • Boiler license
  • Generator permission
  • Electrical permission/ Sub-station permission
  • TIN certificate
  • Export registration certificate and Import registration certificate
  • Export promotion bureau certificate
  • Bond license
  • Rent agreement

Child and under-aged worker

  • Child labor remediation process
  • Recruitment policy
  • Personal file
  • Agreement with the service provider/sub-contract

Forced labor and Discrimination

  • Any harassment or discrimination issues
  • Policy on a prohibition of forced labor
  • Awareness/Training register
  • Job responsibility of security guard

Freedom of Association and Collective Bargaining

  • Policy on freedom association
  • Awareness/Training register
  • Formation procedure of worker association/trade union
  • Meeting minutes of worker participatory committee
  • Register for complain /Suggestion
  • Grievance handling procedure

Right of Worker

  • Personal file of worker
  • Service book
  • Employee ID card

Disciplinary Practice

  • Policy on disciplinary practice or rules
  • Leave Record
  • Orientation training on factory code of conduct & legal requirement
  • All kind of policy
  • Disciplinary action log & record
  • Awareness/training register
  • Final settlement
  • Others legal facilities

Working Hours

  • Working hour Approval
  • Working hour record for all section
  • Overtime hour record
  • Attendance Register
  • Declared holiday list
  • Manpower list

Wages, Benefits & Compensation

  • Wages/payroll sheet (last 1 year)
  • Overtime wages sheet (last six months)
  • Payslips (last 1 year)
  • Wages Increment record
  • Maternity Benefit register & Record
  • Group Insurance with manpower update list
  • Policy on wages, overtime, payment date, calculation method, leaves & holidays etc.

Workplace Safety

  • Sub-soil/Geological investigation report
  • Building structural plan/approval
  • 3rd party assessment report
  • Firefighting training record
  • Fire drill record
  • Firefighting team
  • Firefighting equipment list
  • Fire safety plan
  • Personal file of Fire Officer
  • Electrical & Mechanical Equipment periodical checklist
  • Competency certificate of Electrician
  • Competency certificate of Boiler Operator
  • Chemical Handling Training
  • Health checkup record
  • Chemical list
  • Safely machine operating training register
  • Needle stock register, Broken & Missing Register
  • Sharp tool policy
  • Emergency evacuation diagrams
  • Emergency exit doors
  • Building structure safety
  • PPE (personal protective equipment) use
  • Aisle or Stairway

Occupational Health & Welfare

  • Personal file of Welfare officer
  • Drinking water test report
  • First aid training & List of the first aider
  • Medical agreement
  • Competency certificate of Doctor
  • Competency certificate of Nurse
  • Personal file of care governance
  • Childcare register
  • Canteen committee

Environment Management

  • Environmental risk assessment as per section
  • Emergency procedure to reduce risk
  • Environmental clearance certificate
  • Waste disposal agreement /procedure
  • Wastewater test report in-house and outside
  • Energy survey/ Assessment record

 Management Practice & Sub-contractor /Supplier Control

  • Awareness training record for new & old workers
  • Mid Management training record
  • Internal Audit record
  • Policy on Sub-contract control
  • Sub-contract control procedure & record

Training Records

  • Emergency evacuation & fire drill record
  • List of firefighters trained by fire service/BGMEA
  • Disciplinary Rules communication
  • First Aid training record
  • Chemical Training record
  • Machinery safety training record
  • Health and safety training record
  • Training on KIABI compliance

Company Policies

  • Child Labor Policy
  • Child labor Remediation Policy
  • Disciplinary Rules/Policy
  • CSR Policy
  • Anti-Corruption/Bribery policy
  • Sub-contractor/Supplier Monitoring
  • Grievance Procedure
  • Environmental Policy
  • Energy efficiency plan
  • Environment emergency procedure
  • Deduction for late/after lunch assentation

Compliance Audit Checklist in Apparel Industry

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)
Email: [email protected]

Linkedin: A.M. Amirul Islam

What is Merchandising

What is Merchandising?

Merchandising is a process of selling goods and services. The process of merchandising starts with identifying target customers, setting a price for a particular product, do the negotiation and finally deliver the product to the customer. I asked the question of what is merchandising to several people who are involved with the apparel industry just to hear from them how they actually define merchandising. Most of them said that all the activities to sell a product is merchandising. So, the scope of the job merchandising is not limited to how we define merchandising is rather than all activities are related to selling is merchandising.

As a process of merchandising in the apparel industry, wholesaler/manufacturer use merchandiser to communicate with the buyer of garments or to bring new customer, negotiate with them and make them induce to place an order. So, in this case merchandising is related to wholesale of merchandise (garments).

What is Merchandising

Example of Apparel Merchandising

Suppose H & M buy different types of garments from Epyllion and those people responsible for communicating, placing the order, bargaining, receiving an order, sampling, etc. are a merchandiser and all together these tasks are merchandising.

So, the process by which a merchandiser sells its products to the target customer is called merchandising. Merchandising is a commonly used term, mostly applicable in the apparel industry. Every year in apparel industry many merchandisers are recruited for the purpose of merchandising.

The demand for merchandising is increasing for-profit motive organization but the question is who will deal with merchandising for the organization. A person deals with the selling of products who is known as a merchandiser. Remember one thing that it is not necessary to involve merchandising for an export purpose it also can be used for local business.

There are basically two forms of Merchandising

  1. Retail Merchandising
  2. Visual Merchandising
  • Retail merchandising is mainly applicable to a retail store. The scope of retail merchandising is broad because we can use it for every type of products sold in the retail store.
  • On the other hand, visual merchandising is another form of retail merchandising where the main stimulating factor is visualizing the product and service to create attraction and interest and ultimately selling of products.

Recently Another two forms of Merchandising are visible from the functional characteristics of merchandising. These are:

  1. Virtual Merchandising (Online Selling) or Digital Merchandising
  2. Wholesale Selling (Merchandising on behalf of Wholesaler or manufacturer)

Garments Merchandising

Garments merchandising is both applicable for wholesale and retail merchandising in the apparel industry, Where merchandisers work for manufacturer, wholesaler and retail store. It is also known as apparel merchandising. It is one of the popular forms of merchandising because of its extensive use in the apparel industry. Merchandising process make it easier to meet the buyer’s requirement through time to time follow up and ensuring on-time delivery of garments items.

Garments Merchandiser

Garments merchandiser is the person who is responsible for the merchandising of garments products and services. Merchandising is the core function of a merchandiser. A garments merchandiser need to have several qualifications to become a successful merchandising. Garments merchandiser basically contact with garments buyers, negotiate with them, take orders, manage samples and send it to the buyers, take the order and finally, ensure the delivery of the product to the buyers at the right time.

Difference Between Merchandising and Marketing

Many people become confused about whether marketing and merchandising are similar or different. There is a difference between merchandising and marketing. Marketing is a broad area of business where merchandising is a part of marketing activities, which deals with the selling of goods and services.

Finally, briefly, we can define merchandising as a set of activities we (Merchandisers) do to sell our product and services to the target customers for the purpose of generating revenue and satisfy our customer.

Merchandising is a set of activities for selling products, merchandise, service to the target customer with the help of merchandiser.

What is Merchandising pdf

Written by

Md. Nahian Mahmud Shaikat

10 Future Challenges of Apparel Industry

Future Challenges of Apparel Industry

The demand for garments is increasing day by day with the increase in world population. Bangladesh, India, China, Vietnam are contributing a huge amount to the production of garments which increase their market share to the apparel industry. Textile and garments always had challenges and now still has challenges and in future, more challenges will come. Those are involved with the apparel industry will need to carefully manage future challenges to stay in the line of success, otherwise, they will have to either bear monetary loss or decrease their business growth or decrease their market share. From my experiences right now, I can see there are 10 Future Challenges of Apparel Industry with which we have to deal with. If you are aware of these challenges, then hopefully you will be the gainer by planning for the future.

10 Future Challenges of Apparel Industry

10 Future Challenges of Apparel Industry

  1. The increase of Utility Cost
  2. Special Skilled Manpower
  3. Political Instability
  4. Higher Demand for Specialized Garments Items
  5. Adaptation of Automation
  6. An increase of Labor Cost
  7. Extreme Competitive Pressure
  8. Worker Turnover
  9. Extra Pressure from Environmental Regulatory Authority
  10. Obtain Low-Cost Leadership

Challenges of Apparel Industry

The Increase of Utility Cost

Utility cost will likely to increase by a significant amount within the next few years. In a textile and garments factory, four types of utilities are commonly used; Electricity, Water, Steam, Compressed Air. Among these, electricity is the main part of the utility because electricity can be used to get the other three. Normally there are two types of a generator is used to generate electricity in the garments factory in Bangladesh or any other country. One is Gas Fuel and other is Furnish Oil/Diesel Generator. The cost of Electricity generated by Gas Generator is lower. But if you use diesel generator then the cost of electricity production will increase by two to three times. Here in Bangladesh, we have a very limited source of natural gas. Soon or later our natural gas will be finish then we will not get natural gas for industrial electricity generation purpose, so we have to rely on the diesel or any other renewable energy source. If we can not get a solution for lower cost electricity generation then this will increase our overall garments production cost.

The solution to this problem is the government can provide electricity to the industry with the power distribution authority. To do this first of all government need to ensure high capacity power plant across the country. The Bangladeshi government is already taken initiative for the nuclear power plant, although it has a high risk for the environment if an accident takes place.

Special Skilled Manpower

To make some innovation it is required to get some skilled manpower. Through special skills, special and specific tasks can be done effectively and efficiently. Special skills like; handling CNC machine, Design PLC, use of CAD, etc. For the garments sector, most of the garments works are not well educated, it is not easy to get and manage especially skilled manpower. So, this will be a big challenge for apparel industry owners.

The solution to this problem is, adapt more skill development program, like SEIP- Skilled Employment Investment Program taken by the Bangladesh Government under Finance Ministry. This program is designed in such a way that people will get training then development and also ensure related job placement. This development is a role model that can be followed by other countries that are in the development stage of the apparel industry.

Political Instability

One of the main problems for Bangladeshi entrepreneurs is political instability. A democratic government is required where the will be political stability which is a pre-requisite for the positive growth of the industry. The country which experiences frequent strike on the transport system will face the problem of a delay in shipment. And a delay of shipment can be the reason for canceling the shipment, or monetary loss or losing the valuable customer. So, for positive garments business require a positive political condition. Near future, Bangladesh is at high risk of political instability. It is the time of thinking by the owner of the garment’s how they will deal with this challenge.

The easiest solution can be taken by the ruling government to ensure a stable political condition for their country.

Higher Demand for Specialized Garments Items

The main target market for apparel export is for USA, Europe. As their living standard is higher and becoming more higher, they were concerned about fashion and will more concerned about a special fashionable dress. So, it is a huge challenge to industrially make fashionable garments at low cost. To deal with this future challenge of the apparel industry, garments owners have to think about it and invest in research and development of fashionable clothing.

To minimize the risk of a demand for diversified fashionable garments, lots of creative fashion designer and industrial engineer will be required to make specialized garments item.

Adaptation of Automation

Advanced technology helping us with the adaptation of automation in every industry. Lots of innovation already has been done by which many garments already increased their productivity, where fewer men power is used. Men power is replaced by advanced technology; this means the machine is replacing the human being. Although automation is not possible for every section of the textile and garments industry some of the section of garments can be automated which will not only increase the effectivity of the resources but also increase the effectiveness of overall operations. As an industrialist, you will face this challenge if you do not have enough knowledge of technology and how and from where you can adapt automation for your industry.

To deal with this challenge you must invest in developing skilled mechanical and industrial engineer who will be responsible for bringing automation to your factory. They will design and make a customized machine for the different section of your factory.

An Increase of Labor Cost

We have found that worldwide labor cost is increasing year after year. China and India are facing these challenges much compared with other countries. As the garments industry is more labor-intensive industry, this industry requires more men power. So, this challenge is unavoidable challenges. This is the reason why Chinese companies are shifting around the world, they are choosing Africa, Bangladesh for their suitable investment region.

To deal with this increased labor cost challenge, garments industry should work with increasing the productivity of the workers which will reduce the per unit manpower cost. Another thing is, proper training and development plan must be adapted so that you can ensure disruption-free production.

Extreme Competitive Pressure

You know, competition is always there for you, it does not matter where you do your business. The apparel industry is a very lucrative investment opportunity for business personnel because it brings a huge profit for them. But it is not easy to gain a huge amount from this competitive industry, the first condition is you need to offer a competitive price for their product.

To deal with this challenge, all you need to do, first analyze the market, analyze the sourcing of materials and your export market and then target accordingly. If you conduct a proper analysis you will definitely find a market for your product from which you can generate enough revenue for your company.

Worker Turnover

Worker Turnover or employee turnover is one of the common problems and it is a challenging task for textile and garments owners because as long as they are unskilled they will like your job but when they become skilled, they try to switch one company to another company. The problem is, you provide training to the unskilled worker to make them skilled but after becoming skilled they are not always promised to give their valuable output to your company. It is something like you are extracting juice from lemon but cannot take the juice on your own. You are losing your skilled worker, losing your invested money and also opening scope your competitors to steal your best workers. I personally consider this problem as the biggest challenge for the apparel industry.

But the question is, how to get rid of this problem? The easiest solution is; you need to provide a competitive benefit to your workers. First, understand their needs and provide their needs, it can be a monetary or non-monetary benefit.

Extra Pressure from Environmental Regulatory Authority

In the apparel industry, the textile is producing a huge amount of waste, especially chemical is used for dyeing, printing, washing which is ultimately dumped into the river water. A huge quantity of water is used for garments washing and there is no efficient scope for reusing this water. Because of the apparel industry, our water is not only polluted by industrial waste but also the underground water level is dropping. This is the reason why environmental regulatory authority is now more concern about environmental pollution. Garments buyers are now also concerned about the environmental effect of dumping of garments waste. Now it is mandatory to have ETP-Effluent Treatment Plant in textile and garments factory so that effluent can be treated before dumping into the river. Here the challenge is to set up an effluent treatment plant and manage it according to the guidelines of respective authorities which is a costly operation.

To get rid of this challenge, as a garments owner, you need to find a solution from three different types of an effluent treatment plant and choose which is least costly for you.

Obtain Low-Cost Leadership

Nowadays, low-cost leadership is a challenging task because everyone related to the apparel industry trying to get the best solution where they will get low-cost leadership. As a part of low-cost leadership, they choose a decision to make or buy decision. In addition to this, they are always working for setting good supply chain management for their garments resources.

So, as an industrialist how you can ensure low-cost leadership? All you need to do recruit a good financial analyst. Let him understand your business and its process properly. After doing a proper analysis, he will help you to decide which one is the best option for you. Another thing you can do is always ensure that you are well informed about what is going on in the industry and how trends are moving forward. If you are aware enough and take the right decision, then you must be able to obtain low-cost leadership in the apparel industry.

After these discussions, hopefully, you understand what can be the future challenges for the apparel industry and how you need to move forward to stay in the right path of your business which may help you to generate enough revenue for your company.

10 Future Challenges of Apparel Industry

Effluent Treatment in Textile Industry

Effluent Treatment in Textile Industry (ETP)

As a human being, we must wear clothing to hide our body, especially private parts of our body. There are no other alternatives to textile to make garments products. Every year the textile industry is producing a huge amount of effluent which is ultimately dumping into river, canal. This effluent creates extensive environmental pollution. It’s polluting our water, air, and soil. As we are responsible for creating effluent in textile, we must take effective measure to minimize this problem. Environmental expert and regulatory agencies suggest that we must do effluent treatment in the textile industry to get rid of environmental hazards. It is the time to think of effluent treatment in textile industry otherwise our water environment will be a curse for us.

Effluent Treatment in Textile Industry

In a textile industry effluent is produced because we use a different chemical which is not environmentally friendly and also because of using different chemical components at a time, it creates effluent. Basically, the effluent is produced especially in the dyeing section, washing section and printing section of textile. Environmental regulatory authority and garments buyers are now more concern about management of effluent created by textile. That’s why the textile owner is now investing a huge amount of money to make effluent treatment plant.

Scientists have developed many processes of effluent treatment of textile. Normally we find there are three broad categories of a treatment process.

Methods of Effluent Treatment in Textile Industry

  1. Filtration Using Membrane
  2. Chemical Treatment and
  3. Biological Treatment

Filtration Using Membrane

Reverse Osmosis: Reverse osmosis is one of the costly treatment procedure where effluent is pressed and passes across a semipermeable membrane. After that, a relatively clean effluent and concentrate of toxins are formed which need to dispose of separately.  The permeate will still contain a small amount (about 20%) effluent is to be there as untreated. And cleaning of the membrane is required to done time to time.

Nanofiltration: Nano Filtration uses membrane as a filter of effluent. In this process of filtration, it retains any materials contains a molecular mass of more than 200. But permeate may still contain a high level of inorganic salt and for this reason, it cannot be used for recycling. The concentrate will contain organic impurities and many organic impurities may require further treatment. If you require more than one filtration process, then it will add more cost which is not expected.

Microfiltration: Microfiltration is used to reduce suspended solids and organic materials. The size of the materials is .02mm or more. By this process, you will get solid sludge which is needed to be carefully disposed of. Microfiltration is suitable for minimizing chemical oxygen demand and suspended solids.

Chemical Treatment

Chemical treatment is popular for its effectiveness and economic beneficial perspective. In this process, sedimentation is used for separating effluent. Normally chemical is used to form a precipitate and it will absorb the color and other unwanted materials in the effluent.

Biological Treatment

For biological treatment, effluent should contain nitrogen and phosphorous so that it can populate good microorganism. In a biological treatment plant bacteria and microorganisms convert effluent into bacteria which is environment-friendly and is not bad for the water. Although the biological treatment plant is more environmental friendly for this type of plant, the initial investment is more.

Effluent Treatment in Textile Industry

Implementation of 5S in Apparel Industry

5S comes from 5 Japanese words and each of them starts with S. These are seiriseitonseisoseiketsu, and shitsuke, if we translate these 5 Japanese words into English then we get Sort, Set in Order, Shine, Standardize, and Sustain. In garment industry 5S works as a basic tool of Lean Manufacturing, a technique to set well organized, clean and visual attractive workplace. That’s why the implementation of 5S in Apparel Industry is required.

Implementation of 5S in Apparel Industry

Implementing 5’S method is a base to implement quality improvement/lean procedures. Expecting the team to be and they do activities in each department: like monitoring, evaluate and drive the aspects very clean and organized so that, your Factory will look very planned and well Set-up.

Let’s have a look at the difference in English and Japanese words for 5S

5S Implementation Meaning in English and Japanese

Basic Concepts for 5S Implementation in Apparel

S1. Sort (Seiri)

5S start with sort. Sort means to sort out unnecessary items, use all machine, tools, equipment for regular use. Define daily needed items, weekly needed items, and monthly needed items and keeping separate. Store is broken, unusable or occasionally used items also should be defined. Keep records for eliminating unnecessary items exist and new in items. Each and every section of garments you may find many things are kept in a haphazard way. So for these, you need to follow first S from the 5S, i.e Sort. Sorting according to items characteristics and importance.

S2 – Set in Order – SEITON

Setting order is important for 5S. All items, section, and area (In, exist) are clearly identified by a label and everything should be well organized. Never mix/store two category items in one place. Dividing lines, aisle mark, Stairway is clearly identified and clean as per standard. Confirm that the exits are accessible and unlocked during working hours. Confirm that, where necessary, the emergency exit doors have no panic hardware or lever style (one hand, one motion door openers). If you keep all of your store materials in your garments warehouse in a planned order basis, then whenever required that materials you can easily find out and get those materials. That’s why all materials should be kept in accordance with set in order.

5s system in garment industry

S3 – Shining – SEISO

The third S from 5S is Shine, actually mean cleanliness. All items/place of workplace Floors, walls, stairs, ceilings, pipework Racks, cabinets, shelves, Machines, equipment, tools, Stored items, materials, products and lighting everything required to be kept clean. All cleaning tools and materials are easily accessible. Cleaning assignments are defined and are being followed by checklist and hang checklist on visible board. Do periodical pest control to make sure there is no insect. Cleanliness is not only the compliance issue but also this increase the healthy working environment in garments factory or office.

Shine-3rd S-Cleaning Schedule

Download: S3: Shine, Cleaning Schedule (Excel 20kb)

S4 – Standardize – SEIKETSU

First three steps of 5S are the key to implement 5S in the workplace. This section is about visualization by Information displays, related SOPs, signs, color coding and other markings are established everywhere of the factory also included procedures for maintaining the first three S’s are being displayed. Do regular 5’s audit using a checklist, give & post rating to each area. Need formal training, keep training records to approach towards improvement. These standardizations increase the operating efficiency of the apparel industry.

5S in Apparel Manufacturing Industry Store

S5 – Sustain – SHITSUKE

This section is to sustain 5S in the textile and garments factory to be the way of life rather than just a routine. Success stories are being displayed (i.e. before and after pictures) in every section of the 5S board. Give rewards and recognition is part of the 5S system to sustain 5S.

S6 and S7(Extension of 5S)

Now, 5S have two additional points 6th “S” for “Safety” and the 7th “S’’ is “Security”. These two new points objective is to make safe workplace for all employees. It is employer’s responsibility to provide safety and security for both factory and office place in apparel industry.

Advantages of 5S for Garments

If you properly follow 5S for your textile and garments industry, then you will get following benefits:

  • Health and Safety is ensured
  • Base of implementation of quality improvement
  • Productivity Increase
  • Save time, cost and storage space
  • Minimization of accidents & mistakes
  • Increases efficiency
  • Creates workplace ownership
  • First step for Lean procedures
  • Increase customer satisfaction
  • Reduce inventory time
  • Reduce downtime, wastage
  • Good working environment
  • Visualization and labeling
  • Boost morale
  • Improve company image
  • Optimize organization and workplace as per requirement
  • Routine wise work schedule and visual Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) everywhere
  • Everybody knows their working responsibility where and when
  • Disciplined housekeeping

Implementation of 5S in Apparel Industry
5S in Sewing Section

For implementing 5S in Apparel Industry you need to follow the followings:

  1. Need central 5S committee and section wise subcommittee
  2. 5S organogram and committee list as enclosed
  3. Section wise 5S checklist
  4. 5S display board in every section
  5. Make a separate T-shirt for a committee
  6. Conduct 5s training and drive for good housekeeping
  7. Conduct section wise 5S audit and submit a report.
  8. Evaluate score and take corrective action for improvement in every department.

Actions Need to Implement 5S in Garments Industry

  1. Take “before” photographs.
  2. Check that the first three S’s are implemented properly.
  3. All team activity documents/checklists should be publicly displayed on a 5S board.
  4. Establish the routines and standard practices for regularly and systematically repeating the first three S’s.
  5. Standardize red tag procedures and holding area rules (see Seiri).
  6. Create a maintenance system for housekeeping. Make a schedule for cleaning of the workplace. A common approach is to ask a cross-functional team to do it.
  7. Inter-departmental competition is an effective means of sustaining and enhancing interest in 5S.
  8. Assign responsibility to individuals for a work area and machinery.
  9. Regular inspection/audit and evaluation by a special team (including senior management persons) to be continued.
  10. Instead of criticizing poor cases, praise and commend good practices or good performers.
  11. Take “after” photographs and post them on the 5S board(s).
  12. Give a reward for the top scoring section.

You can download Presentation File on 5S if you need.

5S Presentation: PowerPoint (6.3MB)

5S Training: PowerPoint (5.1MB)

5S Presentation (English & Bangla): PowerPoint (6.9MB)

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

Facebook: Amirul Islam Washim
E-mail: [email protected]

Garments Washing

Garments Washing

Normally we use the word ‘washing’ to mean cleaning. But in the case of garments, washing is not limited to this function. For garments, washing is not only required for cleaning but also required for improving fabric quality, increase the softness of fabric, reduce shrinkage, removing of dirt and for creating color effects. In other sense, washing is a technique which used to remove impurities dirt, dust, oil, etc. from the surface of garments, softness feeling of cloths, outlook fashion of the apparel and increasing colorfastness.

Garments Washing Process Garments Washing

Classification of Garments Washing

According to the process of washing, garments washing is basically of two types; one is a wet process and other is a dry process.

Objectives of Garments Washing

Though garments washing is done to meet several objectives, among those followings are the most common.

  1. To remove size materials
  2. Impurities remove
  3. To increase color fastness
  4. For color fading
  5. For soft hand feel
  6. Fashion Garments

Chemicals use for Garments Washing

Several chemicals are used for garments washing. Here is the list of chemicals used in garments washing.

  1. Detergent
  2. Bleaching agent ( H2O2, KMNO4)
  3. Acid ( Acetic acid, phosphoric acid)
  4. Desizing agent
  5. Softener
  6. The enzyme ( Bio- Chemicals)
  7. Anti-staining agent
  8. Soda
  9. Salts Etc.

Washing Plant of Garments

Washing plant can be automated, semi-automated. An engineer is responsible for all process to control such as Garments, m/c, H2O, Chemicals, PH, etc.

Washing Condition of Garments

  • Temperature up to 60̊ C
  • Time Up to 60 min
  • PH
  • The concentration of chemicals Up to 15 g/L

Process Flow of Garments Washing

Batch selection => Loading into washing m/c => M: L (add water) => M/c running => Add chemical at adjust temp. and set time => Drain out => Hot wash/ cold wash => Softening => Unload => Hydro extracting => Drying => Quality check => Finishing

Flow Chart of Garments Washing

Flow Chart of Garments Washing

Written By: Mashud Rana Opurbo

Bsc in Textile Engineering (DIU) “24th Batch”

Industrial Engineer at Radisson Garments Ltd.

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