Calculate Garments Cost of Making

One of the highest manufacturing industry is garments manufacturing industry where different types of garments are manufactured. Calculate Garments cost of making time to time is the right decision because the main motive of garments manufacturer is to make a profit where they manufacture garments and then sell it. But the problem is, what should be the required price of that item and how to calculate garments cost of making. To solve this problem first, you have to know the cost of garments making then add your markup price to set the selling price. Here cost of making means cost of manufacturing garments. Monitoring garments making cost is necessary so that trends of the cost of making can be identified and you can actually know whether your garments making cost is increasing or decreasing. Based on your change in garments cost of making you may take decision accordingly.

Calculate Garments Cost of Making

How to Calculate Garments Cost of Making

Pre Requirement of Calculation of  Garments Cost of Making

Before you start your costing you need to know the followings:

  1. Total Cost (TC) = Fixed Cost (FC) + Variable Cost (VC)
  2. Production Capacity of Your Machine (Hourly)
  3. Total Effective Working Hours Per Day
  4. Number of Days Operation in a Month

Fixed Cost of Garments Making

Fixed Cost are those cost of garments manufacturing which are fixed in nature. With the increase of a number of unit of production, your per unit fixed cost will be reduced. Some example of fixed cost is; salaries and wages, interest expense of bank loan, a rental expense of your factory building, depreciation expense of your fixed assets etc.

Variable Cost of Garments Making

Variable cost is the cost which is change over an additional number of unit of production. But per unit variable cost is fixed. The variable expense of garments making is; Utility (Electricity cost, Water cost, steam cost, Air cost) Expenditures, transportation cost, repair, and maintenance expense etc. Here the most crucial variable cost is utility cost. We need to carefully handle utility section to minimize utility cost.

Hourly Total Production Capacity of  Garments Machinery

To identify hourly total production capacity, you need to identify the total number of machine and capacity of each machine. After that, you need to multiply the hourly capacity with machine number.

Daily Production Capacity of  Garments

For calculating daily production of your garments, you need to multiply your hourly effective production capacity into working hours each day.

Monthly Production Capacity of Garments

To calculate monthly production capacity you have to multiply your daily production capacity with the number of working days in a month.

Costing of Utility of Garments

  • Electricity: To get electricity cost you need to identify total kW consumption of your factory and then multiply total KW with Price of per Kw electricity. Remember the cost of electricity is much higher in case of fuel generator and local REB compared with Gus Generator.
  • Water: Water cost is the cost of collecting water and the filtering cost. Normally in textile and garments, De-Mineralized (DM) water is used.
  • Steam: First identify total consumption of steam per machine each hour and then multiply with the number of machines.
  • Compressed Air: In case of air you have to identify the compressed air cost for per cubic meter then multiplies with the total consumption.

The formula of Calculating Garments Cost of Making

Monthly Garments Cost of Making (GCM) = (Monthly Total Cost of Garments Operation)/Monthly Total Output Produced by the Factory.

  • Here Total Cost include both fixed and variable Cost of your garments factory for one month
  • Monthly total Production is the output produced by the factory.

Example: Suppose Your Factory Costing Related Information are;

  • Salary & Wages Expense Tk. 20,000,000
  • Monthly Interest on Bank Loan Tk. 100,000
  • Depreciation Expense is Tk. 50,000
  • Rental Expense of Building is Tk. 200,000
  • Transportation Cost is Tk. 150,000
  • Repair & Maintenance Expense is Tk. 50,000
  • Utility Expense is Tk 100,000, where Electricity Cost is Tk 500,000, Steam Tk. 200,000, Water Cost is Tk. 100,000, Chiller Cost Tk. 100,000, Compressed Air Cost is Tk. 100,000.
  • Total Number of Machine is 150
  • Hourly Production Capacity of Each Machine 30
  • The total Working hour is 8 hours per day
  • The number of working days in a month is 26 Days.

Total Cost = 20,000,000 + 100,000 + 50,000 + 200,000 + 150,000 + 50,000 +1,000,000 = 21,550,000

Total Production = 150 * 30 * 8 * 26 = 936,000

Cost of Garments Making Per Piece of Garments = (21,550,000/936,000) = Tk. 23.02 (Piece)

After reading this hopefully you understand how to calculate garments cost of making. If you have any confusion then please let me know, I will try to clarify further.

Note: All these costing information is arbitrarily taken, so these values are not actual costing value.

Finishing Quality Control SOP of Apparel Industry

Finishing is the last step of the apparel industry. Quality Control is necessary for every stage of garments production for the purpose of making a quality product, finishing the garments, prepare for shipment and finally deliver to the garments buyer. So, finishing is a very important process in garments. To ensure finishing quality control by the garments manufacturer a finishing quality control SOP of Apparel Industry is to prepared and followed accordingly. Here SOP means Standard Operating Procedure. Ultimate quality control, garments decoration, and ticketing are done in the finishing process of the apparel industry.

Finishing Quality Control SOP of Apparel Industry

Finishing Quality Control SOP of Apparel Industry

For finishing quality control following standard operating procedure can be followed for the apparel industry.

  • All Sewn Garments is to receive into finishing section after washing (if GMTS need finishing as per buyer’s requirement).
  • Washed garments to be checked for shade acceptance in a standard lightbox as per buyer approved all shade standard. If a lot fails in AQL to meet shade acceptance, then GMTS will send back to washing for rewash.
  • After passing shade of Garments and thread trimming, quality checking starts as per style wise process sequence but must maintain size wise bundle.
  • Excessive WIP (Work in Process) and dumping more than one bundle stacking in one layer is not allowed in any operation of finishing.
  • Any defective garments will not pass from any operation without alteration and QC pass.

Finishing Quality Control Standard of Garments

  1. Pull test as per customer requirement
  2. 100% Garments quality inspection and thread trimming
  3. 100% Garments key point measurement
  4. 100% pressing as per customer requirement
  5. Quality audit is to be done before moving garments to pack
  6. Specific written instruction for every operation with garments form mockup as visual instruction for ironing, attaching the sticker, measurement, quality inspection, folding and packing.
  7. Approve trim card for every style with all finishing trims and accessories.
  8. 100 % garments metal detection is to follow to ensure garments free from a needle, sharp tools and any types of metal as ensured product quality.
  9. Packing of garments as per customer Stock Keeping Unit (SKU) and assortment requirement.

Ironing (Pressing) Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) in Garments Finishing

  1. Garments come in iron table size wise by the bundle.
  2. Only one size is allowed in a bundle.
  3. Iron table marking before every style starting.
  4. A carton in every iron table to keep defects and marking with arrow sticker to detect defects.
  5. Out of tolerance Garments not be passed from measurement section, the Iron show having every measurement table.
  6. Every Gate up Quality inspector having measurement tape and style wise measurement sheet.
  7. Approved sample hanging with written instruction in Iron, Quality Inspection, and packing area.
  8. From Iron garments moving bundle wise up to packing.
  9. Garments not are gathered by more than one style or color in every iron and quality inspection table.

Finishing Quality Audit

Finishing AQL Auditors audit GMTS before moving GMTS to packing area from every bundle using AQL 2.5. If audit pass, GMTS will move forward for packing. If Audit fails, an auditor will give back GMTS to Quality checkpoint area to recheck. After completing recheck, AQL Auditor will re-audit. An auditor audit full PO lot as per buyer final audit sampling policy when that PO is already 80% packed to check packed GMTS quality before a final audit. If Pre-final audit fails, then full PO will be rechecked.

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)
Email: [email protected]


Needle and Sharp Tools Control Procedure in Apparel

Needle, Broken Needle and Sharp Tools Control Procedure in Apparel Industry applies to all types of Machine needles, Hand Sewing needles, Label Applicator Gun needles, staples, and sharps (defined as knives, scissors, cutters, etc.). This article has two parts of controlling sharp items in garments industry. One is needle and broken needle control, the 2nd part is all others sharp tools control. All these items are sharp but there at least one needle in every sewing machine so we are giving needle control separately. Actually, every garments industry has to control needle and other sharp tools separately. The needle used to sew garments. Scissor, cutter and cutting knife used to cut fabrics and thread. And must eliminate staples from all areas, sections, raw materials (like supplier’s cartons), and processes of the factory. Loose sharp objects in any production related area near fabric or garments are not allowed, they must be tied up. A general procedure for controlling all sharp tools are broken needle log/no needle on idle machines, no sharp points, no staples, and scissors attached & secured, blades control.

Needle and Sharp Tools Control Procedure in Apparel

Needle, Broken Needle and Sharp Tools Control Procedure in Apparel Industry

List of Sharps Tools Used in Garments

  1. Sewing Needle
  2. Scissor
  3. Cutter (Thread trimmer)
  4. Cutting M/C Knife
  5. Cutting Clamps
  6. Loose Metal or M/C Parts

Needle Control

A needle issue booth is to be available on every production floor, only one person in the relevant department should be given the authority to operate the needle control procedure. The apparel industry has to set needle control policy and manage the procedure effectively because safety is important for the Buyers & GMTS makers point of view. Applicable to sewing, embroidery, knitting & linking, or any other place where the needle is used or where there is a risk of metal contamination of apparel manufacturing industry.

Objectives of Needle Control

  • To ensure customer product safety
  • To ensure safety for employee
  • To ensure safety for the consumer
  • Keep discipline of sharp tools handling
  • Safe working environment

Application of Needle Control Procedure

Machines not in production, should not have a needle attached. Mechanics must not leave spare needles with the machine after servicing. No spare or replaced needles should be held at the machine by an operator. The only needle allowed at the sewing machine is the one in use. All spare needles should keep in a secure location, keys for that location should be kept by the person who is responsible for managing the needle control procedure. When a needle breakage occurs, all broken parts must be found and taken to the person responsible for managing the needle and this ensures proper control procedure of needle. Once all the broken needle parts have been recovered, they must be attached with clear adhesive tape to a control sheet; a new needle may then be issued by the authorized distributor. If all the broken needle parts cannot be located, the work in the immediate area of the machine must be isolated and kept in a locked box. A metal detector should then be used to locate the missing needle pieces. Once the location of the needle pieces has been determined, the needle should be removed.

Needle, Broken Needle and Sharp Tools Control Procedure in Apparel Industry

The article does not have to be destroyed if the whole needle piece has been removed. Handheld detectors are very useful for tracing lost needles in sewing rooms very quickly. One in each factory location is suggested. If the pieces cannot be located by the metal detector then the whole isolated batch of work should be destroyed. Records of all control sheets must be maintained. This also should be maintained in a locked, secure location. All whole needles replaced due to wear and tear should be held in a sealed container away from the factory floor and disposed of in a way, which would avoid injury to any persons. Glass items, e.g. bottles or paperweights, in the production area should also be discouraged in case of glass splinters. The use of snap-off blade type knives should not be used for any production or packaging, shipping areas – i.e. disposable metal blades, craft knives etc. should not be used. The whole needle must be sealed in containers prior to issue.

Action Need to Follow to Control Needle

  1. The Needle Status could be marked as “B” for Broken and “W” for Worn/Twisted/Crooked/Bent needles
  2. When a needle breakage occurs, all broken parts must be found and taken to the person responsible for managing the needle control procedure.
  3. Once all the broken needle parts have been recovered, they must be attached with clear adhesive tape to a control sheet; a new needle may then be issued by the authorized distributor.
  4. If all the broken needle parts cannot be located, the work in the immediate area of the machine must be isolated and passed through Metal Detector.
  5. If the pieces cannot be located by the metal detector, production in that area should be stopped; and the whole batch of work should be destroyed.

How to Control All Sharp Tools Used in Apparel/Garments

  1. Keep section wise records of all sharp tools quantity
  2. Supply all necessary sharp tools start of the workday and take this back end of the workday.
  3. Make sure any single number of tools not lost
  4. Keep section wise stock management report
  5. Tie all Scissor and cutter with relevant machine/table in work running time
  6. Staples should not use anywhere, staples threat for safety.
  7. Any metal or machine spare part not allowed to keep in the workplace.

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

Facebook: Amirul Islam Washim
E-mail: [email protected]

Metal Detection Procedure in Apparel

Metal Detection is the final precautionary measure used to get needle/metal free final product. It is not as a replacement for well-maintained needle control procedures. Metal Detection Procedure in Apparel could be the final needle detection system and machine calibration (whether machine is functioning properly or not) is checked  by 9-point calibration system. Metal detection machine should be located in packing section to ensure that after metal detection process, garments will remain inside a metal/needle free zone. Machine calibrated with 9-point method or any other suggested method given by the supplier/buyer. This process should continue for every hour & keep record.

Metal Detection Procedure in Apparel

Objectives of Metal Detection in Garments

Final product of garments should be metal or needle free, otherwise it can harm the user of garments. Here are the few objectives of metal detection:

  • To get needle free final product
  • To get metal free final product in carton
  • Secure product safety
  • Metal detection is mandatory for all children wear garments, and this also varies according to the buyer wise requirement.
  • To meet customer satisfaction

Metal Detection Procedure in Apparel

Metal Detection Procedure of Garments Manufacturing are explained below

  1. All goods must be passed through the Metal Detector except in exceptional circumstances where the nature of the product dictates that this cannot be done. This must be agreed with the buyer beforehand; and signed on the Operation Manual or Product Specification (I.e. (a) Certain accessories, (b) PRO, where the stitched upper is passed through the detector Goods with ferrous metal components.
  2. All goods must be passed through a Metal Detector set to the standard of a 1.2 mm sphere. As the majority of the trims and decorations are non-Ferrous, it is a requirement that ferrous metal detector be used.
  3. Records and samples must be kept of any contamination detected, starting date, and time, product type, and the cause of resultant actions to be kept in a secure location.
  4. When a metal is detected, only supervisors or manager can reactivate the equipment. It is therefore mandatory that a Security Key Switch is used to ensure this.
  5. X-ray machine is needed where tacks are used in production (i.e. hand sewn shoes, moccasins, etc.)

Metal Detector Machine Calibration by 9 Point System

9-point testing of metal detector refers below points

  • Calibrate (Test) machine 3 times each day at the beginning, middle and end of a working period by using the 1.2mm sphere ferrous checks cards to check machine sensitivity.
  • Test at 9 points at every time
  • Test from top, Centre and bottom position in left, middle and right side of machine, total 9 points.
  • If any point not detected by machine, should recheck the point again.

Description of Needle Calibration Check

Needle Calibration check purpose to check machine sensitivity. The sensitivity should be set by passing the test sample through/at the (i) Centre (ii) Left Side (iii) Right Side of the detector. This process will be repeated by placing the test sample at a raised height, allowing the test sample to pass through the middle of the detector. The 1.2mm test sample must be kept available at all times. The detector must be tested with the 1.2mm test sample a minimum of 3 times per working session, which is defined as a shift. The test should be carried out prior to starting detection, at an intermediate point, and at the end of the session using the test sample. A record should be kept of the time and date by the supervisor. When a detector fails to detect the test sample, all merchandise that has passed through the detector since the last correctly completed test must be rechecked through the metal detector. It is good practice to be able to identify each batch of production that has passed through the detector since the last test.

  1. The Metal detector is positioned such that goods need to pass through the metal detector in order to be shipped out (finishing to packing; or packing to warehouse).
  2. Best practice is to have a magnetized station/ table where the tacks are removed; when the operator holds the lasted upper on this and pulls the tacks out, they are pulled and held in place until the operator removes them to a dedicated sharps storage container. Alternative solution is to use a magnetic /generator coils (about 12 to 15 inches in diameter) as cradles during the de-tacking process.
  3. Machines must be serviced, certified and calibrated by the Metal Detection Company or recognized 3rd party testing company.
  4. Records are to be kept.

Needle Detecting Report

Metal Detection Procedure in Apparel also Refer to-

  • Needle detection procedure in Garments
  • 9 Points calibration system
  • Product safety in Garments

Download : Needle Detection Report Format (Excel 47kb)

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

Facebook: Amirul Islam Washim
E-mail: [email protected]

KPI Factors of Garments

KPI stands for Key Performance Indicator or Key Points Indicator. This is the era of competition and we have to survive with global challenge in apparel industry. If you carefully work with Key points that is KPI Factors of Garments then surely Garments business will flourish. Management team should focus on KPI for their industry. KPI report will help you to look into the actual condition of your garments.

KPI Factors of Garments

There are many KPI factors which are directly and indirectly related with garments, specially in factory operations.

KPI Factors of Garments

KPI for Garments Cutting

Cutting efficiency: Cutting efficiency one of the most important factor. If efficiency increase in cutting section, then production will increase by using minimum number of manpower.

Month Wise Cutting EfficiencyCutting Production: Cutting production is another important factor as like Cutting efficiency. Cutting production is related with Spreading, cutting, numbering and bundling.

Month Wise Cutting ProductionDHU (Defect per Hundred Units) in cutting: In cutting, there is no way to repair defect, must replace panel as per marker with shade matching. So if DHU is high, you will be needed to rework.

Cutting delay/Input delay in sewing line: Sometime cutting and sewing not start as per plan. Only two reason behind this. If PP/Size Set or pilot run sample fail to buyer QC to meet quality standard, apparel manufacturers have remake sample and submit again to buyer QC to pass sample and get cutting approval. Sewing can be delayed for Trims and accessories delay receive from supplier.

Month Wise Input Delay Status

KPI for Sewing

Line wise Sewing efficiency: Sewing make the whole garments, so sewing efficiency is an important factor for garments industry.

Efficiency calculation: An operator was doing an operation of SAM (Standard Allowed Minute) 0.60 minutes. In 10 hours day he produces 600 pieces. So according to the efficiency calculating formula, that operator’s overall efficiency is as follows:

Efficiency (%) = [Total minute produced by an operator/Total minute attended by him *100]

Efficiency (%) = [(Total piece made X SAM of the operation)/ (Total working hour X 60) * 100]
= [(400 x 0.60) / (10 X 60)*100%]
= 240/600*100%
= 40.00%

Last Month Sewing Efficiency


The ratio among production/hour/manpower/machine is to be optimal. Every factory has self study to reduce manpower, keeping less helper with best possible production outcome.

Month Wise Production Plan of Actual Sewing

Machine Trouble/Machine downtime: Because of Machine trouble production is stopped. Machine maintenance department have to do their best effort to reduce machine downtime. Electrical problem also can be cause of Machine trouble/machine downtime.

DHU in Sewing: Defects rate also key point in garments manufacturing. Factory has to rework for repairing defects. Defect generation reduces operator’s efficiency. Factory wants to keep defects as low as possible for per hundred units.

Absenteeism: Operator absenteeism hamper sewing production, create bottleneck. Every factory target employee absenteeism rate is zero % but sometimes it may not possible to keep this percent.

No. Style change: Style change effect on productivity, efficiency, and quality. So garments manufacturer wants big lot order more rather than small quantity order for any lot.

Plan vs Actual Production Ratio: All factories have planning department to make plan for cutting, sewing, finishing and shipment to meet buyer required shipment date. Gap between plan and actual production is the reason of not meeting on time delivery.

Idle Time/Machine: Idle time is also known as loss time. For any type of reason operators are not working is considered as loss time. Common reasons for idle time are; using new layout, machine trouble, no work etc.

Operator Wise Efficiency: The best way of efficiency calculation is to calculate individual operator efficiency every day, show report weekly and train up lower efficient operator for improvement which ultimately increase the operator efficiency.

Process improvement: Industrial engineering (IE) department do time study, motion study and work study to find out SMV (Standard Minute Value), to minimize unnecessary motion for sewing operations. By this way factory save SMV time for garments manufacturing.

Operator Turnover Rate: Since sewing is the key process of apparel, sewing operator turnover percentage is important. Turnover means the number of employees got fired or left from the job and replaced in work place by new operator. If turnover rate is lower in factory then it will be better for the company.

Monthly turnover % = (Employees separated/Average number of employees during the month) *100

Example, If Employees separated = 21, Average number of employees during the month= 950

So, Monthly Turnover % = (21/950) × 100 = 2.21%

KPI for Trims and Fabrics

Claim Amount vs. Recovery Amount: According to the buyer quality standard, garments manufacture has to reject fabrics, trim if there is any quality issue. So, maker must claim for compensation by replacing or giving back their money.

Claim and Recovery Amount

KPI for Finishing, Final Audit and Shipment

Cut to Ship Quantity: As PO wise buyer order quantity cutting department try to cut extra as much as possible. It could be from 2% to 5%. GMTS reject due to different quality issue. Below data will give idea about GMTS (Garments) production flow.

Cut to Ship Quantity

Month Wise Cut to Ship Percent

Reject percentage: For some critical quality problems like wash damage, measurement out of tolerance, work hole and unrepeatable problems GMTS rejected by finishing quality team.

DHU in Finishing: Defects rate also key point in garments manufacturing. Factory has to rework for to repair defects. Finishing team have to repair whatever defect come from sewing or finishing they found. Factory wants to keep defects per hundred units as low as possible. If too many products are defected then to rework the garments may add extra cost to the product which to totally unexpected.

Final Audit Pass rate: Final Audit pass rate is the number 1 KPI factor for Garments Quality. For some buyer final audit, if fail once any PO in final Audit, Factory has to give penalty for that. Any PO fail in final audit, factory has rechecked full quantity goods again. Could imagine how much cost need to recheck, and it also does hamper running production as well.

Month Wise Final Inspection Pass Rate

Finishing Production: Finishing is the last step of apparel manufacturing. On time delivery, sea or air shipment mainly depends on finishing of production.

Finishing Efficiency: Finishing efficiency is also very important key factory. If efficiency increases, production will increase with minimum manpower and ultimately it will increase profit for the company.

Last Month Floor Wise Average Finishing Efficiency Plan

Order and Ship Ratio: Order and ship ratio should be equal at least or ship quantity could be more than order quantity since cutting quantity is more than 2% or 3% of order quantity by reducing reject %.

Last Month Shipment Analysis

Year Wise Excess Shipment Quantity

Month Wise Order to Shipment Percent

Air Ship Quantity: Two reasons are cause for air shipment. One, If Garments maker cannot meet on time delivery date then maker have to ship goods by air at his own cost. GMTS suffer huge financial loss for air shipment because the rate is more for air shipment. Number two would be merchandising reason for not sourcing raw material on time.

Month Wise Air Shipment

Templates and KPI Dashboard Presentation

You may need to present your factory KPI data with Top management or may need to report them. Here I am sharing you a complete presentation and Excel database for your convenience for free. I hope these would help you to work with KPI smoothly.

  1. KPI Presentaion-Apparel and Garments (PowerPoint) (1mb)
  2. Summary of KPI report (Excel) (1.3mb)

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

Facebook: Amirul Islam Washim

E-mail: [email protected]

Inventory control in Apparel and Textile Warehouse

Inventory control is crucial part of every industry.  Inventory control of Apparel, textile and fashion industry must keep inventory in their warehouse/store. Inventory control is called stock management which save cost, time and increase work efficiency of your warehouse.

Goods in warehouse in Garments

Inventory control can be defined as list of in housed, unsold and unshipped goods in organized way at the same time; balance quantity, booking quantity, shipping quantity everything I mean real status of stock/selling/shipping/moving goods.

Inventory control in Apparel and Textile Warehouse

Inventory control in Apparel and Textile Warehouse

Proper inventory control in apparel and textile warehouse will ensure market competitiveness in international market.

Goods in warehouse can be placed in three ways

  1. Raw material, to be inputted for production bought from another company
  2. Work in progress, production is running
  3. Finished goods, waiting for delivery to buyer’s destination

 Inventory of Raw materials

Inventory in Garments Industry

Maintaining Database for Inventory in Textile and Garments Industry

For controlling your inventory, you have to maintain proper database and recording system so that you can monitor the inventory status continuously. Two common practices of maintaining inventory report you may find in apparel industry:

  • Excel data base
  • ERP (Enterprise resource planning) software.

For small organization buying ERP software is sometimes creates extra burden so my suggestion for them is to use excel template which is totally from and available to download. We have developed excel (inventory management) template for your convenience. Here is some free excel template ready to download.

Benefits of Inventory

  1. Information transparency
  2. Save cost
  3. Increase efficiency
  4. Save time
  5. Data Management
  6. Beneficiary for all others departments
  7. Minimize Goods receive and delivery time
  8. Increase supply chain performance
  9. Knowing stock information in any time
  10. Organize store/warehouse

Factors of inventory report for Garments and Textile store/Warehouse

  1. Mention buyer name
  2. PO and style name
  3. Production name
  4. Product description
  5. Proforma invoice (PI) number of received goods
  6. Challan No
  7. Booking quantity
  8. Received quantity
  9. Balance quantity
  10. Delivery quantity
  11. Quality inspection status
  12. Due product
  13. Product moving log
  14. Shipment date
  15. Rejected quantity
  16. Store rack number

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

Facebook: Amirul Islam Washim

E-mail: [email protected]

Sewing Quality Control SOP

Sewing Quality Control SOP

Sewing is the key process of apparel industry. Sewing produce full garments. Cutting section just cut garments as per marker. Finishing section mainly does decorative work, add ticketing items and ironing. As Garments construct through Sewing; sewing quality control is most important factor in Apparel industry. Sewing quality team controls all the necessary quality criteria. There are some rules for controlling quality of sewing. These standard rules are well known as sewing quality standard operating procedure (SOP). Let see, what are the basic things a sewing quality controlling SOP includes:

Standard Operating Procedure of Sewing Quality Control, Sewing Quality Control SOP

Sewing Quality Controlling Standard Operating Procedure

Here is the standard operating procedure of sewing quality control

  1. Quality inspectors check sample and trim card of his process at the very beginning of a style. Inspector also checks SPI, thread, label and First Bundle specially and will have to take over his work from Quality controller for new style.
  2. Inspectors know his all measurement of his check point and will have to explain clearly if anybody ask.
  3. No defect allowed passing from QI check point and defect will be limited in one bundle in any process.
  4. Bundle cut have to maintain as per cutting report, short and mistake bundle not to pass by QC check point.
  5. Measurement tape hanging on every QI neck
  6. Every in-process report to be updated, to be signed by QC and line supervisor in every hour.
  7. Any process mistake and size mistake body go back to operation making correction.
  8. Every running style Sample and Trim card showing operation clearly displayed on each line.
  9. Every quality inspector following up machine cleaning before breaking up factory every day and 100% machine having oil card.
  10. Washed Garments not allowed keeping sewing line. If there any GMTS in sewing line, Output QI and Line QC have to handover in finishing.
  11. Every Line QC is responsible for all types of buyer requirement of his line.

You can download a common form of SOP both in Bengali and English

Sewing Quality SOP (English)

Sewing Quality SOP (Bangla)

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

Facebook: Amirul Islam Washim

E-mail: [email protected]

Cutting Section SOP in Garments Industry

Cutting Section Standard Operating Procedure in Garments Industry

Cutting Section Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) is develop to provide guidelines for the workers so that they have proper knowledge of working. SOP is written in a simplest way to ensure better understanding for all people who are involved directly or indirectly with that particular activities. In a garments industry you may find different form of SOP and it can vary company to company and also department to department. Each and every garments company always try make best adaptable standard operating procedure. You know that cutting section is very crucial part of garments manufacturing, keep in mind the importance of this section I made a simple Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for cutting section of garments so that can make SOP for your company. Now a day’s it is mandatory to make SOP and hang it to the working place of each section in apparel industry for better understanding of the procedure and to minimize operational error.

Cutting Section SOP in Garments Industry

Cutting Section SOP

Sample form of Cutting Section Standard Operating Procedure is as flows:

Fabrics Relaxation Procedure

  • Spandex fabrics will be relaxed minimum 24 hour making unroll in cutting section.
  • Relaxation date and time must be recorded. After spreading, will relax 2 hours before cut.

Before Cutting Procedure

  • Receive marker and quality check by cutting QC.
  • Fabric Spreading will be done based on Shade chart/Shade grouping provided by fabrics warehouse.
  • Spreading report will be made after spreading with related all necessary data.
  • Spreading Quality check point: -Table marking -Ends -Leaning –Tension -Narrow Goods -Remnants -Counts -Ply High -Marker Placing -Fabric Flaws
  • Highest lay for woven fabrics is length 14 meter and height 3 inch.
  • Lay chart should be maintaining roll wise.
  • Quality inspector will control quality inspection during fabrics lay.
  • Cutting spreader man will spread marker after finishing lay.
  • For stripe and check fabrics, alignment to be correct by using hook, thread.
  • Before cutting cutter man will attach clamp, Gum tap on the layer.
  • Shade chart will be hanged during lay.
  • Cutting Quality check points: -Miss cut –Rugged Cutting –Notches-Matching Plies and pattern check.

After Cutting Procedure

  • Quality will check every bundle using hard pattern three different position of the bundle.
  • Numbering and bundling separation done by following spreading report and identify each bundle by style, Cutting number, Bundle number, size, Serial number, Shade number and Parts name.
  • 100% cut panel will be inspected
  • If any defective panel found, will be replaced from lay chart wise remnants by following shade and pattern grain line.
  • Light color bundle will bind with light color string; deep color bundle will bind with deep color string
  • Light color Fabrics will be covered by poly in rack or pallet.
  • Then all cut panels will be ready to delivery in sewing.

You can download cutting section SOP in Garment Industry from here.

Cutting Standard Operating Procedure SOP English

Cutting Standard Operating Procedure SOP Bangla

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

Facebook: Amirul Islam Washim

E-mail: [email protected]

Quality Control in Garment Manufacturing

Quality Control in Garment Manufacturing

Quality is of prime significance in any part of the business. Clients request and expect an incentive for cash. Quality is characterized by the level of acknowledgment of a decent or administration. It is an extremely fundamental necessity for any item. Each item ought to keep up the standard quality level. In this 21st century of globalization showcase is ending up increasingly intricate, that is the reason each industry is confronting an abnormal state of rivalry for their business. As makers of clothing, there must be a consistent quality control in garment manufacturing to create work of good quality.

Quality Control Framework

The frameworks required for programming and planning the endeavors of the different gatherings in an association to keep up the imperative quality.” Quality Control is the implementation and monitoring of Quality Assurance or Total Quality Control operations. The Testing technique comprises different significant method to ensure that manufacturing procedure is following all the essential principles and the materials used in piece of clothing creation are of great quality. It is likewise critical to test the hardware for attempting to their most extreme limits and for not harming the texture and different materials itself. Diverse sorts of testings are being done consistently to screen the procedure and the result of the assembling. Those testings differ amongst concoction and physical ones. Physical testings incorporate the checking of catches, dimensional soundness of the texture et cetera. Concoction testings are identified with reviews of shading speed to washing, warmth, lighting and different conditions. Furthermore, by and large, every one of them has one motivation behind guaranteeing a quality item toward the end.

Garment Manufacturing Testing

Testing can be led either in the lab of the creating industrial facility itself or in other testing research centers that are had practical experience in the quality control and affirmation of the article of clothing generation. For the most part, an outsider directed testing be best because of the better fixation and fair-minded checking process. It is likewise vital to believe the quality confirmation testing method to particular experts to guarantee the most extreme quality and productivity, by testing all materials and apparatus utilized amid assembling. The tests equipment which can be utilized for the quality inspection garments includes Hydrostatic Head Tester& Air Permeability Tester.

Hydrostatic Head Tester

Hydrostatic Head Tester

Hydrostatic Head Tester

Hydrostatic Head Tester, utilized for deciding the protection of textures and movies to water infiltration underweight while immovably cinched in the test apparatus of the standard region, by methods for dynamic test technique and static test strategy. The bank is connected to a test go to which the example is cinched rapidly and steadily by methods for a programmed brace.

Air Permeability Tester 

Quality Control in Garment Manufacturing

Air Permeability Tester

Air Permeability Tester is stacked to the test zone of the instrument effectively by methods for a programme holder by pushing down the holder to begin the test. So essentially, review method incorporates all phases of the piece of clothing generation beginning from crude materials and parts, trailed by the real assembling and observing of the work, and consummation the procedure with the investigation and examination of the completed item.

Following parameter are checked thoroughly at this stage:

  • Texture development
  • Shading quickness
  • Completed article of clothing

These days’ purchasers are particularly quality cognizant. If it is conceivable to keep up a fantastic arrangement of investigation strategy, the purchasers should be spurred, and greater quality items can be made. Learn more.

Financing for Textile and Garments

Financing for Textile and Garments

A good financing decision works as a driving force for an organization to build a strong financial position. Financing decision varies industry to industry, organization to organization according to their financing requirement, financial strength and risk taking behavior of that particular parties. Here in this article you will have basic ideas of financing and how you can take financial decision for your textile and garments business.

Basically the objective of financing is to collect money from the least cost sources and then invest in the profitable sectors. Here the challenge is minimize the cost and maximize the profit of the investment. Financing is required for different stages of business, like initial startup of business, or for maintaining the operational expenditures or for expansion of business. The mechanism of these financing need varies business to business.

If you are going to finance for the manufacturing industry then you will be required a large amount of fund for startup or for expansion of your business, and for operating expenditure you will be required working capital which is much less than the initial investment. On the other hand for service industry you have to invest a large amount of capital in the initial year and the operation cost is not that much high.

Requirement of Money for Textile and GarmentsNow come to the point of financing for textile and garments industries, as this one is manufacturing industry which requires to buy different types of equipment (power and electricity generator, spinning machine, knitting machine, dyeing machine, printing machine, sewing machine, cutting machine and many more) we have to spends lots of money and our huge amount of capital will be invested for this purpose. In addition to this thousands of garments worker will be working here, for payment of salary and wages you will be required a larger amount of working capital. On the other hand for importing raw materials you will also be required huge amount of money.

If you want to expand your business to increase production capacity you have to invest huge amount of money for long term basis.

The question is how you can manage these required money and from where you can source this money. At the time of sourcing of money/ fund you always have to be careful about the cost of that fund, least costing source will be preferable.

Financing for Textile and GarmentsFinancing for Textile and Garments can be for:

  • Initial startup of business.
  • Maintaining daily expenditures.
  • Expansion of Business/ Production Capacity.

Initial Expenditure for Starting a Textile and Garments Business

You already know that for starting a new setup for textile and garments you must spend a large amount of capital for purchasing capital machinery. The important thing is how you are going to finance for this, my suggestion is, and as capital machinery and equipment’s for long term it will be a better decision of financing from the long term sources. Available options of financing are:

  1. Long term bank loan (Debt Financing).
  2. Selling share (Equity Financing); in case of public limited company.
  3. Or you can choose both debt financing and equity financing (the ratio of debt to equity will be depend on the financial strength and the business risk of that company).

From the above alternatives, my personal suggestion is to choose third one because you cannot use fully debt financing because you have to bear a fixed cost (interest) for a certain interval of time for a period.

  • Fixed cost financing may increase your financial risk, so try to avoid fully debt financing.
  • On the other hand, equity financing is more costly as you have to share your all of your profit proportionately according to the contribution of equity capital.

The right choice is to use debt and equity to minimize the weighted average cost of capital. And you have to form your optimal capital structure by considering two major factors (business risk & financial strength). Taking loan for new business is not that much easy, that’s why initially we have to depend upon our own capital first. With the passes of time, for a successful business, it will be better to increase the debt percent so that taxable income can be reduced.

Financing for Maintaining Daily Expenditures

Actually maintaining daily expenditures means, managing working capital funds for your business operations or management of current assets and current liabilities. You may source your working capital either from long term or short term sources and the decision will be depend on the working capital management policy (hedging, conservative, aggressive) of yours. Before choosing working capital management policy you have to have brief idea of these policies:

  • Hedging Policy of Working Capital Management: Hedging policy is one of the popular policy of managing funds where a matching principle is used. Financing for current obligation is done from the current assets (current sources) and on the other hand financing for long term obligation is done for the long term assets (long term sources). That means for short term requirement of funds you need to collect from short term sources and for long term requirements you have to collect from long term sources.
  • Conservative Policy of Working Capital Management: In case of conservative policy company has the intention of taking low risk for financing current asset. Additional fund required for fixed assets company keeps extra fund for using as current asset. Here company financing (collecting) more funds from the long term sources for both current asset and fixed/long term assets. The main intention is to lowering the risk of financing for current asset.
  • Aggressive Policy of Working Capital Management: Aggressive policy of working capital management is risky policy in a sense that most of required funds for current and long term assets is to be financed from the short term sources, lower amount of funds will be collected from the long term sources. Basically money will be kept less than the required amount for working capital that why risk is higher.

Before taking a policy form all these above mentioned policies you must evaluate your ability to liquid your asset and liquid (cash) required for your business. Another thing is your risk taking behavior towards working capital management.

The question is from which sources you can finance for the maintaining daily expenditures? The probable source available for the textile and garments are:

  • Lowering the collection period of accounts receivables.
  • Delaying the payment of accounts payable.
  • Delaying the payment of salaries and wages.
  • Taking short term bank loan.
  • Purchasing raw materials on credit.

Financing for Expansion of Textile and Garments Business

As you already know that for business of textile and garments you will be required a lot of money. Expansion of business or expansion of production capacity requires larger investment to for purchase machinery and equipment, land, construct building etc. This is more or less similar with the initial investment for your business. In addition with acquiring capital assets, you have to hire workers and employees for supporting your business expansion. The thing is you have to pay wages and salaries, purchase of additional raw materials or any other operating expenditures. So you can manage these extra money from both long term sources and from short term sources. Whether you choose long term or short term source, is mainly depends on your financial strength and adequacy of money of your existing business. Normally a profitable textile and garments company has intention to expand when they find that the business is profitable and they can manage their extra required fund from their own profit.

Financing for Textile and Garments

After these discussion, I think that it is clear how you can finance for your textile and garments and which sources are available for financing. Careful analysis is to be done before any larger investment because for large investment risk is higher and involve cost also.

If you have any confusion then you can comment here. I will try to give you suggestion about financing and different problematic situations.

Written by: Md. Nahian Mahmud Shaikat

Financial Analyst

Mail: [email protected]