Pre-production (PP) Meeting Requirements and Procedure in Apparel Industry

PP Meeting Requirements and Procedure in Apparel Industry

PP meeting is a very important part of Garments manufacturing process, a part of the pre-production process to be completed in the right time for smooth Garments manufacturing process. A process where buyer QC/Merchandiser are also involve in checking accuracy. Generally, PP meeting conducted by buyer QC, internal PP meeting by garments manufacturer before that, is a good practice to avoid the risk of failing, meeting location factory conference room or inspection room.

PP Meeting Requirements and Procedure in Apparel Industry

Basic Documents of PP Meeting

  1. QA File (Approved Trim Card)
  2. PO Sheet
  3. Production PDM
  4. Buying house Comments on approved sample
  5. Approved sample
  6. Approved wash standard/Approved shade band-Leg Panel / 1stBach
  7. Shade Blanket/Shade Card
  8. Shrinkage Test Report & Distortion Test Report
  9. Tube Test & Cross Stain Checking Blanket
  10. Embellishment approvals
  11. Fabric & Trim’s Inspection Report
  12. Fabric & Trims inventory report
  13. Button Pull test report
  14. PP Size set sample covering all size

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PP meeting in apparel industry

PP meeting check list

Factory Quality Team Responsibility before PP Meeting

  • Assigned Quality controller receives all approvals and records them on “PP Meeting checklist”. QA also records expected date of receiving non-available approvals and follows up accordingly with Production merchandiser.
  • The QA marks “NA” (not applicable) in case of anything not being used for the particular style.
  • Need to do internal PP meeting by factory QA manager with his QC and production before submitting sample for buyer QC PP meeting.

PP Meeting Activities

Fabrication & Finish Issues

  • All expected fabrication issues especially those highlighted by during fabric inspection report & sample process.
  • Potential production problems according to fabric behavior.
  • Fabric quality, CSV/SSV, Shrinkage, Shade, Cross staining & Wash issues.

Cutting Issues

  • All cutting related issues to be highlighted –fabric relaxation, spreading elongation and tension, panel checking and records measurements variation, plaid matching, pattern adjustment etc.
  • Grading of pocket, panels, inserts, notches etc.

Embellishment Issues

All potential issues in application of embellishment i.e. print, embroidery, rhinestone, heat transfer label, decorative patches etc. are discussed.

Construction and Stitching Issues

  • Sample comments regarding sewing issues and every operation of concerned style is discussed.
  • Emphasis is on critical operations. All out of routine operations are discussed with sampling master which finalized in vendor pre-production meeting.
  • Difficult operations are highlighted and displayed for every style and doing risk analysis report.
  • Difficult operations checklist is maintained and verified during production.

Finishing Issues

  • All expected finishing and packing issues to be highlighted & discussed with vendor. This includes garment shape, pressing, folding, packing etc.
  • Pressing, measuring, QA check, folding & packing instructions are placed and clearly demonstrated to ensure PDM instructions are properly followed.
  • Factory specs men are advised how to measure before pressing & after pressing & keep records.
  • Buyer QC emphasizes on vendor pre-production meeting points during inline inspections.
  • Factory merchandiser gives production time and action plan (T.N.A) to buyer QC in pre-production meeting.
  • After conducting pre-production meeting, buyer QC distributes pre-production meeting recap/Comments to all participants through e mail or hard copy.

PP Meeting Participants

  1. Head of operation
  2. Production Manager (PM)
  3. Operation & Production in charge
  4. Technical Manager, Sampling QA and Pattern master
  5. Production merchandiser
  6. QA Manager
  7. GPQ
  8. Fabric, Store & Finish Manager
  9. Cutting, Sew & Finishing Manager
  10. Maintenance & IE Manager

Written by
A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)
Email: [email protected]
Linkedin: A.M. Amirul Islam

Sweater and Lingerie: Two Growing Subsections of RMG Sector of Bangladesh

Sweater and Lingerie: Two Growing Subsections of RMG Sector of Bangladesh

Sweater – A growing sub-section of RMG sector in Bangladesh: Sweater production and export is the promising subsection of Bangladesh RMG sector. As per a report from the Dhaka Tribune, With the technological up-gradation of this sector, it contributes to the western business market expanding with fulfilling winter season demand. During an interview with the Dhaka Tribune, Mohammed Nasir, Vice President of Bangladesh Garment Manufacturers and Exporters Association (BGMEA) said that “Sweater manufacturers upgrade their machinaries from manual to automatic, for this reason productivity of workers and overall factory production increases.” Due to global climate change, winter & summer become two major seasons. Winter becomes a season of fashion & styles. In this regard, the sweater becomes trendy with fashionable accessories &fusion design. As per the report of Export Promotion Bureau (EPB), in the fiscal year 2017-2018, Bangladesh earned from sweat export worth $3.67 billion, whereas in the fiscal year 2016-2017 it was $3.37 billion, a rise of 9.22% within a year. This sector has a share of 12% to the total RMG exports of $30.61 billion of the fiscal year 2017-2018. People from this industry hope that by 2021 this sector annual worth will be $8 billion.

Sweater Export Growth of Bangladesh

Bangladesh Sweater Export Growth

A significant number of Bangladeshi sweater factories have enhanced their production capacity or set up new manufacturing units to cope with the growing demand for sweaters from global apparel buyers. SQ, Dragon, Tupa, Starlight and Diganta Sweaters are some of the major sweater manufacturing in Bangladesh, expanded their capacity at least once recently. Walmart, Marks, and Spencer (M&S), GAP, Tesco, H&M, JC Penney, Zara etc. are the top foreign buyers of Bangladesh sweater section.

Sweater and Lingerie Two Growing Subsections of RMG Sector of Bangladesh

Having a look over the export growth of Bangladesh Sweater section, it has seen that it obtained an improvement steps of stair. Though we have same complicacy of port & logistics system, on contrary we have a goodwill of our quality & trendy sweater products. Meanwhile competition Chinas product diversification is another chance for our sweater section to grab global orders. Saif Ahmed, deputy general manager of Mohammadi Group, which exports nearly three million pieces of sweater in a year, said that work orders shift from China to Bangladesh is another factor for the higher shipment. Hopefully in near future this section will lead as like as knit or woven section.

Lingerie Export of RMG from Bangladesh

Lingerie: Another growing sub-section of RMG sector in Bangladesh: Once upon a time, lingerie was an intangible part of fashion, but with the change of fashion & style it becomes a part of fashion & fashion industry. Bangladesh lingerie industry also developing with times after steeps in global market from 2008. As per International Trade Centre (ITC) report, global lingerie export worth is around $23 billion. China leads the market of lingerie exporting countries with 37%share, while Hong Kong and Sri Lanka leads as second and third with 8.78% and 5.65% of worth respectively. Bangladesh is the 4th largest lingerie exporter with 5.23% share in the global market. Vietnam, India, France, Germany, Cambodia, and the Netherlands are also in the list. Top foreign buyers of Bangladesh lingerie items are H&M, Hunkemöller, Women’secret, Ostin, Ariela-Alpha., M&S, Victoria’s Secret etc. Asif Zahir, director of Ananta Group said that, “Lingerie is an upcoming sector, this is a big market.”

Lingerie Export Growth of Bangladesh

Growth of Lingerie Export of Bangladesh

As per the Apparel story, among a wide variety of intimate apparel items, bra dominates global market with more than half of the total share of worthwhile briefs represent around 33% and corsetry 10%. According to Analysts of Technavio, an international research company, within 2021 global lingerie market will grow at a CAGR of 4.30%. After realizing the global market trend, so many apparel icons of Bangladesh expanded their lingerie unit or established new unit. Top lingerie item exported from Bangladesh are: bra, penty, corset, shapewear, girdle, swimsuits and braces. Ms. Sandamali, Head of Marketing of SQ Birichina, said that “Lingerie manufacturing is a critical task, so not all are interested in this business keeping the number of players limited in the market, thus it gives advantages to the manufactures in terms of competition. While buyers generally tend to switch from one supplier to another on price issue in case of basic apparel items, such scene is less likely in undergarment business because factories skilled and equipped to manufacture this complex product are not too many in the market.” In the fiscal year 2017-18, the export worth of lingerie items – women’s innerwear and nightwear reached $1.15 billion, the rise of 7.84%from the previous fiscal year 2016-17 worth $1.07. As per the financial express, Md Syful Alam, manager, merchandising and marketing, Yunusco Bangladesh Ltd said that “Lingerie is a complicated and technical product that needs a sophisticated design with right fabric and tailoring to yield a good and satisfactory fit”. ” This is the reason why we require the items IE-Industrial Engineering in Garments,” he added.

Lingerie Products Exported from Bangladesh

Different kinds of lingerie items exported from Bangladesh

As per, Apparel Resources News-Desk, M Ghulam Faruq, Chairman of SQ Birichina, said that, “To be honest, Bangladesh is still not doing much to produce the premium segment of lingerie items.” He thinks that lingerie is an item that needs continuous changing of fashion with taste change. “You need continuous innovation in fabric design and product design to stay competitive in the lingerie market. It is a difficult business,” he quoted. Manufacturer starts investing on this growing section of RMG sector in Bangladesh. Bangladesh need strong R&D as well as design & innovation team for the development of this sector. In coming future, it will be indeed a great sector of GDP earning as like as knit, woven or denim.

References

  1. The Apparel story
  2. Textile Today
  3. The Financial Express
  4. The Dhaka Tribune
  5. Export Promotion Bureau

Written by,

Sharmin Akther Diba

Industrial & Production Engineer

Rajshahi University of Engineering & Technology

Email: [email protected]

LinkedIn: Sharmin Akther Diba

Garments QC File

Garments QC File

A QC file is quality control file in garments manufacturing also known as Trim Card or Garments swatch card, have all items what used in garments, Fabrics-trims for specific color and style, instruct what color and code number thread/label/zipper will be used for specific style and color. A trim card help Garments QC and production team using correct fabrics and trims in every style what exact fabrics and trims want garments buyer, consider as an important document. Generally store QC/ merchandiser make trim card, approve by buying house merchandiser. Factory merchandiser is responsible for on time QC file making, taking approval from buying house and delivering to production department. A QC file is such an important part in garments manufacturing, size set sample cannot be cut without its approval from buying house.

Garments QC File

A complete QC file includes; trim card, PDM and PO sheet, documents for QC team what needed to attach with garments, operational requirements given in PDM with specific product sketch. Without the QC file, garments quality team cannot perform their job perfectly.

Uses of Trim Card in Garments

  1. Store– to check trims and accessories by store QC after in-housed in store
  2. Sewing– to check attaching sewing trims and accessories when production running in line
  3. Finishing– to check finishing accessories weather attaching correct or not
  4. Final inspection Room– Buyer QC checks whole garments items with trim card.

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)
Email: [email protected]

Linkedin: A.M. Amirul Islam

Heat Transfer Operation and Guidelines of Garments Manufacturing

Heat Transfer Operation and Guidelines of Garments Manufacturing

Heat Seal Label: In garments manufacturing it’s called heat seal or heat transfer label which shows the company’s brand logo or other important messages. Heat seal label is very attractive to a customer so its quality should be first class and label attaching process is very sensitive. Label attach by pressure and heat that’s why it’s called heat transfer Label. In this article we will have detail discussion of Heat Transfer Operation and Guidelines of Garments Manufacturing.

Parameters Influence the Fastness of Heat Transfers

  1. Temperature
  2. Pressure
  3. Time
  4. Design / placement of artwork
  5. Quality of glue
  6. Work requirement before and after heat transfer operation

Guidelines for Heat Transfers

Storage of Heat Transfer Label

  • Heat Transfer must be stored in a cool and dry place, away from direct sunlight below 24 C (75 F) and humidity below 70 %.
  • As all heat transfers have a shelf life, it is recommended to use heat seal transfer within 12 months from the date of production.

Requirements of the Application Equipment / Heat Transfer Presses

Only automatic pneumatic machines which are able to apply transfers piece by piece must be used.

Roller transfer press machines and manual presses are not accepted, as they cannot guarantee correct and consistent application.

Heat Transfer Presses must have the following features:

  • Pneumatically operated with adjustable time, temperature and pressure.
  • Digital microprocessor controller for time and temperature accuracy.
  • Fingertip controlled operation and programmable print settings.
  • Digital timer, adjustable which shows time countdown on readout, beeps after elapsed time, and resets when handle is raised.
  • Consistent, fully adjustable pneumatically pressure control, with pressure range of at least 0 – 7 bar (0 – 100 psi / 0 – 7 kg / cm2)
  • Working temperature range of at least 70 – 230 C (160 – 455 F)
  • Display Time Range of at least 0 – 180 seconds
  • Head plate should be made of metal and Teflon coated to prevent soiling which could contaminate the garments.
  • Base plate must be made of silicon rubber or can be a fleece platform with sufficient resilience to ensure close alignment with the upper heat press platen. A fleece platform is recommended to use for the application of 3 dimensional heat transfer.
  • Platen size should be at least 38 x 38 cm (15” x 15 “)
  • Plate should be bigger than artwork.

Machine Height

Heat transfer presses must be adjusted in a way that the operator has an unobstructed view of the application area and is able to quickly identify any problems.

Heat Transfer Operation and Guidelines of Garments Manufacturing

Calibration of the Heat Transfer Presses

H/T machine should be calibrated daily to obtain a reliable and consistent result.

Required Tools Calibration of the Heat Transfer Presses

  • Thermocouple or Thermo-labels
  • A Stop watch, Cleaning cloth, Machine Calibration Check Log
Tools Required for Calibration of the Heat Transfer Presses

Machine Inspection

  • Head and base plates of the heat transfer presses must be inspected for damage & contamination. The plates must be clean and smooth without any adhesive residue.
Heat Transfer Machine Inspection
  • The rubber base plates must be replaced, if it becomes distorted or hard.
Rubber Base Plate

Heat Sealing Machine Calibration Check

  • Temperature, Pressure and Time must be controlled and documented at a style level.
Heat Sealing Machine Calibration Check

Temperature Check

To ensure that the heat is allocated evenly across the platen and the temperature meter (input temperature) matches the actual output temperature.

  • Start the machine and set the Temperature at 160 C, time 30 seconds and Pressure at 3 bar (45 PSI).
  • Place 5 Thermo-label set onto the base plate at the upper right, upper left, center, lower left and lower right position.
  • Swing the machine onto the position and run a press cycle with time of 30 seconds.
  • Remove the thermos-labels and review the darkened labels. Each darkened label represents a temperature that the equipment successfully reached.
  • Record the highest temperature reached for each location in the Heat Transfer Machine Calibration Check Log.
  • Instead of Thermo-labels, also a Thermocouple can be used to check the temperature.
  • A temperature tolerance of +/- 3 C is acceptable.
  • Contact the manufacturer for service if the equipment failed.
Temperature Check

The use of a digital temperature control is recommended to have an accurate temperature information.                       

Pressure Balance Check

Test the pressure between the upper and lower plate of the machine

  • Place 4 paper strips in same size on top of the base plate.
  • Activate the machine to press the strips in between
  • Pull the strips sideward with equivalent strength to feel the pressure.
  • In case the pressure is uneven and strip pulled out, replace the whole silicon or fleece platform or contact the manufacturer for checking.
Pressure Balance Check

The use of pneumatic pressure is recommended to give a stable pressure.

Pneumatic Pressure Check

Time Check

  • Set the time of the machine to 30 seconds.
  • Put the machine into position and press the start buttons & at the same time start the stopwatch.
  • Measure the time for the machine to carry out its cycle.
  • Record the time in the calibration log and repeat until 5 cycles are completed.
  • Calculate the average and compare log and compare the value to 30 seconds.
  • The result should be +/- 0.5 seconds
  • If outside this, contact the press manufacturer to reset the timer.
  • Record the result in the Heat Transfer Calibration Check Log.
Time Check

Time should be calculated from the moment of contact between application head and heat transfer.

Heat Seal Transfer Application Procedure and Maintenance Operation Check

Before any operation refer to the heat transfer specifications from the supplier for detailed application directions i.e. Time & Peel Instruction.

  • Make sure that the machine has been calibrated before operation start.
  • Make sure that the press platens are clean and free of any residue.
  • Start the machine and set the temperature, pressure and time which are given by the Heat Seal Transfer supplier application instructions. Allow correct time to heat for newly start machine (morning and after breaks) before bulk production.
  • Put the fabric panel over the base plate and place the heat transfer on the desired location of the panel.
  • Make sure that the fabric is smooth but not stretched tight.
  • Cover a release paper on top of the fabric to avoid direct contact of the heat platen with the fabric.
  • Activate the press for one application cycle.
  • Some special heat transfer qualities require a second heat pressing process on the reverse side of the fabric. It is crucial to follow exactly the Heat Transfer application instructions.
  • Remove the fabric panel from the press and peel off the transparent backing paper as per the application instructions either immediately while the transfer is still hot or after cooling down.
  • Do not stack panels until they have fully cooled.

Heat Transfer machines must be checked every 2 hours during print application for correct temperature, pressure and time.

Different positions of the application platform, middle and outer edges should be checked. Result must be documented at the Heat Transfer Application Check Log and displayed at the machine.

Heat Transfer Quality Tests Prior to Production

Development Stage

All heat transfer must be applied and tested on the intended bulk quality. This is to ensure that the die migration, strength of attachment, color change/staining, damage/defects and elasticity can be correctly assessing.

Sample Wash Test

Heat transfer prints on samples must be applied according to the given application instruction. Garment supplier must wash one sample at 40 C (Tumble Dry) to determine problems at early stage. In case the heat transfer on the washed garments shows ay negative appearance regarding color change or peel off, garment supplier must inform heat transfer supplier and immediately discuss further actions. The washed sample and wash test report must be archived by the garment maker and keep for two seasons.

Heat Transfer Supplier Quality Test on Bulk Fabric

As soon as the bulk fabric is available in the factory, garment supplier must send one yard in darkest fabric color to the Heat Seal Transfer supplier for testing.

In case fabrics are delayed, it is the responsibility of the garment maker to inform the Heat Transfer supplier about the fabric code. In that case, the Heat Transfer supplier can arrange the fabric directly from the fabric supplier.

The heat transfer supplier must test on the bulk fabric to identify and confirm the correct application process. Once the washing tests, colour fastness, and migration tests are PASSED, the heat transfer supplier must inform the garment maker supplier about the recommended application instruction.

Garment Supplier Quality test on Bulk Fabric

As soon as the garment supplier receives the confirmed application instruction from the Heat Transfer supplier, garment supplier must apply for the transfer on the bulk fabric in all colorways and arrange the following quality checks.

  • 10 times washing cycle at 40 C tumble dry
  • Color migration test (applied on polyester fabrics)
  • Hand Stretch Test to check the peeling off, cracking problems, removing of application.

The tests must be done on all heat transfer machines which are intended to be used for production. All quality tests must be done after samples are cooled down for at least 24 hours after application. The washing test can be done by the garment supplier if accredited by Buyer. Test can be done by a laboratory which is accredited by Buyer.

In case one of the above test fails, garment supplier must notify immediately the respective heat transfer supplier for further action to solve the problem. The original pass test reports and print swatches (before and after   washing) must be available as reference sample at the respective machine print production.

Heat Transfer Quality Check on Printed Panels

100% quality check of the printed panels.

  • Before quality check, allow printed panels to cool down.
  • Check all edges and corners for solid bond
  • Check melting of glue
  • Check for color staining / bleeding on the test samples.
  • Report any print defects like cracking or peeling-off problems.
  • Check bulk output every 2 hours

If you have any confusion then please let us know, we will discuss further.

Conventional Layout Vs Rail Line Layout System of Garments Finishing Unit

‘Layout’ is simply the orientation of product or process flow. From our day to day life it has so many significant impacts. In the RMG sector, every section has a specific kind of layout system as per work standard. Garments finishing is the last stage among top three stages (Cutting>Sewing>Finishing). Whether it is knit, denim, woven, sweater or lingerie, finishing unit has some style of line layout as per company or space or product. This is called conventional way of Finishing layout, which is widely used. But this conventional system reduces finishing efficiency. As finishing efficiency has direct impact on CMT cost (Cut, Make & Trim), now it’s time to reshape our layout from conventional to ‘Rail-line layout’ system. In this article, it will be discussed about rail-line layout system, how to implement it & its advantages for garments finishing unit. Though we are going to discuss about finishing layout system, you can implement this kind of layout system in your sewing floor also.

What is Conventional Layout System and Rail-Line Layout System?

Conventional layout system is the layout system which we mostly use in our finishing floor. We have fixed finishing lines of fixed length & width with aisles among them. We put Trimmer (Manual or auto), specification checker, visual checker, iron man, keep operator for trims & accessories adding, Final checkup, folding (Manual or auto), wrapping & packing etc.

On contrary, rail-line layout system contains all the process from above, same manpower, same space, just need a rail line system with hanger. This rail-line may be a hollow steel or plastic pipe hanging up little bit arch where hanger can be moved easily. Or it may be a moving conveyor with hanging garments attachment. A Conveyor system is used for sewing line mainly.

Conventional Layout Vs Rail Line Layout System of Garments Finishing Unit

Conventional Layout Vs Rail Line Layout System of Garments Finishing Unit
Top view of Rail-line layout system for garments finishing (Considering Woven pant finishing layout)

Structure of RailLine Layout System

  1. Layout starts at the point of hanger box keeping table, yellow marked. On same side, there is input rack or trolley. From there Garments loader will bring & hang garments in hanger to start the flow. You can see turning we mention 0.5 manpower. That means if you make the rail-line layout system in your floor such a way that two parallel lines share side by side input point; then one person can be used for two lines for garments turning. We keep this turning in finishing line to do manpower optimization. But in conventional way we use turning helper in sewing & most of the case use one person.
  2. Another best use of this layout is adding accessories in finishing line. Here button attach shown in finishing line. By this way hook & bar, buckle, snap button can be attached in finishing to avoid destruction or breakage while transportation or washing. Garments loader will flow the hanger to the assistant operator for button positioning (It may be avoided as per garments type or requirement); after that button attach operator will do his/her work while keeping the garments in hanger. Then next operation of loop cutting followed by tack & wrapping operation of care label, as per product requirement.
  3. Followed by tread trimming operation, there were some space for garments hanging as input for thread trimmer helper. Then comes inside quality check. It may be subdivided into front or back part or left or right side inside QC. There will be defect trolley keeping them segregated with different types of defective product. This types of layout system strongly avoids backward flow. It need to keep defective product stored, after a fixed time interval it will be collected & fixed by line supervisor, QC supervisor or line manager with necessary remedies.
  4. If it needs dust cleaning then full garments will be open from hanger, clean, turn & hang it to the line. In this section side stand can be kept to keep defective garments if found. Then pass it through rail-line to topside thread trimmer. Number of topside thread trimmer is less than inside thread trimmer. After that workstation of topside thread trimmer with defect stand or trolley. After that garments pocket cleaning.
  5. It comes ironing operation now. There will be waist side press, side press, crease press etc. as per product requirements. It is better to keep one or two defect stand. There will be iron quality checker with segregated defect rack or trolley followed by measurement QC.
  6. It’s time to add necessary trims, stickers etc. as per requirements. After that audit table to check final product.
  7. Then comes folding, wrapping or packing table as per product requirements. In this section, manpower can be shared with another line. By following this layout system, there will be much open space to keep line wise finishing rack, trims & accessories keeping rack etc.

Follow ‘Visual Management: A tool of Lean Management for Finishing Unit’ article for more information

Advantages of Rail-Line Layout of Garments Finishing Unit

  1. Optimal manpower
  2. Disciplined workplace
  3. No crease in garments
  4. Proper utilization of space
  5. No dust from excessive hand touch
  6. Lean Management in Finishing line

Limitations of Rail-Line Layout of Garments Finishing Unit

  1. Cannot be useful for short length product like tank top or lingerie
  2. Improper line layout may cause improper process management
  3. Bad quality hanger or mishandling can cause defective products

We need improvement in every section of garments unit. For achieving this, it is necessary to start now with slow but continuous improvement. Though there are some limitations of this layout system, why not try a proto-type of one line in your finishing unit? With proper plan & set-up system it is easy to implement. In the long run you will get the advantages. There are so many renown buyers who want this kind of layout system for sewing & finishing unit. For example, Walmart, Levis, hagger etc. buyer have some pre-condition before order placement to have this kind of layout system for their quality products. Hopefully very soon we will adopt this layout orientation for our sewing & finishing product not only for quality product but also for following lean management.

Written by

Sharmin Akther Diba

Industrial & Production Engineer

Rajshahi University of Engineering & Technology

Email: [email protected]

LinkedIn: Sharmin Akther Diba

Job Responsibilities of Production AGM in Apparel Industry

A production general manager (GM) is a person, who is Head of manufacturing, ultimate responsible person for productivity, operation and operational staff management. Most respected person in garments factory because of having control on whole factory manufacturing process. He is reporting boss of all production managers and staff. GM, DGM, AGM or head of production whatever designation he has (based on experience) works as general manger to handle whole production department to control store, cutting, sewing and finishing. Most of the times he is highest paid employee of his factory such an important person production GM is. He is the person who can communicate with top management (factory owner) for production and production related employee’s appointment and promotion issue. This is the toughest and most important post for garments factory, ultimate responsible person for company’s profit and loss. This article is all about job responsibilities of a Garments Production general manager (GM).

Job Responsibilities of Production AGM in Apparel Industry

Operation/Production AGM/DGM/GM in Apparel Industry

Job Titles of Garments Production Head

Though different designations (vary factory wise) have seen in apparel industry, their job responsibilities are same. 

  1. Production/operation AGM
  2. Production/operation DGM
  3. Production/operation GM
  4. Head of manufacturing
  5. Head of production/operation

Reporting Authority

They report to Top management like CEO (Chief executive officer), COO (Chief operating officer), MD, DMD, Chairman, and Vice-chairman

Skills and Qualities of Garments Production Head

  1. Good leadership from mid-level to lower level
  2. Taking calculate risk
  3. Quick decision making skill in any situation. 
  4. Should be technically sound
  5. Able to understand any fancy and critical product producing
  6. Good judgment and compromise willing person
  7. Well-disciplined and productivity focused.
  8. Problem solver of all technical issue
  9. Represents the whole factory well

Production GM/DGM/AGM Job Responsibilities of Garments Manufacturing

  1. Responsible for daily production and work to achieve daily production target with buyer required quality standard
  2. Responsible for operation and operational staff control and management.
  3. Work for 100% capacity utilization and waste reduction
  4. Manage all task for smooth production , smooth final inspection pass and on time shipment
  5. Coordinate all department for smooth Garments manufacturing
  6. Closely monitor sewing and finishing getting best possible output and giving direction in floor.
  7. Setup sewing line, check consumption, costing and inventory.
  8. Strictly follow up hourly production and work for increasing
  9. Lead all production staff from the front and having good command on them.
  10. Ensure complete task to make finished goods from raw materials.
  11. Communicate always with merchandising team and solve every production related issues involved merchandising.
  12. Achieve maximum production by lowest cost
  13. Appointing and interviewing all production staff and their salary fixation.
  14. Guide IE team for increasing production
  15. Giving feedback to garments Buyer and Buyer QC
  16. Communicate with top management directly when need in any issues of his garments factory.

If you any more job list than above list, please don’t hesitate to write in the comment box. 

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)
Email: [email protected]

Linkedin: A.M. Amirul Islam

Are We Focusing on Wages Increment and Efficiency Improvement Equally

The economy of Bangladesh is moving forward with the help of different industrial contributions. Ready Made Garments (RMG) is one of the core contributor where our garments business is growing because of lower labor cost and other operational cost. In Bangladesh, RMG sector creating millions of people’s employment over the year. Although labor is cheap here but government time to time change the worker’s salary structure to ensure right wage payment. So that labor unrest can be avoided. This article is all about whether are we focusing on wages increment and efficiency improvement equally or not?

Wages is the amount of remuneration a worker get for his/her service. This is actually the monetary value of service. Efficiency defined as ‘’The comparison of what is actually produced or performed with what can be achieved with the same consumption of resources (Men, Machine, Raw Materials etc.)’’In 1936 payment wages act was established under which it is necessary to have defined wages & min wages for any kind of services. In 1958, the first wages board was set up by East Pakistan Government under the Minimum Wages Act of 1957. Then ordinance of minimum wages act was published in 1961. Before liberation war in 1969, a commission was set up which lead by Air Vice Marshall Nur Khan, fixed minimum wage of 115 Taka. After liberation war in 1971, public & private sector minimum wages fixed by different commissions & considering related factors. Periodically in 1973, 1977, 1985, 1991, 1998, 2005 public sector min wages fixed by government. At first, the minimum wages board prepared a draft wage scale for 38 private sectors in 2001 & was finalized in 2004 keeping RMG sector in dark.

Are We Focusing on Wages Increment and Efficiency Improvement Equally

Are we focusing on wages Increment and Efficiency Improvement Equally

In 2006, Bangladesh Institute of Labor Studies (BILS) & Bangladesh Garments Manufacturers and Exporters Association (BGMEA) combinedly demanded a minimum wage for the RMG sector as gazette act from the government. For the first time, a wage structure for RMG workers was published keeping 7 grading positions. Minimum monthly wages of 7th grade was determined as 1662.50 Tk. Trainee worker was supposed to get an allowance of 1200 taka/month. The main purpose of adopting national minimum wages is to support the weak labors (mainly unskilled, female, physically challenged) who cannot stand for their basic rights. In 2010, minimum wages became 3000 Taka for a month. After that in 2013, new wage gazette was published. The 7th-grade worker got a minimum wage of 5300 Tk. In 2018 gazette it became fixed with 8000 takas with 51% maximum increment. A correction of recent salary structure published as gazette recently. Below some statistical data of salary increment in Garments sector:

Gross Salary Increment Amount and Percent of Bangladeshi Workers

Gross Salary Increment Amount and Percent of Bangladeshi Workers

Most of the garments factories of Bangladesh runs with low efficiency. Productivity & efficiency is not increasing in accordance with salary increment. Recently Skills for Employment Investment Program (SEIP) starts with the help of finance ministry of Bangladesh. Likewise, there should be training & development program from government, organization & buyer. Some reputed foreign buyer already starts their efficiency improvements program in respective factories. The average efficiency of RMG sector of Bangladesh is nearly 50% which is lower than competitors. Walmart, H&M, Levi’s etc. buyer successfully running their efficiency improvement programs in the factories. Along with these, individual factory improvements program is necessary. Hope our garments sector will focus on parallel improvement of efficiency along with wages increment.

Written by

Sharmin Akther Diba

Industrial & Production Engineer

Rajshahi University of Engineering & Technology

Email: [email protected]

LinkedIn: Sharmin Akther Diba

Scan and Pack System in Apparel Industry

The effect of digitalization is everywhere, in apparel industry different electronic devices are used to collect information, keep records and also use these records to increase the operational efficiency. Because of operational benefit, in garments and stores you may find that people are using it and it gives them operational advantage. In this article you will know about scan and pack system in apparel industry and what are the advantages we can get. You will also see the process of scan and packing system.

Scan and Pack System in Apparel Industry

Scan and Pack System in Apparel Industry

What is Scan and Pack System?

Scan and pack system is an Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) system, tag/sticker barcode scanning uses on Garments product SKU information and customer order details to complete the scan packing requirements for retailers.

Advantages of Scan and Pack System in Garments Manufacturing

  1. Remove packing error and keep accurate pack SKU
  2. Save time and cost, increase work efficiency
  3. Auto-generating packing list
  4. Auto-generating case label
  5. Add value to the customer

Scan and Packing Process

Main Objectives for scan and pack system is to keep packing accuracy, giving the right units of shipping carton to the customer and saving time. Every Garment will be scan by barcode scanner before packing. If any garment barcode can’t read by a scanner, GMTS will put away, marking unable to pack, for example, if there a carton of 20 pcs solid SKU, after completing the scan of every pcs, GMTS to be pack immediately. After completing 20 pcs scan, the carton will be closed. After completing every carton, scanner reset to count every GMTS for the individual carton to keep accurate solid SKU. By this way, no need to count GMTS to keep the right amount of stock keeping unit in any carton. By this way, time will save.

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)
Email: [email protected]

Linkedin: A.M. Amirul Islam

Scenario of Bangladesh Woven Garments Sector

The Scenario of Bangladesh Woven Garments Sector and SWOT Analysis

Once upon a time, the woven sector was the most leading RMG sector in Bangladesh. With growing trend knit & denim also reaches the top floor that all of them are competing with each other. In this article, we will share with you the current scenario of Bangladesh Woven Garments Sector and SWOT Analysis. In the fiscal year 2017 to 2018, the export value of the woven product was 50.39% which was 15426.25 million $ of total worth. But in recent dependency on imported fabrics & lack of proper policy on energy supply have a negative impact on the competitiveness of Bangladesh’s woven garment in the global market. The woven sector had seen negative growth in major export destinations including Germany and the US. There needs new investment & backward linkage, technological improvements, availability of modern types of machinery, a wide variety of products etc.

The scenario of Bangladesh Woven Garments Sector and SWOT Analysis

During an interview with the Dhaka Tribune, BGMEA senior vice president, Faruque Hassan told that “woven products manufacturers are highly dependent on import for fabrics, which costs more. That’s why woven garments export is experiencing slower growth and it is also losing its strength in the world export market. We do not have manmade fiber, polyester, and petrochemical, which we must import. We will be competitive if we can meet the demand from our local sources,” he quoted. “Stakeholders are investing to upgrade machinery for value addition, this will increase the confidence of the buyer and they will also place the orders for higher end woven products in Bangladesh “he also added to his view. It takes about 35 days to ship goods to the US from Bangladesh, indeed a long time. On contrary, China takes 20 days and Turkey takes15 days. This is another big reason for losing global market. There is a demand of approximately three billion meters of woven fabric in a year. a local mill can produce around 45 million meters fabric which is around 14-15%, a less portion of the demand. Every year the country is investing almost 4 billion % to import fabric for making a woven product. There is huge demand and supply conflict. Woven sector is fighting to overcome all the obstacles & making its garments on global field.

Top Foreign Buyer of Bangladesh Woven Garments  Industry

Brand name Country
H & M Sweden
Puma Germany
Nike USA
WalMart USA
Levi’s USA
Gap USA
PVH USA
New Yorker Germany
Sainsbury UK
Quick silver Australia
Haggar USA
C&A Belgium
Timberland USA
Colince UK
M & S UK
Linmark Japan
Salomon France
Red Cap Sweden
L.L. BEAN INC. USA
Diesel UAE
LANDS’ END INC. USA
Lindex Japan
Granville Australia
Decathlon France
VF Asia USA

SWOT Analysis of Bangladesh Woven Garments Sector

SWOT Analysis of Bangladesh Woven Garments Sector

Strength of Woven Garments Sector of Bangladesh

  1. Positive image as top leading global brands expanded business
  2. Local trims & accessories availability
  3. Inhouse washing, wrinkle free units
  4. Adequate machines & spare parts maintenance facility
  5. Easier to use new methods & technologies than knit
  6. Presence of local & global experts
  7. Demand of woven products locally & globally
  8. Own hand loom & hometex section
  9. Eco friendly & green factories
  10. Establishment of multinational companies attracts foreign buyers

Weakness of Woven Garments Sector of Bangladesh

  1. Lack of local fabric supplier& import dependency
  2. Lack of investment in backward linkage
  3. Absence of value addition and modern technology
  4. Can’t compete in regards of short lead time
  5. Lack of innovation as per fashion & trend
  6. Cost of utility & natural gas increases
  7. Recent salary increments of garments worker
  8. Lack of international standard local experts& business professionals
  9. Local designers are not trained & can’t make optimized cost product design
  10. Giving less attention in woven sector than knit or denim

Opportunities of Woven Garments Sector of Bangladesh

  1. Open costing facility among competitors based on cost & quality
  2. Ease of communication with foreign buyers
  3. Easier quality approval policy
  4. Larger demand of woven clothing, bags, fashion accessories etc.
  5. Foreign buyer specific design or trendy products
  6. Government recent tax reduction for apparel sector
  7. Presence of trade analysis & research institution
  8. Comparatively less product variety than knit to make fusion
  9. Availability of local trims & accessories factories
  10. Kneeling of neighbor countries RMG sector

Threats of Woven Garments Sector of Bangladesh

  1. China & Turkey attracting buyer by their short lead time shipment
  2. E-buy shop & retail store with custom made products
  3. Global retailer lower price offer because of grading product systems
  4. Corruption & other anti-social activities lead foreigner to source any others
  5. Product variety & demand of fancy items fulfilled by competitors
  6. Neighbor countries established attractive infrastructural facilities
  7. Dependency of mother buyers of specific region
  8. Competitors producing variety of fabric & fabric mixed products
  9. India & Myanmar focusing on expanding their global market
  10. Increase of rich people number may have negative impact

Fishbone Analysis of Woven Garments Export Falling Behind

Fishbone Analysis of Woven Garments Export Falling Behind

Fishbone analysis is a cause and effect diagram, a diagram with list of causes behind specific reason. Here I made a fishbone analysis of Woven Garments export falling behind of Bangladesh; Hope this fishbone diagram will clear your concept and would help you to work on reducing problem of woven sector.

Written by

Sharmin Akther Diba

Industrial & Production Engineer, RUET

Email: [email protected]

Linkedin: Sharmin Akther Diba

Costing of Knit Garments

Costing of Knit Garments: During the consumption, it is good practice to use the measurement of middle size for calculation or the size which have most of the quantity. For example, If the style has 6 sizes then better to use size number 04 for consumption. Here we will show you the calculation consumption for the size “L”.

Costing of Knit Garments

  1. Body length of the garments in cm. Say it is – 73 cm
  2. Sleeve length of the garments in cm. Say it is – 19.5 cm
  3. Approximate stitching allowance at body hem, shoulder joint, sleeve hem joint (in cm). Say it is – 10 cm
  4. Chest width (1/2) in cm. Say it is – 52 cm
  5. Approximate stitching allowance at each facet seam (in cm). Say it is – 4 cm
  6. Fabric GSM (finish). Say it is – 160 gsm
  7. Approximate fabric wastage in various stage. Say it is – 10%

In this regard, fabric wastage depends on how many additional elements the garments have, which may change in any time. When there is rotary print in garments or enzyme stone wash than the amount of fabric wastage will be more than the normal level of wastage.

Knit Garments Costing Formula

Costing of Knit Garments, Knit Garments Costing

What need to know or do before start costing

Fabrication: Take clear idea regarding the fabrication before taking the order from the buyer/buying house. After then, you need to ensure that you have a strong a good source of fabric.

Size specification: You also need to ensure that there is a correct size specification with the measurement of all the sizes, which will be ordered. Most of the time we see that PO sheet has come with a new bigger size which was not included during costing.

Fabric color: Try to know that, how many colors the style has & also try to know that, color-wise order quantity ratio.

Quantity: Take information regarding approximate order quantity.

Shipment date: Asked buyer for the shipment date and check with your production department, whether they have enough space for shipped out the followings qty within the require ship date or tell you’re a possible date.
Test requirement: This will allow you to recognize the order need to any test or not.
L/C payments term: Take a copy from the respective party previously and discuss with your commercial people regarding all the terms along with payment terms.

Inspection: Get a confirmation from the buyer that, who will inspect the goods. If there involve third party then who will pay the charge.

GSP: Please confirm with the buyer that they need the GSP or not.

Calculating Fabric Consumption

Body Consumption: 

Calculate the body fabric consumption at first. If possible calculate it after making the pattern. Be confirmed regarding the dia. Calculate the consumption with adding + 5 gsm extra which fabric is sells in kg (s/j, pique, rib etc.). Or reduce 2” (in width) from the both side which are in yards (tricot, taffeta etc.). Moreover, if the garments are wash garments then make sure that, the pattern has the wash allowance.

Moreover, if clothes|the clothes} square measure wash garments then ensure that the pattern has the wash allowance.

Rib: Calculate the rib consumption carefully because sometimes the garments have a rib at cuff opening & bottom hem. Some individuals erroneously do the consumption considering one cuff.

Neck tape: Calculate the consumption of neck tape.

Applique & others fabric: Ensure that, you’re not missing any appliqué cloth.

Estimate the wastage: Normally we add 9% wastage for the knit items. However, it’s may vary depends on how many processes the garments have. If it is with only front chest print then 9% is ok but if with all-over /rotary print, with heavy wash etc. then you must increase the wastage. Moreover, if the garments with pigments dye then add minimum 25 to 30% wastage because in this pigment dye garments reject percentage is very high.

Others Item

Print: If the garments have print then make sure that you have a clear artwork of it. Check the print quality, dimension & placement. Send the artwork to your printers for a better price idea. Many times, we found that the buyer has asked for so many type/kind prints in the same body which is so difficult for production. Such as, if the buyer asked for Flock + discharge & foil print in at the same artwork then it is not possible for production.

Embroidery: Discuss with your embroidery provider concerning the embroidery & take quotation of price.

Wash: Take the washing cost from the washing factory.

Test: Confirm the charges of the test from the testing company.

Accessories and Trims

Sewing thread: Confirm that, which thread you need 100% cotton, spun polyester or filaments. Then you need to ensure the count 50/2 or 40/2 or any other denier. It’s may vary on fabrications. Regarding the pigment dye garments, we normally used cotton grey color cotton thread. Calculate the sewing thread consumption part by part & add require wastage percentage.

Labels: Take the quotation from your supplier for the entire woven & satin/paper label.

Tape: Calculate the consumption of tape if it has, such as Velvet, herringbone or canvas etc.
Elastic: Make sure which denier & width it need. Then take the quotation from supplier.

Zipper: If the garments have zippers then confirm that, from where you will purchase that. Many time the logo zipper need to import the mold from abroad. Make sure the zipper quality, such metal or nylon zipper. Check the zipper measurement from your production department and get prices from your zipper supplier.

Button: Take the button price from your supplier if the garments have it.

Inter lining: Calculate the inter lignin price if the garments need.

Patch or badge: Calculate the patch or badge or others metal item if the garments have.

Finishing item: Tissue paper, silica gel, hang tag, barcode sticker, backboard, h/tag string, scotch tape, security tag calculates the prices of these items.

Hanger: Take the quotation of a hanger.

Poly: Make the measurement of poly. Confirm the quality & with adhesive or not.

Carton: Find out the carton measurement & take the prices from carton supplier along with top, bottom & divider.

PP belt: Take the price quotation of pp belt if the buyer asked it.

Commercial Cost

Normally we add 3% of total purchase (Fabric cost+ other item cost + Accessories cost) as commercial cost if the L/C payments terms are as sight. If the L/C is 60 days deferred then you can add 7.5% additional cost of total price and it will be 15% for 90 days deferred.

CM (Cost of making)

Calculate the CM after finalizing CPM of the factory. It varies depending on Product SMV & Efficiency.

CPM (Cost Per Minutes) = (Direct Labor Cost + Operational Cost) of the month/ Usage Minutes (Available Minutes) of the month.

CM= (SMV × CPM)/ Expected Efficiency%

Price Break Down of Polo Shirt

Description: 100% cotton pique polo shirt with two buttons at front placket w/o any pocket. At first, we will calculate the consumption of body fabric from Size spec which we have got from the buyer.

Suppose,

i) The body fabric consumption is 5.10 kg / dozen

So, total yarn consumption will be = 5.10 + 9%

= 5.10 + 0.459

= 5.559 kg / dozen

ii) The current yarn price is $3.5.00/kg

iii) The current Pique knitting cost is $0.25/kg (Knitted by circular knit S/J M/c)

iv) Average color dyeing cost is $1.23 / kg

v) Normally Collar & cuff consumption is 60 gram/body (1 pc collar & 2 pcs cuff)

So, for 12 pcs it will be -0.06 X 12 + 9% = 0.78 kg / dozen

vi) Collar & cuff Knitting cost is $0.05 (knitted by flat knitting m/c)

Step: 1

Body fabric cost calculation:

Yarn price / kg = $3.50

Knitting cost /kg = $0.25

Dyeing cost / kg = $1.23

Finished fabric cost = $4.98

Step: 2

Collar & cuff cost calculation:

Yarn cost/Doz = 0.78 X $3.50 = $2.73

Knitting cost/Doz = $0.05 X 12 = $0.60

Dyeing cost = 0.78 X $1.23 = $.9594

Collar& Cuff cost / Doz = $4.2894

Step: 3

Total production cost:

Body fabric cost (5.559 kg X $4.98)  

= $27.68 / Doz

Collar & Cuff cost = $4.2894 / Doz

CM = $5.50 / Doz

Accessories Cost = $2.50 / Doz

Total production cost: = $39.97 / doz

Final Step

Fob pricing of per piece polo shirt:

Total production cost: = $39.97 / doz Commercial cost will be (3%) = $1.03 / doz (Except Cost of Making)

Profit will (20% of Cost of Making) = $1.10 / doz

Total FOB price (doz) = $42.1 / doz

Fob price per piece will be = $3.5083 / pc

Final quoted price for buyer = $3.51 / pc (FOB)

Written by

Sharmin Akther Diba

Industrial & Production Engineer, RUET

Email: [email protected]

Linkedin: Sharmin Akther Diba