Different Parts of Jeans Pant

This article will help you to learn about jeans pant and answer the question of what are the different parts of jeans pant.

Parts of Jeans Pant

Pant is one of the common forms of garments which ware by both male and female to cover waist to lower part of our body. Although jeans are one type of casual dress it is becoming more popular because of comfortability, affordability, durability, availability, and style. The consumption of jeans is increasing around the world. As the demand for jeans increasing in the Asian subcontinent, many industries already established in this region. Jeans pants are made from denim, a special type of fabric. World consumption of denim is for Jeans pant is much compared with other forms of dresses. So if you want to get into the market or you want to involve in jeans pant business then you must know the different parts of jeans pant. If you have detail knowledge of parts of pant, then it will be helpful for you to make stylish and comfortable jeans pant for man.

Different Parts of Jeans Pant

There are fifteen different parts of jeans pant you can identify from the following anatomy analysis of jeans pant

Different Parts of Jeans Pant

  1. Waist Band
  2. Belt Loop
  3. Button
  4. Fly
  5. Watch Pocket
  6. Front Pocket
  7. Back Pocket
  8. Jeans Rivets
  9. Crotch Point
  10. Back Yoke
  11. Bottom Hem
  12. Back Rise
  13. Side Seam
  14. Inseam
  15. Zipper

parts of jeans pant 

Waistband

The waistband is made from denim fabric which surrounds our waist when we wear jeans pant or any other pants. On this waistband, we basically wear a belt to fit properly. A jeans pant contains only 1 waistband on it.

Belt Loop

Belt loops are added with jeans pant so that belt can fix on it and hold the pant where we supposed to hold. There are five to seven loops are there in a jeans pants. But most of the designer prefer five loops onto the waistband.

Button

The button is used to close the top of the fly of jeans pant.

Fly of Jeans Pant

The fly is the opening part of the middle of the pant which is used to hide the zipper or button attached in there.

Watch Pocket

Watch pocket is the small pocket which places in the upper part of the front right pocket of jeans pants. Watch pocket is also known as a key holder which make the jeans pant more attractive. There is only 1 watch pocket for Jeans pant.

Pocket

In clothing, a pocket is mainly used for holding small materials but it also increases the attractiveness of cloth. A pocket is one of the main part of jeans pant where there is four pocket. Two-pocket are in front side and other two are on the back side of the jeans pant.

Jeans Rivets

In a jeans pant, you may find rivets which are made of metal. Rivets actually used in the joining point of pockets of each side which not only holds the denim fabric together but also increase the attractiveness of that jeans pant.

Crotch Point

Crotch point is the joining point of two parts below the fly of jeans pant.

Back Yoke

In a jeans pant, you may find yoke which is located in the back side of the pant, attached with the waistband. Back yoke ensures the close fitting of jeans pant to our body.

Bottom Hem

Bottom hem is in the bottom of jeans pant which is folded and attached by sewing.

Back Rise

Back rise is the middle back joining point of jeans pant.

Seam

Side seam and Inseam basically the part of jeans pant where two parts joint together by sewing.

Zipper

A zipper is used to close the front opening part of the jeans pant where both chain and button system can be used in jeans pant. Two buttons can be used instead of using a chain system zipper.

Parts of Jeans Pant

Mold Prevention in Apparel Industry

Mold is a type of fungus. Mold can grow on almost all organic material as long as moisture and oxygen are present. Mold eventually cause structural damage to the building, building materials and manufacturing product of a garments industry. To control mold you need to have a good idea of how mold prevention in apparel industry can be applied.

Mold Prevention in Apparel Industry

Due to molding in garments, apparel manufacturer gets a big amount of financial claim from customer. So it’s very necessary to adopt a control measure to prevent mold from garments.

Molds can be Grown on the following Materials

  • Wood
  • Paper
  • Carpet
  • Food
  • Insulation
  • Cotton
  • Fabric
  • Leather
  • Any organic surface

Mold Prevention in Apparel Industry

Causes of Mold in Apparel Industry

  1. Humid house
  2. Improper storage method / conditions
  3. Unsealed packaging
  4. Incorrect procedure to operate the vacuum system of pressing table.
  5. Poor storage of anti‐molding materials before packing.
  6. Poor ventilation of finished garments.
  7. Poor storage of finished garments.
  8. Wrong vacuum system setting of pressing table.
  9. Wrong timing to pack pressed garments
  10. Poor loading environment
  11. Minor and major roof leaks
  12. Dark space in factory indoor also create a mold
  13. Leaking in roofs
  14. Leaking or condensing water pipes, especially pipes inside wall cavities or pipe chases.
  15. Leaking fire protection sprinkler systems.
  16. Landscaping gutters and downspouts that direct water into or under a building.
  17. High humidity (60% or more relative humidity) and condensation.

 Mold Preventive Action for Garments

  1. Set mold prevention policy or SOP for workplace
  2. Staff training, awareness creation
  3. Develop humidity control system for every section
  4. Keep good general housekeeping
  5. Daily checks humidity level and keep records accordingly
  6. Good Storage condition of incoming materials & finish products
  7. Good shipping condition of finish products and checking the delivery container
  8. Ensure section cleanness
  9. Use ultraviolet light; mold cannot grow under ultraviolet light
  10. Maintain relative humidity (RH) less than 55% or 60%
  11. Maintain temperature 70-72° F
  12. Ventilation or dehumidifiers system should be there.
  13. Improve general housekeeping system.

Mold Preventive Areas in Garments Factory

  1. Raw material and finished goods warehouse
  2. Garments manufacturing workplace
  3. Finishing and packing section

Mold Prevention in Garments Warehouse/Store

  1. Keep your warehouse organized
  2. No sign of mildew on the wall, floor in the warehouse and conduct mold check weekly basis.
  3. All packed cartons (for trim & finished garment) must be loaded on the wooden/plastic pallets and at least about one meter away from walls & windows. (Nonwooden pallets is better).
  4. Maintain relative humidity of about 55% and humidity is to be measured daily basics and maintain proper records.
  5. Protect all trims, fabric, and garment by storing them in polybags or cartons.
  6. Empty cartons must be placed on pallets and well covered by poly sheets or clothes before use.
  7. When there is any doubt, then you need to measure the moisture content on carton by “moisture meter machine”. The reading should be less than 8%.
  8. Apply First in First out (FIFO) method for all raw materials.

Mold Prevention in Factory Workplace

  1. Apply vacuum function correctly on pressing table. Leave the garments on vacuum table for 5 seconds more after steaming (in order to remove moisture from the garments)
  2. The pressing table must connect with steam ducts to remove the vapor out from the building.
  3. Increase air ventilation by using big fans in the finishing areas.
  4. Garments cannot be piled up too high right after pressing. Quantity can be 20 pcs for denim products and 30 pcs for non‐denim products.
  5. Garments cannot be packed until they are exposed to open environment at least 12 hours.
  6. Anti‐molding materials (e.g. silica gels) must be stored in the original packing material until they are required to put into the polybags/cartons.
  7. Measure the garment moisture content by “moisture meter machine” for each Shipments (especially during the high humid season). The max reading is 8%. If garments are failed, dry them in the de‐humidifying room for about 1 day before re‐
  8. Measure the relative humidity in the finishing and packing area at least twice per day. Max reading is 55%. Walls show no sign of mildew. Conduct mold checks in every week and keep a record.
  9. Avoid placing the garments directly on the floor, placing them at least one meter away from the wall/windows.
  10. Good pressing table maintenance. No water leakage foam steam pipe. Keep the cloth and foam clean and dry by changing it at least once per week. 

Mold Prevention in Garments Shipping Container

  1. Check container before loading to ensure that there is no hole/leakage on the container wall.
  2. Container floor must be dry and clean.
  3. Loading the goods under a sheltered roof.
  4. The container must be fully loaded.

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)
Email: [email protected]

Linkedin

Quality Control Manual of Garments

Quality Control Manual of Garments

Every factory has their own policy to control quality to get a better product. Everything is to be written in a document; how to control quality and how to get the best quality product. For quality control, this document is known as a quality manual, which is followed by each and every company in the apparel industry. A complete quality control manual of garments factory actually increases the effectiveness of quality control by providing guidelines to the related parties. Here in this article, you will find a complete quality control manual of a typical Garments Industry. After reading this, you will have detail idea of a complete quality manual of a garments factory.

Quality Control Manual of Garments

Quality Control Manual of Garments Factory and Its Working Procedure

Quality Control Chart of Garments IndustryA) Sampling

1. Styling Sample

At first, we need to make styling sample for getting styling approval as per buyer’s specification, fitting & workmanship. Everything we need to follow as original sample & comments. For styling sample, we give fabric & accessories similar to original color or approved lap dip. We, make a paper pattern of sample size as buyer requirement. As per styling sample comments, we make the size set pattern.

2. Size Set Sample

Size set sample covering all size & covering all size & color. All actual fabric & accessories are used for styling sample. Must adjust the pattern as require fittings, grading, workmanship according to approval specification & comments.

3. Pre-Production Sample (P.P Sample)

For the final configuration of styling fitting & workmanship, before state production we make another size set sample covering all size & color for approval. After receiving p.p sample comments, manufacturer meet all of buyer requirements, then start bulk production.

4. Counter Sample

In every step of sampling, we kept a counter sample with marking the sample name. Pre-production sample counter should follow with p.p comments for bulk production. We make the copy of p.p sample with comments to give every line in production.

5. Shipment Sample

Shipment sample has to prepare for buyer 15 days before shipment covering all size & color with all actual accessories. These requirements very buyer to buyer. we always fulfill our buyer’s requirements.

6. Trial Cutting

We cut 60 pcs of garments as a 1st trail to see the measurement. If any correction is required then we do it accordingly. For the safety, we again cut 300 pcs of garments as 2nd trail cutting. After full confirmation, we start bulk cutting.

7. Pilot Run/Size Run

A pilot run is a small cut across all sizes & colors that will identify & potential problem in manufacturing prior to the factory cutting bulk. The inspection of the pilot run should be carried out by the factory Quality Control (QC).

Pilot Lots are Required When

  • A new fabric is being introduced and the factory has not handled it before.
  • Machine setting must be reevaluated and set accordingly.
  • New construction methods are being introduced for critical fit tests.
  • New machinery or new settings are being introduced.
  • To ensure that shrinkage allowances built into patterns are corrected for steam shrinkage, washing shrinkage, fusing, printing or any other after treatment to standard.

8. Pre-production Meeting (PPM

The Pre-production meeting should be held to review all aspects of production. It should be held after PP sample has been approved & sealed. Line managers should attend this meeting which should be facilitated by production head and attended by PP sample maker.

The meeting agenda should include style file checklist, production T & A plan, PP sample and comments review and other aspects of the manufacturing run which could impact garments of the manufacturing run which could impact garment Quality and delivery. The factories in-house documentation/from is also acceptable.

Criteria for Pre-Production Meetings (PPMs)

(requested when factory received advice of pp sample approval)

  • A new fabric is being introduced (including repeat orders)
  • Machine setting must be reevaluated and set accordingly
  • New construction methods are being introduced for critical fit tests
  • New machinery or new setting are being introduced
  • To ensure that shrinkage allowances built into patterns are correct for seam shrinkage, washing shrinkage, fusing, printing, or any other after treatment to standard.
  • Repeat order of same season without any change, no need to attend PPM repeat order with changes PPMs need to attend. Repeat order of previous season (no change) need to have pp reference review.

B) Warehouse/Store

1. Accessories Inspection

We inspect 1.5 AQL/10% of accessories as per packing list quantity, by store Q.I we use quality manual. Q.I checks the accessories quality & safety issue. And write down the information about quality, safety issue & short excess quantity. For that, we can take an effective action from the very beginning.

 Fabrics Procedure

  1. Fabric inspection

We import 10% of fabric as per receiving quantity. we make the fabric lot in various stages, these are like:

  • Without Inspection. (Those are not yet starting inspection)
  • Inspection running. (Inspection running but yet not finish)
  • Quality pass. (That means permitted for cutting)
  • Rejected lot. (Not permitted for cutting)
  • Held up. (Waiting for a decision from buyer side or supplier)

We inspect fabric by a 4-point system, where 40 point is our acceptable range. Q.C inspects fabric and gives the report. As per inspection report, we take a final decision. Point rating for inspection is given below:

  • 0 to 3″ defects = 1 point
  • Over3″ to 6″ defects = 2 point
  • Over3″ to 9″ defects = 3 point
  • Over 9″ defects = 4 point
  • Any hole = 4 point

2. Blanket Making

For every style, it is washed or non-washed, we make a blanket to see the fabric shade & variation of color. We mark rejected roll on that one, which is out of color standard. We divide the toll as per shade wise to ensuring shade wise cutting.

Shade Blanket

Objective

  • To find or all shade from bulk fabric for shade band making. Shade band to be made base on the outcome of shade blanket.
  • To evaluate bulk fabric shade before bulk production to ensure all shade lots within an acceptable range
Making Method
  • Shade blanket to be made once bulk fabric available in factory
  • Each roll of bulk fabric to be cut an 8″(weft) x 6″ (warp) swatch for shade blanket making
  • Roll number to be marked on the back side by textile maker pen
  • Join all fabric swatches together by overlock stitch then join the left-right side to make a blanket in leg panel form
  1. Shade Band

objective
  • To set up an acceptable shade range for factory bulk production guideline.
  • To find out off shade & solve a problem at the earlier stage before bulk production.

Shade Band Making Method

  • Shade band must be submitted before bulk production is started.
  • Each shade let made two set of leg panels for buyer approval.
  • Leg panel dimension is to be (8″half x 16″)
  • Whenever the handstand/Ppspray effects are presented in the standard, they should be demonstrated on one side of the leg panels.
  • A pocket to be sewn on one side of the leg panel
  • Leg panel to be washed same as the bulk washing
  • Achieve shade as close as the washing standard
  • Half/Cut leg panels are not acceptable for approval
  1. Shrinkage & Distortion Testing

The Objective of Shrinkage Testing

  • To determinate bulk fabric shrinkage for paper pattern adjustment to ensure washed garment measurement meet with the size space.
  • To determinate whether the fabric shrinkage fulfills buyer requirement at the earlier stage before bulk production.

The Objective of Distortion Testing

  • To determinate whether the fabric skew movement is fulfilling buyer requirement at the earlier stage before bulk production
  • Defect twisted issue before bulk production

Shrinkage Testing Method

  • Shrinkage & Distortion testing to be done once the bulk fabric is in-house
  • Shrinkage & Distortion testing could proceed with the same template at the same time with the same yardage.
  • For normal fabric, minimum 10% of bulk fabric is being tested.
  • For low stretchability fabric, minimum 30% of bulk fabric to be tested.
  • For high stretchability fabric 100% of bulk, fabric to be tested
  • Please refer to the purchase order to determine bulk fabric is high stretchability fabric or not.
  • Specimen for testing to be selected for each dyeing lot.
  • 100% test when shrinkage in bulk fabric is unstable. Such as part of fabrics shrinkage exceed the tolerance, shrinkage range is too wide in the same lot of bulk fabric.
  • Specimen for testing must be fully relaxed before marking.
  • Mark two 50 cm x 50 cm squares (Minimum) on specimen’s left, right.
  • Specimens must be washed as bulk production; no ironing /pressing/steaming on the washed specimen for shrinkage test result.
  • Measure the length difference between the before wash and after a wash in weft & warp
  • Convert in percentage
  • Take the average of the 2 parts
  • For distortion test result
  • Measure the length of diagonal (AC & BD) after wash
  • Calculate the percentage by using below formula X =100x[2(AC-BD)/(AC+BD)]
  • Show 2 parts results, do not take the average
  • None of them can exceed buyer requirement :3%

For Example:

When AC is 70 cm & BD IS 72 cm

X =100x [2(70-72)/ (70+72)]

X =100x [2(-2)/ (142)]

X=100X0.028169

X=-2.8169(Acceptable, with intolerance)

When AC is 73 CM & BD is 69 cm

X=100x [2(73-69)/ (73+69)]

X=100x [2(4)/ (142)]

X=100×0.056338

x=5.6338(Unacceptable, with intolerance)

C) Cutting Inspector’s Instructions

Spreading:  The Quality Control inspector should check the work of each spreader for the following

Placement of Marker: Check and verify so that the marker is sited on the range with the brink matching to the selvage of the piece goods. Also, you need to Confirm that all cut pieces will be finished properly.

Shading: A control system should have for checking of shading if all parts are ply marked.

Table Marks: Table is be marked so check the table marks and please do not allow any splices.

Markers: Make sure that there are no makers with creased or overlapped parts in the markers.

Splices: After spreading is finished then check the splice laps that both plies extend past the marked splice by less than 1/2 (half) inch and not more than 1 (one) inch.

Narrow Goods: After completion of the spread, check the “far edge” of the spread to see that all plies extend beyond the marker line.

Tension: Check tension during spreading. This is very important on knit fabrics

Count: Check the count after completion of spreading, and before cutting. Count all plies at both ends. There is no tolerance.

Leaning: Check carefully to ensure that one edge of the fabric is square to the tabletop. Visually inspect the alignment of the edge with the table top.

Record spreading defects by the number of defects found for each checkpoint. For fabric utilization purposes, the sample form includes columns for edging end and remnants.

Calculate the defect rate for the spreader by dividing the number of defects found by the height.

Cutting: The quality control inspector should check each cutter at a 2.5 acceptable Quality Level (A.Q.L) based on the number of parts being cut.

The Quality control inspector should check for

Miscut: Check for miscut or the failure of the cutter to “split the line “Tolerance is 1/16” Report all defects for miscut to the cutting foreman (Supervisor)

Matching: Plies check the top ply with the bottom ply. Compare both to a hard pattern or the paper marker Comparison to a hard pattern is best. Tolerance is +- 1/8”. Report each defect found to the cutting foreman(supervisor).

Rugged Cutting: Check for rugged cutting according to the standards for your product. This a judgment defect. It is more important on critical parts if the part has to be recut, it is a defect.

Notches: Check the notch location by placing the pattern over the top ply. Tolerance is +- 1/8″ If the botch is more than 1/8″ off. Contact the cutting foreman (supervisor).

Pattern Check: Compare the pattern to maker paper to ensure that the maker was correct.

Record cutting defects on a cutting quality control form along with the number of bundles examined. To calculate the defect rate for cutting, divide the total defects found by the number of bundles checked.

Often changes are made to patterns to adjust for production problems. Some suppliers note such changes on the pattern and/or maker for the cutter to correct. Do not allow such a policy. Preventive measures are the best control for quality. Make a new pattern with the correction.

D) Sewing

100% in Line Q.I Audit

We follow root canal system in sewing. For that, we analyze the source & reason of defects and take preventive action as per the root cause. Q.I checks 100% incomplete garments of quality control manual. Q.I writes the operator name & I.D in the format and make that, how many defects she has done in one hour and then one day. And this daily total result is added for monthly summarization for the quality evaluation process. The hourly defects record is very important for root cause analysis. If anyone of Q.C sees the hourly record, he can easily imagine that what is going on & what have to do?

100% End Line Audit

End line Q.I checks 100% garments. Q.I writes down the name & ID no of operators & keeps an hourly record of defects. So that we can easily identify the most defective operation and take preventive immediate action. We compare both reports of inline & end line to see the efficiency of Q.C, either he is doing proper work or doing homework.

In-house Q.C Check

An in-house audit is another station audit done by line Q.C we do that for the more safety.  When comes first output, Q.C check the styling & the statistical audit to find out any mistake which has done in sewing. In finishing a section, finishing Q.C will again do the statistical audit for find out any error, which has done in finishing section. For that, we can solve any problem from the very beginning.

E) Finishing Procedure

After Receiving From Wash

After receiving from wash we start finishing the procedure, at the same time we press covering all size & color to see the measurement, wash standard, hand fill & any wash defect by wash factory. Also, carton & poly, measurement ensure by the first production.

Trimming

Trimming is a most important thing of quality issue. For that, we establish a trimming section to strictly control the uncut thread. We don’t allow tread end over 3 mm. We should take care of trimming throughout the stitching process. Final trimming is done in the finishing area before packing.

Inside Checking

A large quantity of Q.I recon check 100% garments, process-wise in the side of garments. They ensure that no defect & uncut thread inside of the garments. For every Q.I give their personal Q.C pass number inside of the pocket.

Thread Shaking

For removing the loose thread & number sticker garments we use thread shaking machine.100% garments go finishing area through the thread shaking action.

Preliminary Top Side Checking

In finishing section Q.I person check 100% garments, process-wise top side of garments. They ensure that no defect & uncut top side of the garments. For that every Q.I give their personal Q.C pass no inside of the pocket.

Pressing

We have a gas steam boiler for clean ironing. We use the iron shoe to avoid the shining mark. For the perfection, we press a garment two time. One is called preliminary pressing & another is called repressing. This has after final & getup checking.

Final Checking

After preliminary pressing Q.I person check topside of whole garments. They ensure that no defect, spot & uncut thread top side of the garments. For that every Q.I give their personal Q.C pass no inside of the pocket.

 Measurement Check

100% garments should a measurement check before packing. Measurement defects garments should not advance for packing. Defect means out of tolerance, if it can rectify, it will be pack otherwise it will be count as a reject.

Getup Checking

Q.I check there is something odd looking at a glance in whole garments, like out of shape, spot, poor pressing and mainly checks any missing of a hand tag price tag, and size tag. And match the barcode number, bar, wording everything with the approval trim card.

Re-pressing

Re-pressing is needed to recovering the damage by Q.C handling. We do this for an attractive outlook.

Metal Detection

There is no perfection to enter any okay garments without metal detector machine checking. We sent all okay garments to packing section through metal detector machine. Packing section is isolated by gatekeeper system. Our detection standard is 1.0 mm diameter sphere of ferrous metal. We keep 100% record of metal detection.

Ratio & Shade Checking

Before seal, the carton Q.C check the ratio & garments shade that, the ratio & garments shade is as per buyer requirement & same shade in one carton. If both thinks are okay Q.C give a sign inside of carton, then the carton should seal in front of Q.C.

Pre-Final Inspection

There is an in-house pre-final audit for self-confirmation, done by the chief quality controller.  He audits by 2.5 A. Q.L as receiving the Q.C pass report we offer for final inspection. Our A.Q.L chart is shown as bellow.

Hopefully, after reading this you already understand that how you can maintain a better-quality control. If you follow this type of manual and make your own manual for each section of your garments factory then it will be easy for you to ensure a quality production.

If you need more guidelines regarding this then please do not hesitate to ask, our comment section is always open for your opinion.

You can download this Complete Quality Manual of Garments Factory

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)
Email: [email protected]

Linkedin

Calculate Garments Cost of Making

One of the highest manufacturing industry is garments manufacturing industry where different types of garments are manufactured. Calculate Garments cost of making time to time is the right decision because the main motive of garments manufacturer is to make a profit where they manufacture garments and then sell it. But the problem is, what should be the required price of that item and how to calculate garments cost of making. To solve this problem first, you have to know the cost of garments making then add your markup price to set the selling price. Here cost of making means cost of manufacturing garments. Monitoring garments making cost is necessary so that trends of the cost of making can be identified and you can actually know whether your garments making cost is increasing or decreasing. Based on your change in garments cost of making you may take decision accordingly.

Calculate Garments Cost of Making

How to Calculate Garments Cost of Making

Pre Requirement of Calculation of  Garments Cost of Making

Before you start your costing you need to know the followings:

  1. Total Cost (TC) = Fixed Cost (FC) + Variable Cost (VC)
  2. Production Capacity of Your Machine (Hourly)
  3. Total Effective Working Hours Per Day
  4. Number of Days Operation in a Month

Fixed Cost of Garments Making

Fixed Cost are those cost of garments manufacturing which are fixed in nature. With the increase of a number of unit of production, your per unit fixed cost will be reduced. Some example of fixed cost is; salaries and wages, interest expense of bank loan, a rental expense of your factory building, depreciation expense of your fixed assets etc.

Variable Cost of Garments Making

Variable cost is the cost which is change over an additional number of unit of production. But per unit variable cost is fixed. The variable expense of garments making is; Utility (Electricity cost, Water cost, steam cost, Air cost) Expenditures, transportation cost, repair, and maintenance expense etc. Here the most crucial variable cost is utility cost. We need to carefully handle utility section to minimize utility cost.

Hourly Total Production Capacity of  Garments Machinery

To identify hourly total production capacity, you need to identify the total number of machine and capacity of each machine. After that, you need to multiply the hourly capacity with machine number.

Daily Production Capacity of  Garments

For calculating daily production of your garments, you need to multiply your hourly effective production capacity into working hours each day.

Monthly Production Capacity of Garments

To calculate monthly production capacity you have to multiply your daily production capacity with the number of working days in a month.

Costing of Utility of Garments

  • Electricity: To get electricity cost you need to identify total kW consumption of your factory and then multiply total KW with Price of per Kw electricity. Remember the cost of electricity is much higher in case of fuel generator and local REB compared with Gus Generator.
  • Water: Water cost is the cost of collecting water and the filtering cost. Normally in textile and garments, De-Mineralized (DM) water is used.
  • Steam: First identify total consumption of steam per machine each hour and then multiply with the number of machines.
  • Compressed Air: In case of air you have to identify the compressed air cost for per cubic meter then multiplies with the total consumption.

The formula of Calculating Garments Cost of Making

Monthly Garments Cost of Making (GCM) = (Monthly Total Cost of Garments Operation)/Monthly Total Output Produced by the Factory.

  • Here Total Cost include both fixed and variable Cost of your garments factory for one month
  • Monthly total Production is the output produced by the factory.

Example: Suppose Your Factory Costing Related Information are;

  • Salary & Wages Expense Tk. 20,000,000
  • Monthly Interest on Bank Loan Tk. 100,000
  • Depreciation Expense is Tk. 50,000
  • Rental Expense of Building is Tk. 200,000
  • Transportation Cost is Tk. 150,000
  • Repair & Maintenance Expense is Tk. 50,000
  • Utility Expense is Tk 100,000, where Electricity Cost is Tk 500,000, Steam Tk. 200,000, Water Cost is Tk. 100,000, Chiller Cost Tk. 100,000, Compressed Air Cost is Tk. 100,000.
  • Total Number of Machine is 150
  • Hourly Production Capacity of Each Machine 30
  • The total Working hour is 8 hours per day
  • The number of working days in a month is 26 Days.

Total Cost = 20,000,000 + 100,000 + 50,000 + 200,000 + 150,000 + 50,000 +1,000,000 = 21,550,000

Total Production = 150 * 30 * 8 * 26 = 936,000

Cost of Garments Making Per Piece of Garments = (21,550,000/936,000) = Tk. 23.02 (Piece)

After reading this hopefully you understand how to calculate garments cost of making. If you have any confusion then please let me know, I will try to clarify further.

Note: All these costing information is arbitrarily taken, so these values are not actual costing value.

Finishing Quality Control SOP of Apparel Industry

Finishing is the last step of the apparel industry. Quality Control is necessary for every stage of garments production for the purpose of making a quality product, finishing the garments, prepare for shipment and finally deliver to the garments buyer. So, finishing is a very important process in garments. To ensure finishing quality control by the garments manufacturer a finishing quality control SOP of Apparel Industry is to prepared and followed accordingly. Here SOP means Standard Operating Procedure. Ultimate quality control, garments decoration, and ticketing are done in the finishing process of the apparel industry.

Finishing Quality Control SOP of Apparel Industry

Finishing Quality Control SOP of Apparel Industry

For finishing quality control following standard operating procedure can be followed for the apparel industry.

  • All Sewn Garments is to receive into finishing section after washing (if GMTS need finishing as per buyer’s requirement).
  • Washed garments to be checked for shade acceptance in a standard lightbox as per buyer approved all shade standard. If a lot fails in AQL to meet shade acceptance, then GMTS will send back to washing for rewash.
  • After passing shade of Garments and thread trimming, quality checking starts as per style wise process sequence but must maintain size wise bundle.
  • Excessive WIP (Work in Process) and dumping more than one bundle stacking in one layer is not allowed in any operation of finishing.
  • Any defective garments will not pass from any operation without alteration and QC pass.

Finishing Quality Control Standard of Garments

  1. Pull test as per customer requirement
  2. 100% Garments quality inspection and thread trimming
  3. 100% Garments key point measurement
  4. 100% pressing as per customer requirement
  5. Quality audit is to be done before moving garments to pack
  6. Specific written instruction for every operation with garments form mockup as visual instruction for ironing, attaching the sticker, measurement, quality inspection, folding and packing.
  7. Approve trim card for every style with all finishing trims and accessories.
  8. 100 % garments metal detection is to follow to ensure garments free from a needle, sharp tools and any types of metal as ensured product quality.
  9. Packing of garments as per customer Stock Keeping Unit (SKU) and assortment requirement.

Ironing (Pressing) Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) in Garments Finishing

  1. Garments come in iron table size wise by the bundle.
  2. Only one size is allowed in a bundle.
  3. Iron table marking before every style starting.
  4. A carton in every iron table to keep defects and marking with arrow sticker to detect defects.
  5. Out of tolerance Garments not be passed from measurement section, the Iron show having every measurement table.
  6. Every Gate up Quality inspector having measurement tape and style wise measurement sheet.
  7. Approved sample hanging with written instruction in Iron, Quality Inspection, and packing area.
  8. From Iron garments moving bundle wise up to packing.
  9. Garments not are gathered by more than one style or color in every iron and quality inspection table.

Finishing Quality Audit

Finishing AQL Auditors audit GMTS before moving GMTS to packing area from every bundle using AQL 2.5. If audit pass, GMTS will move forward for packing. If Audit fails, an auditor will give back GMTS to Quality checkpoint area to recheck. After completing recheck, AQL Auditor will re-audit. An auditor audit full PO lot as per buyer final audit sampling policy when that PO is already 80% packed to check packed GMTS quality before a final audit. If Pre-final audit fails, then full PO will be rechecked.

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)
Email: [email protected]

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Needle and Sharp Tools Control Procedure in Apparel

Needle, Broken Needle and Sharp Tools Control Procedure in Apparel Industry applies to all types of Machine needles, Hand Sewing needles, Label Applicator Gun needles, staples, and sharps (defined as knives, scissors, cutters, etc.). This article has two parts of controlling sharp items in garments industry. One is needle and broken needle control, the 2nd part is all others sharp tools control. All these items are sharp but there at least one needle in every sewing machine so we are giving needle control separately. Actually, every garments industry has to control needle and other sharp tools separately. The needle used to sew garments. Scissor, cutter and cutting knife used to cut fabrics and thread. And must eliminate staples from all areas, sections, raw materials (like supplier’s cartons), and processes of the factory. Loose sharp objects in any production related area near fabric or garments are not allowed, they must be tied up. A general procedure for controlling all sharp tools are broken needle log/no needle on idle machines, no sharp points, no staples, and scissors attached & secured, blades control.

Needle and Sharp Tools Control Procedure in Apparel

Needle, Broken Needle and Sharp Tools Control Procedure in Apparel Industry

List of Sharps Tools Used in Garments

  1. Sewing Needle
  2. Scissor
  3. Cutter (Thread trimmer)
  4. Cutting M/C Knife
  5. Cutting Clamps
  6. Loose Metal or M/C Parts

Needle Control

A needle issue booth is to be available on every production floor, only one person in the relevant department should be given the authority to operate the needle control procedure. The apparel industry has to set needle control policy and manage the procedure effectively because safety is important for the Buyers & GMTS makers point of view. Applicable to sewing, embroidery, knitting & linking, or any other place where the needle is used or where there is a risk of metal contamination of apparel manufacturing industry.

Objectives of Needle Control

  • To ensure customer product safety
  • To ensure safety for employee
  • To ensure safety for the consumer
  • Keep discipline of sharp tools handling
  • Safe working environment

Application of Needle Control Procedure

Machines not in production, should not have a needle attached. Mechanics must not leave spare needles with the machine after servicing. No spare or replaced needles should be held at the machine by an operator. The only needle allowed at the sewing machine is the one in use. All spare needles should keep in a secure location, keys for that location should be kept by the person who is responsible for managing the needle control procedure. When a needle breakage occurs, all broken parts must be found and taken to the person responsible for managing the needle and this ensures proper control procedure of needle. Once all the broken needle parts have been recovered, they must be attached with clear adhesive tape to a control sheet; a new needle may then be issued by the authorized distributor. If all the broken needle parts cannot be located, the work in the immediate area of the machine must be isolated and kept in a locked box. A metal detector should then be used to locate the missing needle pieces. Once the location of the needle pieces has been determined, the needle should be removed.

Needle, Broken Needle and Sharp Tools Control Procedure in Apparel Industry

The article does not have to be destroyed if the whole needle piece has been removed. Handheld detectors are very useful for tracing lost needles in sewing rooms very quickly. One in each factory location is suggested. If the pieces cannot be located by the metal detector then the whole isolated batch of work should be destroyed. Records of all control sheets must be maintained. This also should be maintained in a locked, secure location. All whole needles replaced due to wear and tear should be held in a sealed container away from the factory floor and disposed of in a way, which would avoid injury to any persons. Glass items, e.g. bottles or paperweights, in the production area should also be discouraged in case of glass splinters. The use of snap-off blade type knives should not be used for any production or packaging, shipping areas – i.e. disposable metal blades, craft knives etc. should not be used. The whole needle must be sealed in containers prior to issue.

Action Need to Follow to Control Needle

  1. The Needle Status could be marked as “B” for Broken and “W” for Worn/Twisted/Crooked/Bent needles
  2. When a needle breakage occurs, all broken parts must be found and taken to the person responsible for managing the needle control procedure.
  3. Once all the broken needle parts have been recovered, they must be attached with clear adhesive tape to a control sheet; a new needle may then be issued by the authorized distributor.
  4. If all the broken needle parts cannot be located, the work in the immediate area of the machine must be isolated and passed through Metal Detector.
  5. If the pieces cannot be located by the metal detector, production in that area should be stopped; and the whole batch of work should be destroyed.

How to Control All Sharp Tools Used in Apparel/Garments

  1. Keep section wise records of all sharp tools quantity
  2. Supply all necessary sharp tools start of the workday and take this back end of the workday.
  3. Make sure any single number of tools not lost
  4. Keep section wise stock management report
  5. Tie all Scissor and cutter with relevant machine/table in work running time
  6. Staples should not use anywhere, staples threat for safety.
  7. Any metal or machine spare part not allowed to keep in the workplace.

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

Facebook: Amirul Islam Washim
E-mail: [email protected]

Metal Detection Procedure in Apparel

Metal Detection is the final precautionary measure used to get needle/metal free final product. It is not as a replacement for well-maintained needle control procedures. Metal Detection Procedure in Apparel could be the final needle detection system and machine calibration (whether machine is functioning properly or not) is checked  by 9-point calibration system. Metal detection machine should be located in packing section to ensure that after metal detection process, garments will remain inside a metal/needle free zone. Machine calibrated with 9-point method or any other suggested method given by the supplier/buyer. This process should continue for every hour & keep record.

Metal Detection Procedure in Apparel

Objectives of Metal Detection in Garments

Final product of garments should be metal or needle free, otherwise it can harm the user of garments. Here are the few objectives of metal detection:

  • To get needle free final product
  • To get metal free final product in carton
  • Secure product safety
  • Metal detection is mandatory for all children wear garments, and this also varies according to the buyer wise requirement.
  • To meet customer satisfaction

Metal Detection Procedure in Apparel

Metal Detection Procedure of Garments Manufacturing are explained below

  1. All goods must be passed through the Metal Detector except in exceptional circumstances where the nature of the product dictates that this cannot be done. This must be agreed with the buyer beforehand; and signed on the Operation Manual or Product Specification (I.e. (a) Certain accessories, (b) PRO, where the stitched upper is passed through the detector Goods with ferrous metal components.
  2. All goods must be passed through a Metal Detector set to the standard of a 1.2 mm sphere. As the majority of the trims and decorations are non-Ferrous, it is a requirement that ferrous metal detector be used.
  3. Records and samples must be kept of any contamination detected, starting date, and time, product type, and the cause of resultant actions to be kept in a secure location.
  4. When a metal is detected, only supervisors or manager can reactivate the equipment. It is therefore mandatory that a Security Key Switch is used to ensure this.
  5. X-ray machine is needed where tacks are used in production (i.e. hand sewn shoes, moccasins, etc.)

Metal Detector Machine Calibration by 9 Point System

9-point testing of metal detector refers below points

  • Calibrate (Test) machine 3 times each day at the beginning, middle and end of a working period by using the 1.2mm sphere ferrous checks cards to check machine sensitivity.
  • Test at 9 points at every time
  • Test from top, Centre and bottom position in left, middle and right side of machine, total 9 points.
  • If any point not detected by machine, should recheck the point again.

Description of Needle Calibration Check

Needle Calibration check purpose to check machine sensitivity. The sensitivity should be set by passing the test sample through/at the (i) Centre (ii) Left Side (iii) Right Side of the detector. This process will be repeated by placing the test sample at a raised height, allowing the test sample to pass through the middle of the detector. The 1.2mm test sample must be kept available at all times. The detector must be tested with the 1.2mm test sample a minimum of 3 times per working session, which is defined as a shift. The test should be carried out prior to starting detection, at an intermediate point, and at the end of the session using the test sample. A record should be kept of the time and date by the supervisor. When a detector fails to detect the test sample, all merchandise that has passed through the detector since the last correctly completed test must be rechecked through the metal detector. It is good practice to be able to identify each batch of production that has passed through the detector since the last test.

  1. The Metal detector is positioned such that goods need to pass through the metal detector in order to be shipped out (finishing to packing; or packing to warehouse).
  2. Best practice is to have a magnetized station/ table where the tacks are removed; when the operator holds the lasted upper on this and pulls the tacks out, they are pulled and held in place until the operator removes them to a dedicated sharps storage container. Alternative solution is to use a magnetic /generator coils (about 12 to 15 inches in diameter) as cradles during the de-tacking process.
  3. Machines must be serviced, certified and calibrated by the Metal Detection Company or recognized 3rd party testing company.
  4. Records are to be kept.

Needle Detecting Report

Metal Detection Procedure in Apparel also Refer to-

  • Needle detection procedure in Garments
  • 9 Points calibration system
  • Product safety in Garments

Download : Needle Detection Report Format (Excel 47kb)

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

Facebook: Amirul Islam Washim
E-mail: [email protected]

KPI Factors of Garments

KPI stands for Key Performance Indicator or Key Points Indicator. This is the era of competition and we have to survive with global challenge in apparel industry. If you carefully work with Key points that is KPI Factors of Garments then surely Garments business will flourish. Management team should focus on KPI for their industry. KPI report will help you to look into the actual condition of your garments.

KPI Factors of Garments

There are many KPI factors which are directly and indirectly related with garments, specially in factory operations.

KPI Factors of Garments

KPI for Garments Cutting

Cutting efficiency: Cutting efficiency one of the most important factor. If efficiency increase in cutting section, then production will increase by using minimum number of manpower.

Month Wise Cutting EfficiencyCutting Production: Cutting production is another important factor as like Cutting efficiency. Cutting production is related with Spreading, cutting, numbering and bundling.

Month Wise Cutting ProductionDHU (Defect per Hundred Units) in cutting: In cutting, there is no way to repair defect, must replace panel as per marker with shade matching. So if DHU is high, you will be needed to rework.

Cutting delay/Input delay in sewing line: Sometime cutting and sewing not start as per plan. Only two reason behind this. If PP/Size Set or pilot run sample fail to buyer QC to meet quality standard, apparel manufacturers have remake sample and submit again to buyer QC to pass sample and get cutting approval. Sewing can be delayed for Trims and accessories delay receive from supplier.

Month Wise Input Delay Status

KPI for Sewing

Line wise Sewing efficiency: Sewing make the whole garments, so sewing efficiency is an important factor for garments industry.

Efficiency calculation: An operator was doing an operation of SAM (Standard Allowed Minute) 0.60 minutes. In 10 hours day he produces 600 pieces. So according to the efficiency calculating formula, that operator’s overall efficiency is as follows:

Efficiency (%) = [Total minute produced by an operator/Total minute attended by him *100]

Efficiency (%) = [(Total piece made X SAM of the operation)/ (Total working hour X 60) * 100]
= [(400 x 0.60) / (10 X 60)*100%]
= 240/600*100%
= 40.00%

Last Month Sewing Efficiency

Production/Hour/Manpower/Machine

The ratio among production/hour/manpower/machine is to be optimal. Every factory has self study to reduce manpower, keeping less helper with best possible production outcome.

Month Wise Production Plan of Actual Sewing

Machine Trouble/Machine downtime: Because of Machine trouble production is stopped. Machine maintenance department have to do their best effort to reduce machine downtime. Electrical problem also can be cause of Machine trouble/machine downtime.

DHU in Sewing: Defects rate also key point in garments manufacturing. Factory has to rework for repairing defects. Defect generation reduces operator’s efficiency. Factory wants to keep defects as low as possible for per hundred units.

Absenteeism: Operator absenteeism hamper sewing production, create bottleneck. Every factory target employee absenteeism rate is zero % but sometimes it may not possible to keep this percent.

No. Style change: Style change effect on productivity, efficiency, and quality. So garments manufacturer wants big lot order more rather than small quantity order for any lot.

Plan vs Actual Production Ratio: All factories have planning department to make plan for cutting, sewing, finishing and shipment to meet buyer required shipment date. Gap between plan and actual production is the reason of not meeting on time delivery.

Idle Time/Machine: Idle time is also known as loss time. For any type of reason operators are not working is considered as loss time. Common reasons for idle time are; using new layout, machine trouble, no work etc.

Operator Wise Efficiency: The best way of efficiency calculation is to calculate individual operator efficiency every day, show report weekly and train up lower efficient operator for improvement which ultimately increase the operator efficiency.

Process improvement: Industrial engineering (IE) department do time study, motion study and work study to find out SMV (Standard Minute Value), to minimize unnecessary motion for sewing operations. By this way factory save SMV time for garments manufacturing.

Operator Turnover Rate: Since sewing is the key process of apparel, sewing operator turnover percentage is important. Turnover means the number of employees got fired or left from the job and replaced in work place by new operator. If turnover rate is lower in factory then it will be better for the company.

Monthly turnover % = (Employees separated/Average number of employees during the month) *100

Example, If Employees separated = 21, Average number of employees during the month= 950

So, Monthly Turnover % = (21/950) × 100 = 2.21%

KPI for Trims and Fabrics

Claim Amount vs. Recovery Amount: According to the buyer quality standard, garments manufacture has to reject fabrics, trim if there is any quality issue. So, maker must claim for compensation by replacing or giving back their money.

Claim and Recovery Amount

KPI for Finishing, Final Audit and Shipment

Cut to Ship Quantity: As PO wise buyer order quantity cutting department try to cut extra as much as possible. It could be from 2% to 5%. GMTS reject due to different quality issue. Below data will give idea about GMTS (Garments) production flow.

Cut to Ship Quantity

Month Wise Cut to Ship Percent

Reject percentage: For some critical quality problems like wash damage, measurement out of tolerance, work hole and unrepeatable problems GMTS rejected by finishing quality team.

DHU in Finishing: Defects rate also key point in garments manufacturing. Factory has to rework for to repair defects. Finishing team have to repair whatever defect come from sewing or finishing they found. Factory wants to keep defects per hundred units as low as possible. If too many products are defected then to rework the garments may add extra cost to the product which to totally unexpected.

Final Audit Pass rate: Final Audit pass rate is the number 1 KPI factor for Garments Quality. For some buyer final audit, if fail once any PO in final Audit, Factory has to give penalty for that. Any PO fail in final audit, factory has rechecked full quantity goods again. Could imagine how much cost need to recheck, and it also does hamper running production as well.

Month Wise Final Inspection Pass Rate

Finishing Production: Finishing is the last step of apparel manufacturing. On time delivery, sea or air shipment mainly depends on finishing of production.

Finishing Efficiency: Finishing efficiency is also very important key factory. If efficiency increases, production will increase with minimum manpower and ultimately it will increase profit for the company.

Last Month Floor Wise Average Finishing Efficiency Plan

Order and Ship Ratio: Order and ship ratio should be equal at least or ship quantity could be more than order quantity since cutting quantity is more than 2% or 3% of order quantity by reducing reject %.

Last Month Shipment Analysis

Year Wise Excess Shipment Quantity

Month Wise Order to Shipment Percent

Air Ship Quantity: Two reasons are cause for air shipment. One, If Garments maker cannot meet on time delivery date then maker have to ship goods by air at his own cost. GMTS suffer huge financial loss for air shipment because the rate is more for air shipment. Number two would be merchandising reason for not sourcing raw material on time.

Month Wise Air Shipment

Templates and KPI Dashboard Presentation

You may need to present your factory KPI data with Top management or may need to report them. Here I am sharing you a complete presentation and Excel database for your convenience for free. I hope these would help you to work with KPI smoothly.

  1. KPI Presentaion-Apparel and Garments (PowerPoint) (1mb)
  2. Summary of KPI report (Excel) (1.3mb)

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

Facebook: Amirul Islam Washim

Phone:+8801929643301
E-mail: [email protected]

Inventory control in Apparel and Textile Warehouse

Inventory control is crucial part of every industry.  Inventory control of Apparel, textile and fashion industry must keep inventory in their warehouse/store. Inventory control is called stock management which save cost, time and increase work efficiency of your warehouse.

Goods in warehouse in Garments

Inventory control can be defined as list of in housed, unsold and unshipped goods in organized way at the same time; balance quantity, booking quantity, shipping quantity everything I mean real status of stock/selling/shipping/moving goods.

Inventory control in Apparel and Textile Warehouse

Inventory control in Apparel and Textile Warehouse

Proper inventory control in apparel and textile warehouse will ensure market competitiveness in international market.

Goods in warehouse can be placed in three ways

  1. Raw material, to be inputted for production bought from another company
  2. Work in progress, production is running
  3. Finished goods, waiting for delivery to buyer’s destination

 Inventory of Raw materials

Inventory in Garments Industry

Maintaining Database for Inventory in Textile and Garments Industry

For controlling your inventory, you have to maintain proper database and recording system so that you can monitor the inventory status continuously. Two common practices of maintaining inventory report you may find in apparel industry:

  • Excel data base
  • ERP (Enterprise resource planning) software.

For small organization buying ERP software is sometimes creates extra burden so my suggestion for them is to use excel template which is totally from and available to download. We have developed excel (inventory management) template for your convenience. Here is some free excel template ready to download.

Benefits of Inventory

  1. Information transparency
  2. Save cost
  3. Increase efficiency
  4. Save time
  5. Data Management
  6. Beneficiary for all others departments
  7. Minimize Goods receive and delivery time
  8. Increase supply chain performance
  9. Knowing stock information in any time
  10. Organize store/warehouse

Factors of inventory report for Garments and Textile store/Warehouse

  1. Mention buyer name
  2. PO and style name
  3. Production name
  4. Product description
  5. Proforma invoice (PI) number of received goods
  6. Challan No
  7. Booking quantity
  8. Received quantity
  9. Balance quantity
  10. Delivery quantity
  11. Quality inspection status
  12. Due product
  13. Product moving log
  14. Shipment date
  15. Rejected quantity
  16. Store rack number

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

Facebook: Amirul Islam Washim

Phone:+8801929643301
E-mail: [email protected]

Sewing Quality Control SOP

Sewing Quality Control SOP

Sewing is the key process of apparel industry. Sewing produce full garments. Cutting section just cut garments as per marker. Finishing section mainly does decorative work, add ticketing items and ironing. As Garments construct through Sewing; sewing quality control is most important factor in Apparel industry. Sewing quality team controls all the necessary quality criteria. There are some rules for controlling quality of sewing. These standard rules are well known as sewing quality standard operating procedure (SOP). Let see, what are the basic things a sewing quality controlling SOP includes:

Standard Operating Procedure of Sewing Quality Control, Sewing Quality Control SOP

Sewing Quality Controlling Standard Operating Procedure

Here is the standard operating procedure of sewing quality control

  1. Quality inspectors check sample and trim card of his process at the very beginning of a style. Inspector also checks SPI, thread, label and First Bundle specially and will have to take over his work from Quality controller for new style.
  2. Inspectors know his all measurement of his check point and will have to explain clearly if anybody ask.
  3. No defect allowed passing from QI check point and defect will be limited in one bundle in any process.
  4. Bundle cut have to maintain as per cutting report, short and mistake bundle not to pass by QC check point.
  5. Measurement tape hanging on every QI neck
  6. Every in-process report to be updated, to be signed by QC and line supervisor in every hour.
  7. Any process mistake and size mistake body go back to operation making correction.
  8. Every running style Sample and Trim card showing operation clearly displayed on each line.
  9. Every quality inspector following up machine cleaning before breaking up factory every day and 100% machine having oil card.
  10. Washed Garments not allowed keeping sewing line. If there any GMTS in sewing line, Output QI and Line QC have to handover in finishing.
  11. Every Line QC is responsible for all types of buyer requirement of his line.

You can download a common form of SOP both in Bengali and English

Sewing Quality SOP (English)

Sewing Quality SOP (Bangla)

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

Facebook: Amirul Islam Washim

Phone:+8801929643301
E-mail: [email protected]