Cutting Section SOP in Garments Industry

Cutting Section Standard Operating Procedure in Garments Industry

Cutting Section Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) is develop to provide guidelines for the workers so that they have proper knowledge of working. SOP is written in a simplest way to ensure better understanding for all people who are involved directly or indirectly with that particular activities. In a garments industry you may find different form of SOP and it can vary company to company and also department to department. Each and every garments company always try make best adaptable standard operating procedure. You know that cutting section is very crucial part of garments manufacturing, keep in mind the importance of this section I made a simple Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for cutting section of garments so that can make SOP for your company. Now a day’s it is mandatory to make SOP and hang it to the working place of each section in apparel industry for better understanding of the procedure and to minimize operational error.

Cutting Section SOP in Garments Industry

Cutting Section SOP

Sample form of Cutting Section Standard Operating Procedure is as flows:

Fabrics Relaxation Procedure

  • Spandex fabrics will be relaxed minimum 24 hour making unroll in cutting section.
  • Relaxation date and time must be recorded. After spreading, will relax 2 hours before cut.

Before Cutting Procedure

  • Receive marker and quality check by cutting QC.
  • Fabric Spreading will be done based on Shade chart/Shade grouping provided by fabrics warehouse.
  • Spreading report will be made after spreading with related all necessary data.
  • Spreading Quality check point: -Table marking -Ends -Leaning –Tension -Narrow Goods -Remnants -Counts -Ply High -Marker Placing -Fabric Flaws
  • Highest lay for woven fabrics is length 14 meter and height 3 inch.
  • Lay chart should be maintaining roll wise.
  • Quality inspector will control quality inspection during fabrics lay.
  • Cutting spreader man will spread marker after finishing lay.
  • For stripe and check fabrics, alignment to be correct by using hook, thread.
  • Before cutting cutter man will attach clamp, Gum tap on the layer.
  • Shade chart will be hanged during lay.
  • Cutting Quality check points: -Miss cut –Rugged Cutting –Notches-Matching Plies and pattern check.

After Cutting Procedure

  • Quality will check every bundle using hard pattern three different position of the bundle.
  • Numbering and bundling separation done by following spreading report and identify each bundle by style, Cutting number, Bundle number, size, Serial number, Shade number and Parts name.
  • 100% cut panel will be inspected
  • If any defective panel found, will be replaced from lay chart wise remnants by following shade and pattern grain line.
  • Light color bundle will bind with light color string; deep color bundle will bind with deep color string
  • Light color Fabrics will be covered by poly in rack or pallet.
  • Then all cut panels will be ready to delivery in sewing.

You can download cutting section SOP in Garment Industry from here.

Cutting Standard Operating Procedure SOP English

Cutting Standard Operating Procedure SOP Bangla

Written by: Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

Facebook: Amirul Islam Washim

Phone:+8801929643301
E-mail: [email protected]

Quality Control in Garment Manufacturing

Quality Control in Garment Manufacturing

Quality is of prime significance in any part of the business. Clients request and expect an incentive for cash. Quality is characterized by the level of acknowledgment of a decent or administration. It is an extremely fundamental necessity for any item. Each item ought to keep up the standard quality level. In this 21st century of globalization showcase is ending up increasingly intricate, that is the reason each industry is confronting an abnormal state of rivalry for their business. As makers of clothing, there must be a consistent quality control in garment manufacturing to create work of good quality.

Quality Control Framework

The frameworks required for programming and planning the endeavors of the different gatherings in an association to keep up the imperative quality.” Quality Control is the implementation and monitoring of Quality Assurance or Total Quality Control operations. The Testing technique comprises different significant method to ensure that manufacturing procedure is following all the essential principles and the materials used in piece of clothing creation are of great quality. It is likewise critical to test the hardware for attempting to their most extreme limits and for not harming the texture and different materials itself. Diverse sorts of testings are being done consistently to screen the procedure and the result of the assembling. Those testings differ amongst concoction and physical ones. Physical testings incorporate the checking of catches, dimensional soundness of the texture et cetera. Concoction testings are identified with reviews of shading speed to washing, warmth, lighting and different conditions. Furthermore, by and large, every one of them has one motivation behind guaranteeing a quality item toward the end.

Garment Manufacturing Testing

Testing can be led either in the lab of the creating industrial facility itself or in other testing research centers that are had practical experience in the quality control and affirmation of the article of clothing generation. For the most part, an outsider directed testing be best because of the better fixation and fair-minded checking process. It is likewise vital to believe the quality confirmation testing method to particular experts to guarantee the most extreme quality and productivity, by testing all materials and apparatus utilized amid assembling. The tests equipment which can be utilized for the quality inspection garments includes Hydrostatic Head Tester& Air Permeability Tester.

Hydrostatic Head Tester

Hydrostatic Head Tester

Hydrostatic Head Tester

Hydrostatic Head Tester, utilized for deciding the protection of textures and movies to water infiltration underweight while immovably cinched in the test apparatus of the standard region, by methods for dynamic test technique and static test strategy. The bank is connected to a test go to which the example is cinched rapidly and steadily by methods for a programmed brace.

Air Permeability Tester 

Quality Control in Garment Manufacturing

Air Permeability Tester

Air Permeability Tester is stacked to the test zone of the instrument effectively by methods for a programme holder by pushing down the holder to begin the test. So essentially, review method incorporates all phases of the piece of clothing generation beginning from crude materials and parts, trailed by the real assembling and observing of the work, and consummation the procedure with the investigation and examination of the completed item.

Following parameter are checked thoroughly at this stage:

  • Texture development
  • Shading quickness
  • Completed article of clothing

These days’ purchasers are particularly quality cognizant. If it is conceivable to keep up a fantastic arrangement of investigation strategy, the purchasers should be spurred, and greater quality items can be made. Learn more.

Financing for Textile and Garments

Financing for Textile and Garments

A good financing decision works as a driving force for an organization to build a strong financial position. Financing decision varies industry to industry, organization to organization according to their financing requirement, financial strength and risk taking behavior of that particular parties. Here in this article you will have basic ideas of financing and how you can take financial decision for your textile and garments business.

Basically the objective of financing is to collect money from the least cost sources and then invest in the profitable sectors. Here the challenge is minimize the cost and maximize the profit of the investment. Financing is required for different stages of business, like initial startup of business, or for maintaining the operational expenditures or for expansion of business. The mechanism of these financing need varies business to business.

If you are going to finance for the manufacturing industry then you will be required a large amount of fund for startup or for expansion of your business, and for operating expenditure you will be required working capital which is much less than the initial investment. On the other hand for service industry you have to invest a large amount of capital in the initial year and the operation cost is not that much high.

Requirement of Money for Textile and GarmentsNow come to the point of financing for textile and garments industries, as this one is manufacturing industry which requires to buy different types of equipment (power and electricity generator, spinning machine, knitting machine, dyeing machine, printing machine, sewing machine, cutting machine and many more) we have to spends lots of money and our huge amount of capital will be invested for this purpose. In addition to this thousands of garments worker will be working here, for payment of salary and wages you will be required a larger amount of working capital. On the other hand for importing raw materials you will also be required huge amount of money.

If you want to expand your business to increase production capacity you have to invest huge amount of money for long term basis.

The question is how you can manage these required money and from where you can source this money. At the time of sourcing of money/ fund you always have to be careful about the cost of that fund, least costing source will be preferable.

Financing for Textile and GarmentsFinancing for Textile and Garments can be for:

  • Initial startup of business.
  • Maintaining daily expenditures.
  • Expansion of Business/ Production Capacity.

Initial Expenditure for Starting a Textile and Garments Business

You already know that for starting a new setup for textile and garments you must spend a large amount of capital for purchasing capital machinery. The important thing is how you are going to finance for this, my suggestion is, and as capital machinery and equipment’s for long term it will be a better decision of financing from the long term sources. Available options of financing are:

  1. Long term bank loan (Debt Financing).
  2. Selling share (Equity Financing); in case of public limited company.
  3. Or you can choose both debt financing and equity financing (the ratio of debt to equity will be depend on the financial strength and the business risk of that company).

From the above alternatives, my personal suggestion is to choose third one because you cannot use fully debt financing because you have to bear a fixed cost (interest) for a certain interval of time for a period.

  • Fixed cost financing may increase your financial risk, so try to avoid fully debt financing.
  • On the other hand, equity financing is more costly as you have to share your all of your profit proportionately according to the contribution of equity capital.

The right choice is to use debt and equity to minimize the weighted average cost of capital. And you have to form your optimal capital structure by considering two major factors (business risk & financial strength). Taking loan for new business is not that much easy, that’s why initially we have to depend upon our own capital first. With the passes of time, for a successful business, it will be better to increase the debt percent so that taxable income can be reduced.

Financing for Maintaining Daily Expenditures

Actually maintaining daily expenditures means, managing working capital funds for your business operations or management of current assets and current liabilities. You may source your working capital either from long term or short term sources and the decision will be depend on the working capital management policy (hedging, conservative, aggressive) of yours. Before choosing working capital management policy you have to have brief idea of these policies:

  • Hedging Policy of Working Capital Management: Hedging policy is one of the popular policy of managing funds where a matching principle is used. Financing for current obligation is done from the current assets (current sources) and on the other hand financing for long term obligation is done for the long term assets (long term sources). That means for short term requirement of funds you need to collect from short term sources and for long term requirements you have to collect from long term sources.
  • Conservative Policy of Working Capital Management: In case of conservative policy company has the intention of taking low risk for financing current asset. Additional fund required for fixed assets company keeps extra fund for using as current asset. Here company financing (collecting) more funds from the long term sources for both current asset and fixed/long term assets. The main intention is to lowering the risk of financing for current asset.
  • Aggressive Policy of Working Capital Management: Aggressive policy of working capital management is risky policy in a sense that most of required funds for current and long term assets is to be financed from the short term sources, lower amount of funds will be collected from the long term sources. Basically money will be kept less than the required amount for working capital that why risk is higher.

Before taking a policy form all these above mentioned policies you must evaluate your ability to liquid your asset and liquid (cash) required for your business. Another thing is your risk taking behavior towards working capital management.

The question is from which sources you can finance for the maintaining daily expenditures? The probable source available for the textile and garments are:

  • Lowering the collection period of accounts receivables.
  • Delaying the payment of accounts payable.
  • Delaying the payment of salaries and wages.
  • Taking short term bank loan.
  • Purchasing raw materials on credit.

Financing for Expansion of Textile and Garments Business

As you already know that for business of textile and garments you will be required a lot of money. Expansion of business or expansion of production capacity requires larger investment to for purchase machinery and equipment, land, construct building etc. This is more or less similar with the initial investment for your business. In addition with acquiring capital assets, you have to hire workers and employees for supporting your business expansion. The thing is you have to pay wages and salaries, purchase of additional raw materials or any other operating expenditures. So you can manage these extra money from both long term sources and from short term sources. Whether you choose long term or short term source, is mainly depends on your financial strength and adequacy of money of your existing business. Normally a profitable textile and garments company has intention to expand when they find that the business is profitable and they can manage their extra required fund from their own profit.

Financing for Textile and Garments

After these discussion, I think that it is clear how you can finance for your textile and garments and which sources are available for financing. Careful analysis is to be done before any larger investment because for large investment risk is higher and involve cost also.

If you have any confusion then you can comment here. I will try to give you suggestion about financing and different problematic situations.

Written by: Md. Nahian Mahmud Shaikat

Financial Analyst

Mail: [email protected]

Types of Garments Defects

Types of Garments Defects

You may find several types of garments defects in a production process. First of all let have some idea of what basically defect is? Any variation from quality standard (QS) that affects appearance, durability, safety or fitness of a product is called defect.

 garments defects

Defects are classified into following three categories

  1. Critical Defects
  2. Major Defects
  3. Minor Defect

Critical Defects: It refers that the product is unsafe or hazardous for the end user or violate mandatory regulations.

Major Defects: Major defects can result in the product visual or performance failure, reducing its marketability or usability. Because of this defect product cannot be sold as a 1st quality. If it is possible to repair or eliminate this defect then it will be possible to upgrade that product as a first quality.

Minor Defect: If a product has minor defect then this type of product can be marketable and usable, but this will loss the standard quality. Because of this type of defects product fall short of defined specifications or quality standard.

types of garments defects

Different Types of Garments Defects

We can further classify garments defects into following categories

Construction Defects: This defects created in garments manufacturing, actually occur at the time of product construction.

Color defects: Shading problem in garments contain color defect. If there is wrong shade of color is applied on the product. Color defect is one kind of visual defect which can be the reason of reject of the product by the customers.

Fabric Defects: Garments are manufactured by using fabric. If there is any defect in the fabric then it will produce defected garments. That’s why fabric defect is surely will be visible in garments.

Trims Defect: Wrong trims and accessories considered as a trims defect.

Packing defect: Packing is very crucial and sensitive process for export garments. Choice of wrong packing materials may create defected package. On the other hand wrong size packaging also considered as defected packaging. As because there are lots of defects found in packing, caution need to be taken when packaging.

Fit and Measurement Defect: You can’t make 100% accurate garments in maintaining measurement as buyer expectation. But there are a certain tolerance of measurement, you can’t cross that limit.

I have made a list of every category defect. See in the below.

Check the following list to get idea of defects under different categories of garments defects

Different Types of Garments Defects

  1. Construction Defect

ALIGNMENT PLEAT POOR REPAIR
BARTACK MISSING POOR HEAT MELTING TWISTED LEG
BARTACK PLACEMENT OFF POOR SEAM SEALING MISSING BELTLOOP
BARTACK POOR PUCKERING WHITE SPOTS
BROKEN STITCHES RAVEL BACK ADHESION SEPARATION
BURNT MARK ROPING WRINKLED-FOOTWEAR
CONCAVE SCUFFS / BRUISED POOR LASTING
CONVEX SEE THROUGH / VISIBLE POOR ATTACHMENT-FOOTWEAR
CROOKED SEWN CAUGHT POOR MOULDED
CUT SPI INCORRECT POOR INJECTION
DEFECTIVE STICKER SPI UNEVEN LUMPY
DISTORTED STITCHES EXCESS / OVERRUN UNSTABLE-FOOTWEAR
DOWN LEAKAGE STITCHES EXPOSED POOR CLENCHED-FOOTWEAR
EXCESS FABRIC STITCHES LOOSE MISMATCHED-FOOTWEAR
EXPOSED STITCHES MISSING WATERPROOF LEAKAGE
FOLD BACK STITCHES SKIP NON-WICKING FAILED
FRAYING EDGE / RAW EDGE STITCHING INSECURE POOR ZIG-ZAG STITCHING
FULLNESS STITCHING UNEVEN DAMAGED
HI-LOW TIGHT TENSION POOR EDGE STAIN
HI-KING UNEVEN GATNERING CRACKING
HOLE UNEVEN LENGTH POOR HEEL SHAPE CURVE-FW
INCOMPLETE OPERATION UNTRIMMED THREADS HARD EDGE-FOOTWEAR
INCORRECT OPERATION WAVY STITCHING ENDS NOTLOCK-FW
INCORRECT STITCH MARGIN WIDTH VARIATION PU HYDROLYSIS
JOINT STITCHES YARN END NOT SECURED UNDER CURING – FOOTWEAR
MENDING MARK LAMINATION POOR NONUV OF CE/INJECT EVA-FW
MISSING OPERATION MISALIGNMENT VISIBLE/DEEP PARTING LINE
NEEDLE CUTS LOPSIDED CONTAMINATION – FOOTWEAR
NEEDLE HOLE PEELING OFF OFF SPEC-FOOTWEAR/EQUIPMT
NOT CUT APART EXCESS / LESS DOWN FILL WHITE SPOTS
OFF TRACK / RUN OFF NONFUNCTIONAL ARM CAN’TBE CLOSED COMPLE
OPEN SEAM LOOSING STUD GAPPING
OVERLAPPED SHIFTING WHEEL
PLACEMENT OFF ROCKING

2. Color Defect

DYE LOTS INFILTRATION
CLR COMBINATION COLOR BLEEDING
SHADE OFF YELLOWING
SHADING WITHIN PRODUCT POOR DYED COLOR SHADE
SUBLAMINATION CONTAMINATION ON WHITE/LT

3. Fabric Defect

BARRIE STREAK
BLEEDING THICK YARN
BOWING THIN YARN
BROKEN YARN UNEVEN DYE
COARSE YARN WAVY EDGE
COLOR MIGRATION YELLOWING
CREASE LINE CROSS STAIN
DELAMINATION SCAR / LEATHER
DROP STITCHES BELLY CUT / LEATHER
FABRIC DAMAGE HAIRY LONG/SHORT/LEATHER
FOREIGN YARN UNMATCHED GRAIN/LEATHER
HOLE INFERIOR QUALITY/LEATHER
INCORRECT FIBER CONTENT POOR HARDNESS/LEATHER
KNOTS SCRATCHED MARK/LEATHER
LOOPS CUT MARK/LEATHER
LOOSE YARN END DEFECTIVE MARK/LEATHER
MISSING YARN INSUFFICIENT OIL/LEATHER
NAPS POOR POLISH/LEATHER
NEEDLE LINE POOR ROUGH/GRIND/LEATHER
ODOR SMELL POOR SKIVED LEATHER EDGE
PULLING YARN SCRATCHED MARK/LEATHER
SHADE BAR / STOP MARK IMPURITY
SHADE OFF SCRATCHED
SKEWING DIFF. DEGREE OF TIGHTNESS
SLUBS PEEL OFF LACQUER
SNAGGING

4. Trims Defect

ATTACHMENT DEFECTIVE RIVET UP SIDE DOWN
ATTACHMENT INCORRECT SEAM TAPING DEFECTIVE
ATTACHMENT MISSING SEAM TAPING INCORRECT
ATTACHMENT OXIDIZED SEAM TAPING MISSING
ATTACHMENT PLACEMENT OFF SEAM TAPING PLACEMENT OFF
ATTACHMENT UP SIDE DOWN SEAM TAPING UP SIDE DOWN
BUCKLE DEFECTIVE SNAP DEFECTIVE
BUCKLE INCORRECT SNAP INCORRECT
BUCKLE MISSING SNAP MISSING
BUCKLE OXIDIZED SNAP OXIDIZED
BUCKLE PLACEMENT OFF SNAP PLACEMENT OFF
BUCKLE UP SIDE DOWN SNAP UP SIDE DOWN
BUTTON DEFECTIVE STRAP DEFECTIVE
BUTTON INCORRECT STRAP INCORRECT
BUTTON MISSING STRAP MISSING
BUTTON OXIDIZED STRAP PLACEMENT OFF
BUTTON PLACEMENT OFF STRAP UP SIDE DOWN
BUTTON UP SIDE DOWN TAG DEFECTIVE
DRAW CORD DEFECTIVE TAG INCORRECT
DRAW CORD INCORRECT TAG MISSING
DRAW CORD MISSING TAG PLACEMENT OFF
DRAW CORD PLACEMENT OFF TAG UP SIDE DOWN
DRAW CORD UP SIDE DOWN THREAD DEFECTIVE
ELASTIC DEFECTIVE THREAD INCORRECT
ELASTIC INCORRECT THREAD MISSING
ELASTIC MISSING THREAD PLACEMENT OFF
ELASTIC PLACEMENT OFF THREAD UP SIDE DOWN
ELASTIC UP SIDE DOWN VELCRO DEFECTIVE
EYELET DEFECTIVE VELCRO INCORRECT
EYELET INCORRECT VELCRO MISSING
EYELET MISSING VELCRO PLACEMENT OFF
EYELET OXIDIZED VELCRO UP SIDE DOWN
EYELET PLACEMENT OFF WHEEL DEFECTIVE
EYELET UP SIDE DOWN WHEEL INCORRECT
HANDLE DEFECTIVE WHEEL MISSING
HANDLE INCORRECT WHEEL OXIDIZED
HANDLE MISSING WHEEL PLACEMENT OFF
HANDLE OXIDIZED WHEEL UP SIDE DOWN
HANDLE PLACEMENT OFF ZIPPER DEFECTIVE
HANDLE UP SIDE DOWN ZIPPER INCORRECT
HOOK & EYE DEFECTIVE ZIPPER MISSING
HOOK & EYE INCORRECT ZIPPER OXIDIZED
HOOK & EYE MISSING ZIPPER PLACEMENT OFF
HOOK & EYE OXIDIZED ZIPPER UP SIDE DOWN
HOOK & EYE PLACEMENT OFF POLY BAG INCORRECT
HOOK & EYE UP SIDE DOWN POLY BAG MISSING
LABEL DEFECTIVE POLY BAG DAMAGED
LABEL INCORRECT POLY BAG LABEL INCORRECT
LABEL MISSING POLY BAG LABEL MISSING
LABEL PLACEMENT OFF POLY BAG LABEL DAMAGED
LABEL UP SIDE DOWN POLYBAG LABEL PLACE’T OFF
PATCH DEFECTIVE INFERIOR HF WELDED/PEELOF
PATCH INCORRECT LOOP/D-RING INSECURE
PATCH MISSING EYELET CRACKAGE-FOOTWEAR
PATCH PLACEMENT OFF MALFUNCTION BOA
PATCH UP SIDE DOWN BROKEN LACE TAG
POLE DEFECTIVE MISALIGNED BOA EYESTAY
POLE INCORRECT INCORRECT CABLE LENGTH-FW
POLE MISSING MALFUNCTIONING FIT AID SY
POLE OXIDIZED POORLY SECURED PLASTIC SC
POLE PLACEMENT OFF MISSING LOGO
POLE UP SIDE DOWN DEFECTIVE LOGO
RIVET DEFECTIVE INCORRECT LOGO
RIVET INCORRECT OFFPLACED LOGO
RIVET MISSING RIVET PLACEMENT OFF

5. Packing Defect

CARTON DAMAGED MISSING TAG
CARTON PROTUBERATED MIXED COLOR
CARTON QUALITY POOR MIXED PO#
CARTON SIZE INCORRECT MIXED SIZE
CASE LABEL CORRECTION OVER WEIGHT
CASE LABEL INCORRECT INCORRECT TAG
INCORRECT BARCODE INCORRECT GMT PACKED
INCORRECT COLOR INCORRECT POLYBAG PRINT
INCORRECT COUNT MISSED SELICA GEL
INCORRECT FOLDING INCORRECT INNER BOX
INCORRECT SHIPPING MARK MISMATCHED ODD PAIR-FOOTW
INCORRECT SIZE MISS SHOE TREE SUPPORT-FW
INCORRECT PO# INFERIOR POLYBAG
MISSING DETACHABLE ACCESY EMPTY INNER BOX
MISSING GARMENT TEST REPT MISSED HANGER
MISSING PLASTIC STRAP TORN/DAMAGED/WRINKLED LAB
MISSING STICKER POOR ADHESION OF LABEL
MISSED SHOES DIRT MARKS

6. Fit and Measurement Defect

After crossing certain limit garments measurement, there will be defect. There are defined measurement of all parts of garments. I have make an example how measurement up down expressing:

– 1 1/4″ – 3/8″
 – 1 1/2″  – 5/8″
 – 1 3/4″  – 7/8″
 – 2″  – 1 1/8″
 – 2 1/4″  – 1 3/8″
 – 2 1/2″  – 1 5/8″
 – 2 3/4″  – 1 7/8″
 – 3″  – 2 1/8″
 – MORE THAN 3″  – 2 3/8″
 + 1/4″  – 2 5/8″
 + 1/2″  – 2 7/8″
 + 3/4″  + 1/8″
 + 1″  + 3/8″
 + 1 1/4″  + 5/8″
 + 1 1/2″  + 7/8″
 + 1 3/4″  + 1 1/8″
 + 2″  + 1 3/8″
 + 2 1/4″  + 1 5/8″
 + 2 1/2″  + 1 7/8″
 + 2 3/4″  + 2 1/8″
 + 3″  + 2 3/8″
 + MORE THAN 3″  + 2 5/8″
 – 1/8″  + 2 7/8″

 

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

Facebook: Amirul Islam Washim

Phone: +8801929643301
E-mail: [email protected]

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