Operation Breakdown, SMV and Layout of Chino Pant Manufacturing

Operation Breakdown, SMV and Layout of Chino Pant Manufacturing

Chino Pants is one of the commonly worn cloth preferable by both male and female as a casual dress which is made from 100% cotton. Trouser is a well-known product which is a chino pant. Here in this article, you will have a detailed idea of operation breakdown, SMV and layout of chino pant manufacturing. For chino pant total SMV is 36.86 and number of operator and helper requirement is 92.

Chino Pant

Chino Pant manufacturing

Operation Breakdown Sheet of Chino Pant

1Match & join back rise4TH/OL0.361
2Mark for back dartMNL0.240.241
3Make back dart & top edges tackSNLS0.661
4Welt pocket position markMNL0.440.441
5Fusing attach & half fold pocket welts n markIRON0.401
6Attach pocket welts & bagSNLS1.102
7Cut to form pocket fishtailsMNL0.700.701
8Attach pocket linerSNLS0.551
9Secure fishtailsSNLS0.641
10Neaten pocket welt4TH/OL0.321
11Topstitch pocket weltsSNLS0.521
12Pocket bag close4TH/OL0.681
13Secure pocket bag cornersSNLS0.801
14Pocket topstitch with cornerSNLS0.802
15Secure welt corner×4B/T0.401
16Patch label position markMNL0.180.181
17Attach patch labelSNLS0.401
18Piping cut [Full body]PC0.361
19Mark for front pleatMNL0.240.241
20Make front pleatSNLS0.361
21Fussing attach pocket facing & Cap edgesIRON0.521
22Pocket facing attach at both side & edges closeSNLS1.502
23Mark n Pocket liner attach to positionSNLS0.701
24Pocket corner snip & turnMNL0.400.401
25Pocket opening 1/16 topstitchSNLS0.501
26Turn n Pocket opening 1/4 topstitch with cornerSNLS0.681
27Pocket bag fold & close4TH/OL0.451
28Secure pocket bag OL seamSNLS0.241
29Pocket bag close to sideSNLS0.451
30Pocket bag staystitch to waistSNCS0.301
31Fusing attach at fly & fly boxIRON0.241
32Fly box serging3TH O/L0.201
33Make double flySNLS0.401
34Fly turn & pressIRON0.261
35Fron pannel rise serging4TH/OL0.251
36Attach Single fly to frontSNLS0.331
37Bluffstitch Single fly joinSNLS0.301
38Zipper puller secure tackSNLS0.161
39Attach zipper to single fly with zipper markSNLS0.361
40Zipper join topstitchSNLS0.301
41Front pannel matchMNL0.260.261
42Zipper attach to front with markSNLS0.361
43Zipper attach topstitchSNLS0.321
44Double fly attach to frontSNLS0.351
45Front crotch attachSNLS0.261
46Front rise join4TH/OL0.261
47Piping attach at single fly & cut1FL/BIN0.251
48Fly secure at waist & piping secure at crotchSNLS0.361
49Sew ‘J’ stitch by mark/patternSNLS0.351
50Fly secure mark n tackSNLS0.241
51Front n back part match & side markMNL0.560.561
52Piping make & cutSNLS0.361
53Piping attach at front & back side togetherSNLS0.852
54Side seam join4TH/OL0.701
55Inseam join4TH/OL0.701
56Crotch point secureB/T0.161
57Fusing attach at waist bandIRON0.341
58Innerside WB piping attach & cut1FL/BIN0.401
59Waistband fold & pressIRON0.351
60Fusing attach at waist loop with folderIRON0.251
61Loop make & turn1FL/BIN0.401
62Loop press & cut to lengthIRON0.401
63Loop position mark at waist & arrangeMNL0.450.451
64Loop tack to body (5X2)SNLS1.002
65Waist belt edge tack to bodySNLS0.301
66Waist band attachSNLS0.752
67Waist band mouth mark & excess cutMNL0.320.321
68Waist band mouth close & turnSNLS0.651
69Label position markMNL0.160.161
70Label makeSNLS0.161
71Label attach at waistSNLS0.401
72WB bind edge tack to inside & close edgeSNLS0.401
73Waist band closeSNLS0.752
74Sticker remove & gmts turnMNL0.260.261
75Waist band mark & button attach X1 +1 spareB/A0.301
76Mark n form button hole X1B/H0.201
77Mark for loop high-low positionMNL0.400.401
78Loop top edge tack to WB X5SNLS0.601
79Secure loop top & bottomB/T1.002
80Pocket opening secureB/T0.401
81J stitch secureB/T0.161
82Legs hem2FL/ CY0.531
83Final thred trimming & button & ZIP closeMNL0.500.502

Number of Operator and Helper Requirement

CodeMachine nameQuantity
SNLSSingle Needle Lock Stitch46
SNCSSingle Needle Chain Stitch1
3TH O/L3 Thread Over Lock1
4TH/OL4 Thread Over Lock8
2FL/ CY2 Needle Flat lock Cylinder Bed1
1FL/BIN1 Needle Flat lock Binding Machine3
B/AButton Attach1
B/HButton Hole1
B/TBar Tack6
IRONIron With Table8
MNLManual (Helper)15
PCPiping Cut1
Total Operator and Helper92

Written By
Sharmin Akther Diba
Industrial & Production Engineer
Rajshahi University of Engineering & Technology
Email: [email protected]
LinkedIn: Sharmin Akther Diba

Operation Breakdown, SMV and Layout of Blazer Manufacturing

A blazer is a type of jacked which is preferable by both male and female as a formal dress. Here in this article, you will have an idea of operation breakdown, SMV and layout of blazer manufacturing. As a garments (blazer) manufacturer you must know this. The total SMV is 21.85, Manpower requirement is 79 and the number of machines is 55.

Blazer Manufacturing

Operation Breakdown, SMV and Layout of Blazer Manufacturing

  • Working Hour: 1
  • Efficiency: 30
  • Pitch Time: .28
  • Target: 65
Seq. NoBody PartOperationResourceSMVTarget (100%)Layout MP
1PocketingPocket position markAssistant Operator0.481252
2PocketingFusing attach at pocket edgeSewing Iron0.203001
3PocketingPocket edge neaten3T OL Auto0.321881
4PocketingPocket hem1NDL FL0.381581
5PocketingPre Iron pocket edgesSewing Iron0.80753
6PocketingPocket attach X2SNL Auto1.50404
7PocketingPocket extra rawedge cutAssistant Operator0.601002
8AssemblyFront n back part matchAssistant Operator0.282141
9AssemblyShoulder Join with/ without tape4T OL Auto0.302001
10SleeveSleeve pannel attach4T OL Auto0.521152
11SleeveSleeve n Body matchAssistant Operator0.351711
12SleeveInsert Sleeves4T OL Auto0.561072
13SleeveFusing attach at sleeves openingSewing Iron0.203001
14SleeveSleeve edge neaten3T OL Auto0.361671
15SleeveSleeve hems- Flat1NDL FL0.401502
16SleeveSleeve hems Inner tackSNL Auto0.361671
17LabelCare Label MakeSNL Auto0.242501
18AssemblySide/sleeve seams ins care label- LS4T OL Auto0.80753
19AssemblyFusing attach at bottom n front opening,necklineSewing Iron0.601002
20AssemblyBottom edge neaten3T OL Auto0.401502
21AssemblyBottom hem1NDL FL0.451332
22CollarFusing attach at collar/collar standSewing Iron0.203001
23CollarCollar make4T OL Auto0.351711
24CollarBluffstitch collarSNL Auto0.351711
25FacingFusing attach at facingFusing M/C0.282141
26FacingFacing edge neaten5T OL0.451332
27FacingFacing edge secure4T OL Auto0.203001
28FacingFacing attach at front part4T OL Auto0.601002
29AssemblyFacing n body markAssistant Operator0.321881
30FacingBluffstitch facing join seamSNL Auto1.20504
31AssemblyFacing tack to bodySNL Auto0.302001
32CollarCollar markAssistant Operator0.203001
33CollarCollar stand edge close/ rolling stitchSNL Auto0.321881
34AssemblyBody markAssistant Operator0.222731
35CollarCollar tack at neckSNL Auto0.282141
36CollarCollar attach at neckSNL Auto0.451332
Operation Breakdown, SMV and Layout of Blazer Manufacturing

SMV Summary of Blazer Manufacturing

Sewing Helper6.08
Sewing Machine15.77
Sewing QI0.00
Finishing I/M0.00
Finishing QI0.00
Poly Helper0.00
Hand Tag0.00

Man Power Summary of Blazer Manufacturing

Sewing Helper24
Sewing Machine55
Sewing QI0
Finishing I/M0.00
Finishing QI0
Poly Helper0
Hand Tag0

Machine Summary of Blazer Manufacturing

3T OL Auto4
SNL Auto27
4T OL Auto13
Fusing M/C1
5T OL2
BH Auto2
BA Auto1

Written By
Sharmin Akther Diba
Industrial & Production Engineer
Rajshahi University of Engineering & Technology
Email: [email protected]
LinkedIn: Sharmin Akther Diba

Operation breakdown, SMV and layout of Shirt Manufacturing

The shirt is one of the commonly worn dress all over the world. For a target level of garments manufacturing, you need to identify the operation breakdown, manpower requirement, and machine requirement. So that you can do proper production planning. Here in this article, we will share Operation breakdown, SMV and layout of Shirt Manufacturing where Total SMV is 33.84, manpower requirement is 100 and the total machine required 81 unit.

Measurement Sheet of Shirt Manufacturing

Operation breakdown, SMV and layout of Shirt Manufacturing

  • Working Hour: 1
  • Efficiency: 28
  • Pitch Time: .31
  • Target: 55
Seq. NoBody PartOperationResourceSMVTarget (100%)Cycle Time(s)Layout MP
1PlacketFusing attach at front placketAssistant Operator0.4214325.201
2PlacketFront placket mark n pressSewing Iron0.758045.002
3PlacketPlacket make upperSNL Auto0.5411132.402
4PlacketPlacket make LowerSNL Auto0.5411132.402
5PlacketUpper placket 1/4 top- stitchSNL Auto0.4812528.802
6PlacketDeco. Placket pressSewing Iron0.3815822.801
7AssemblyFront n back part matchAssistant Operator0.2821416.801
8AssemblyShoulder join with/ without tape4T OL Auto0.3020018.001
9AssemblyShoulder topstitch1NDL FL0.2821416.801
10CollarFusing attach at collar/collar standSewing Iron0.4214325.202
11CollarCollar markAssistant Operator0.2030012.001
12CollarCollar makeSNL-VT0.837249.803
13CollarCorner cut n turn collarAssistant Operator0.3020018.001
14CollarCollar 1/4 topstitchSNL Auto0.5810334.802
15CollarCollar edge close n cutSNL-VT0.2821416.801
16CollarCollar band rollingSNL Auto0.3815822.801
17CollarMark n arrange match collar with bandAssistant Operator0.3517121.001
18CollarCollar attach with collar band sandwich stitchSNL-VT1.085664.803
19CollarCollar band turn n press with necessary scissoringSewing Iron0.3517121.001
20CollarCollar n neck markSNL Auto0.3218819.201
21CollarAttach collar to bodySNL Auto0.659239.002
22CollarCollar closeSNL Auto0.758045.002
23CollarCollar band topstitchSNL Auto0.5610733.602
24SleeveSleeve side seam4T OL Auto0.5510933.002
25SleeveSleeve side seam topstitch2T FL Auto0.629737.202
26AssemblySide seam join4T OL Auto0.5510933.002
27LabelCare Label makeSNL Auto0.2425014.401
28LabelCare label tack at sideSNL Auto0.2623115.601
29SleeveSleeve & Body sticker match & Sleeve tackSNL Auto0.5610733.602
30SleeveSleeve attach round4T OL Auto1.006060.003
31Back PartBottom hem edge rollingSNL Auto0.758045.002
32PlacketSleeve mark for placketAssistant Operator0.4413626.402
33SleeveSleeve cut for placketAssistant Operator0.4015024.001
34SleeveSleeve lower placket binding n trimsFlat Bed0.4114624.602
35PlacketSecure placket baseSNL Auto0.3020018.001
36PlacketSleeve upper placket fusing attach n half foldSewing Iron0.4214325.202
37PlacketUpper placket attach n 1/16 topstitchSNL Auto1.006060.003
38PlacketSleeve upper placket closeSNL Auto0.807548.003
39PlacketUpper placket 1/16 topstitchSNL Auto0.5610733.602
40PlacketSleeve placket fishtail secureSNL Auto0.728343.202
41PlacketSleeve placket box makeSNL Auto1.085664.803
42PlacketPleat make with mark at sleeve openingSNL Auto0.649438.402
43CuffFusing attach at cuffAssistant Operator0.2821416.801
44CuffCuff rollingSNL Auto0.4513327.002
45CuffCuff mark n makeSNL Auto0.956357.003
46CuffCuff turn n press with necessary scissoringSewing Iron0.4015024.001
47CuffCuff mark n match arrange with bodyAssistant Operator0.4015024.001
48AssemblyCuff attach at sleeve openingSNL Auto0.837249.803
49CuffCuff closeSNL Auto0.966357.603
50CuffCuff top-stitchSNL Auto0.758045.002
51AssemblySticker remove and GMTs turnAssistant Operator0.2623115.601
52AssemblyButton hole position markAssistant Operator0.787746.802
53PlacketButton hole make at Sleeve placket X4BH Auto0.5411132.402
54PlacketButton hole make at front placket X9BH Auto1.264875.603
55AssemblyButton position markAssistant Operator0.986158.803
56PlacketButton attach at placket X9 + Spare X1BA Auto1.205072.003
57SleeveButton attach at sleeve placket X4BH Auto0.4812528.802
58AssemblyButton closeAssistant Operator0.5510933.002
59AssemblyThread trimsAssistant Operator0.4513327.002
Operation breakdown, SMV and layout of Shirt Manufacturing

SMV Summary of Shirt Manufacturing

Sewing Helper8.81
Sewing Machine25.03
Sewing QI0.00
Finishing I/M0.00
Finishing QI0.00
Poly Helper0.00
Hand Tag0.00

Man Power Summary of Shirt Manufacturing

Sewing Helper29
Sewing Machine81
Sewing QI0
Finishing I/M0.00
Finishing QI0
Poly Helper0
Hand Tag0

Machine Summary of Shirt Manufacturing

SNL Auto51
4T OL Auto8
2T FL Auto2
Flat Bed2
BH Auto7
BA Auto3

Written By
Sharmin Akther Diba
Industrial & Production Engineer
Rajshahi University of Engineering & Technology
Email: [email protected]
LinkedIn: Sharmin Akther Diba

QMS Department Job Responsibilities of Garments Industry

QMS Department Job Responsibilities of Garments Industry

Garments QMS Department

QMS is a quality management system based on customer requirements, system, and management of quality control and assurance.  Garments manufacturers have to comply with buyer QMS / Technical Requirements, no way to avoid it if they want to continue business buyer. QMS or technical audit score effect on business, lower scores factory lose orders or marked in reject list one time. All buyers set QMS guideline for their vendor/ Supplier. QMS department is responsible for buyer QMS requirements implementation. QMS Audit is also known as Technical Audit in the apparel industry. QMS Audit going to be important like social compliance audit of Garments manufacturing factory.  Quality management system plays a vital role to Develop quality of the industry. QMS department is a part of quality engineering.  QMS department is Responsible for all quality, technical audit and process audit of the apparel industry.

Job Description of Garments QMS Department

  1. Follow up, monitor and supervise QMS requirements
  2. To run successfully QMS throughout the whole manufacturing unit from warehouse to shipment.
  3. Lead quality control and management system in cutting, sewing, and finishing
  4. Train up all quality inspector, quality staff about basic quality requirements, quality concept, and quality policy.
  5. Develop quality SOP, quality Manual for good quality management.
  6. Total Quality Management, Implementation and Continual Improvement.
  7. Implement all technical requirement of the buyer for technical audit.
  8. Doing internal QMS/ Technical Audit being internal auditor, work with all section head for improvement.
  9. Keep all quality documentation & SOP of quality.
  10. Manage & monitor trims & accessories inspection department & work with the merchandising team to reduce defects from the supplier end.
  11. Implement 5S housekeeping in workplace and train every department about 5S.
  12. Manage & monitor sample department for on-time sample submission, quality & changes in the sample for better productivity & quality.
  13. Manage & monitor quality department of Cutting, Sewing & Finishing sections.
  14. Implementation of appropriate Quality procedure in every section & manpower based on it.
  15. Manage & monitor training for all quality personnel for better quality.
  16. Work with Buying QC for a better understanding of quality requirement & present during the audit.
  17. All types of Quality Metrics & KPI reporting
  18. Conduct technical, quality seminar and coaching.
  19. Technical Files and Document Control
  20. Implement Lean manufacturing and Six Sigma to improve quality.
  21. Implement traffic light system in the sewing line to track and control operator wise defect.

Skills Needed for QMS Job

  • Quality troubleshooting
  • Critical problem solving
  • Good analytical knowledge
  • Statistical analysis
  • Good communication skill
  • Technical skill on the quality issue
  • Statistical and data-driven quality control
  • Good command on excel and PowerPoint

QMS Job Designations of Garments

Those jobs are available in Bangladesh to do work QMS department of Garments; woven, knit and sweater factory.

  • QMS responsible
  • QMS officer
  • Internal Auditor QMS
  • QMS Auditor
  • QMS Executive
  • QMS Assistant Manager
  • QMS Manager
  • QMS coordinator
  • QMS consultant
  • QMS Head

Written by
A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)
Email: [email protected]
Linkedin: A.M. Amirul Islam

CM Analysis and Feedback of Garments

CM Analysis and Feedback of Garments

This analysis is done in a famous knit factory of Bangladesh based on SMV, CM, and efficiency. SMV -efficiency variance, CM earning and loss report also included in this analysis. Hope this article would help you.

Dec’18 to Feb ’19 all unit DPR summary

  1. Total Sewing quantity: 14.28 M PCs
  2. Average MKT SMV/PCs: 8.93
  3. Average Sew SMV/PCs: 8.72
  4. Average Layout MP(OP+HLP): 36
  5. Average Used MP(OP+HLP): 38
  6. Average Expected Efficiency: 44.93%
  7. Average Achieved Efficiency: 42.54%
  8. Average MKT CM/DZn: $8.60
  9. Average PLAN TGT CM/DZn: $11.72
  10. Average SEW CM/DZn (USED)       :  $13.52
  11. MKT Vs Plan Tgt CM Variance: $3933.0123 M
  12. MKT Vs Used CM Variance: $6192.5275 M
  13. Plan Tgt Vs Used CM Variance: $2259.5151 M

Dec’18 to Feb’19 unit-01 DPR summary

  1. Total Sewing quantity: 5.49 M PCs
  2. Average MKT SMV: 8.44
  3. Average Sew SMV: 8.26
  4. Average Layout MP(OP+HLP): 34
  5. Average Used MP(OP+HLP): 42
  6. Average Expected Efficiency: 48.61%
  7. Average Achieved Efficiency: 35.74%
  8. Average MKT CM/DZn: $8.20
  9. Average PLAN TGT CM/DZn: $9.62
  10. Average SEW CM/DZn (USED)           :  $14.61
  11. MKT Vs Plan Tgt CM Variance: $228.0043 M
  12. MKT Vs Used CM Variance: $1024.7610 M
  13. Plan  Tgt Vs Used CM Variance: $796.7567M

Dec’18 to Feb’19 unit-02 DPR summary

  1. Total Sewing quantity: 4.14 M PCs
  2. Average MKT SMV/PCs: 9.30
  3. Average Sew SMV/PCs: 9.05
  4. Average Layout MP(OP+HLP): 37
  5. Average Used MP(OP+HLP): 33
  6. Average Expected Efficiency: 43.08%
  7. Average Achieved Efficiency: 52.08%
  8. Average MKT CM/DZn: $8.68
  9. Average PLAN TGT CM/DZn: $12.84
  10. Average SEW CM/DZn (USED)       :  $9.87
  11. MKT Vs Plan Tgt CM Variance: $515.6169 M
  12. MKT Vs Used CM Variance: $147. 5045 M
  13. Plan  Tgt Vs Used CM Variance: $368.1123 M

Dec’18 to feb’19 unit-03 DPR summary

  1. Total Sewing quantity: 4.64 M PCs
  2. Average MKT SMV/PCs: 9.18
  3. Average Sew SMV/PCs: 8.97
  4. Average Layout MP(OP+HLP): 37
  5. Average Used MP(OP+HLP): 39
  6. Average Expected Efficiency: 43.16%
  7. Average Achieved Efficiency: 39.51%
  8. Average MKT CM/DZn: $8.92
  9. Average PLAN TGT CM/DZn: $12.68
  10. Average SEW CM/DZn (USED)       :  $16.19
  11. MKT Vs Plan Tgt CM Variance: $508.2320 M
  12. MKT Vs Used CM Variance: $982.4476 M
  13. Plan Tgt Vs Used Tgt CM Variance:  $474.2156 M

*Data Source

  1. Data based on the Daily Production Report(DPR)
  2. CM based on Finance dept. report
  3. CPM based on Finance dept. data (.0358 $)

CM Variance

CM Analysis and Feedback of Garments

Unit Wise CM Variance

Unit Wise CM Variance

Buyer Wise CM Variance

Buyer Wise CM Variance

Average Marketing VS Average Used CM

Average Marketing VS Average Used CM

Average Plan Target VS Average Used CM

Findings from Analysis

  • CM loss at Marketing  $3,933.0123 [Dec’18-Feb’19]. Only Buyer ‘Promodoro’ Marketing CM gain $5.8259.
  • Average Marketing SMV & Average Sewing SMV difference 0.21. SMV used in production less than Marketing, which is a positive fact to gain profit.
  • CM loss of Unit-01 & Unit-03 in production, use of more manpower than Marketing, the achievement of less efficiency than Marketing are the reasons for the loss in CM.
  • In Unit-02, efficiency gain (52.08%) is more than expected (43.08%) but used CM is more than Marketing & Less than Plan target CM.  If there was no loss during Marketing, CM gain would be profitable.
  • Efficiency variation avg 2.40% than expected which results in total CM loss.

Feedback from Analysis

  • CM based target need to establish for-profit gain in CM.
  • The capacity calculation/ projection should be followed by CM considering SMV, Manpower, Working hour, Efficiency as well as Quality.
  • CPM should be standardized/similar for all buyer & all units.

The Necessity of CM Based Target Set-up

  • Currently, Garments profit calculation based on FOB. But in practice, it is the total performance of Textile, Fabric finishing, sewing, printing, embroidery, Garments finishing, logistics, etc. & investors profit percentage, deficiency cost.
  • Profit calculation & evaluation will be equal for all units.
  • CM based target can be used for other units like Textile, AOP, Finishing, Dyeing, etc. to measure performance more precisely.

Pre-activities for CM Based Capacity Allocation which we Want to do for Future

  • Production floor should be Industrial Engineering database controlled.
  • 6S/7S Training & auditing system should be established for all employees of all departments.
  • Floor IE must know operation breakdown, CM & Efficiency analysis.
  • Line balancing, workstation standardization, lean management training needed for IE & production people also.
  • No modification in Line layout (SMV, MP, M/C) will happen by approval of Corporate IE department.
  • The cutting section should be IE based CM calculation to improve efficiency & gain profit from Cut-make section.
  • Finishing section should be IE based CM calculation to improve efficiency & gain profit from the make-trim section.
  • The textile sector should be IE based to reduce re-process & re-work. In the long run, it will gain more profit from the textile sector.
  • Printing IE activities will be vast to CM based capacity allocate for making it more precise in profit gain & efficiency achievement.
  • Other production units need to Industrial Engineering controlled to achieve target efficiency & profit.

A Positive Outcome from Proposed Implementation Ideas

  • There will be no CM loss during marketing stage. Use of similar CPM will lead the marketing team to work for plant target CM wise order taking.
  • CM loss will not happen in the production stage with proper manpower utilization, efficiency achievements; quality products by IE based production system.
  • CM profit is the core profit percentage of FOB & our factory profit margin will increase by proper implementation of IE-based activity in every sector.

Written By
Sharmin Akther Diba
Industrial & Production Engineer
Rajshahi University of Engineering & Technology
Email: [email protected]
LinkedIn: Sharmin Akther Diba

Sharmin Akther Diba
Industrial & Production Engineer
Rajshahi University of Engineering & Technology
Email: [email protected]
LinkedIn: Sharmin Akther Diba

Denim Washing Process

Denim Washing

Washing is a process which is done in denim garments for increasing its value. It also makes the garment comfortable for the users. Denim without a wash is not always user-friendly. Washing increases the outlook of denim garments added extra value to the customer. A better-washed product ensures a higer standard of denim. Purpose to purpose washing varies and outlook of denim also varies because of different washing methods.

Flow Chart of Denim Washing

Flow chart of Denim Washing, Denim Washing Process

Types of Denim Washing Process

There is two widely used process of washing denim. One is a dry process and other is a wet process.

Dry Process Wet Process
1.  Whiskering 1. Desizing
2.     Brushing 2. Enzyme
3.     Tacking 3. Acid Wash
4.     3DCrinkle 4. Bleaching
5.     P.PSpray 5. Neutralization
6.     Grinding 6. Rinse Wash
7.     Tie 7. Tint
8.     Twist 8. Over Dyeing
9.     Damage 9. Cleaning
10. Laser 10. Softening

Dry Process

This process is done in the unwashed condition. Basically, denim garments are treated here but nowadays twill garments are also treated.


Whisker is the most common dry process for denim garments. This is done by making a pattern and put the garments then remove the color from the pattern area. After wash, we can see the pattern mark. It is one kind of design on the garments.

Manual Whisker

This whisker is done in a manual way with the help of a pattern. On denim garments, we have done it by abrasive paper.

Material Needed for Manual whisker

  1. Pattern
  2. Abrasive paper
    For work, a worker is used different types of abrasive paper. Like as –
    I) P-320 (for very rough surface)
    II) P-400 (for very rough surface)
    III) P-600(for less rough surface)
    IV) P-800 (for medium surface)
  3. Marking Chalk

The Procedure of Manual whisker

  • Put the whisker pattern into the garments
  • Then rub the pattern area according to standard intensity by abrasive paper
  • Quality check

Laser Whisker

This whisker is done by laser machine. Here, garments specific area are burned by imposing laser with high intensity. After wash, the burned indigo color will be removed and whisker effect will be visible.

The Procedure of Laser Whisker

  • Making the design by Photoshop/illustrator
  • Put the garments on the machine surface
  • Set the intensity of the burn
  • Burn the garments
  • Quality check

Required Equipment’s for Laser Whisker

  1. Laser Machine
  2. Leather hand gloves and goggles for safety.

Hand Scrapping

This process is used to remove/fade the color from a specific area of the garments with an abrasive paper. The faded effect is nicely visible after wash.

Required Tools for Hand Scrapping

  1. Abrasive paper
  2. Dummy
  3. Chalk for marking and masks

Working Procedure of Hand Scrapping

  1. Specify the area
  2. Put the garments into dummy
  3. Scrapping with emery paper
  4. Quality checking

P.P Spray

Potassium Permanganate is sprayed on the garments at a specific area. Garments are placed on a dummy first and then pp spraying is done with the help of gun by air pressure. After that garments are dried and finally neutralize it to get the desired effect.

Materials Needed for P.P Spray

  • Spray gun.
  • PP solution
  • Air pressure
  • Mask

The procedure of P.P Spray

  • Placement on dummy
  • Spraying
  • Drying
  • Neutralization
  • Quality check


Tagging or tacking is the process which is done at the unwashed condition of garments. After wash, we will get its effect. The maximum time we will do it at edge area by folding the garments. Sometimes this process damages the garments by creating a hole.

Materials Needed for Tagging

  • Tag gun
  • Tag pin
  • Chalk
  • Hand Gloves

Procedure of Tagging

  • Marking the garments
  • Fold the garments as per standard
  • Then tag the garments
  • Quality check


This process is done by pen grinding machine which destroys only the warp yarns of the fabrics or garments. The destroy look on the garments is best viewed after washing.

Necessary Tools to Destroy

  • Pen grinding machine
  • Marking Chalk
  • Pattern board
  • Hand gloves
  • Masks

Working Procedure of Destroy

  • Marking the area
  • Destruct the garments by pen grinder
  • Check the quality


This process is done at edges area of garments. If the garments require two-time wash in that case grinding is done after the first wash to avoid the damages of garments.

Materials Needed for Grinding

  • Grinding machine
  • Hand gloves for safety.

Procedure of Grinding

  • Run the machine
  • Touching the edge of garments according to standard.
  • Quality Check.


This process is done by crinkle machine or by manual clipping of a specific area and the effect is more visible at front and back knee area.

2D Crinkle

This process is done by crinkle machine or by manual clipping of a specific area and the effect is more visible at front and back knee area. In this process, the two-dimensional effect is produced.

Material Needed for Crinkle

  • Crinkle machine
  • Resin
  • Clip
  • White fabric

Process flow of 2D Crinkle

  • Applying Resin
  • Garment Placement on machine
  • Squeeze the garments
  • Keep it up to retention time (Curing)
  • Quality Check.

3D Crinkle

This effect is found by the special treatments of garments. By this system, the 3-dimensional effect is produced. The final is more visible after washing the garments.

Tools used in 3D Crinkle

  • 3D crinkle machine
  • Resin
  • White fabric

The procedure of 3D Crinkle

  • Apply resin
  • Placement into dummy
  • Make 3D crinkle as per standard
  • Pre-cure the garments at 90 degrees C
  • Taken out the garments from the machine
  • Put into curing oven for full cure
  • Quality check

Wet Process

This types of processes are done at the wet condition. There are so many stages in the wet process.

Normal Wash

This wash is the combination of rinse wash and softener wash.

The purposes of Normal Wash

  • To remove dust, oil spot, and other impurities.
  • To make the garments soft.

Problems of Normal Wash

  • Sometimes pocket staining may occur.
  • Colorfastness may be failing.
  • Tone change if wash time is increased.

Enzyme Wash

In this wash, the enzyme is used to create the desired effect. They work basically on the surface of the fabric. The enzyme may be neutral or acidic according to the requirement of shade. The main benefits of using enzyme are that it is biodegradable and hence eco-friendly.

Purpose of Enzyme wash

  • To remove size and starch materials.
  • To make the garments softer.
  • To improve fastness and anti-pilling properties.

Stone Enzyme Wash

Stone and Enzyme are used together for washing. Heavy abrasion occurs in this wash. Typically done for Denim garments.

Problems of Stone Enzyme Wash

  • Sometimes metal may be found after using stone.
  • Hem and seam area can be damaged.

Bleach Wash

In bleach wash, a strong oxidative bleaching agent is added during the washing, with or without pumice stones.

Acid Wash

Acid washing or ice washing is usually done by dry tumbling the garments with pumice stones presoaked in an acid solution.

Problems of Acid Wash

  • Wide variation in effect.
  • PP spot may come.
  • Garments can be damaged due to vigorous action.

Specifications of Front Loading Machine

Washing Capacity 30kg
Drum Size(diameter*depth) 900*500mm
Drum Volume 315L
Washing Speed 37rpm
High Extractor Speed 750rpm
Extractor G Value 285
Motor Power 4kW
Inverter Power 5.5kW

Specifications of Top Loading Machine

Washing Capacity 25kg
Drum Size(diameter*depth) 850*450mm
Drum Volume 290L
Washing Speed 34rpm
High Extractor Speed 680rpm
Extractor G Value 255
Motor Power 3.5kW
Inverter Power 2.5kW
Electric Heating Power 20kW
Steam Consumption Ratio 0.7kg/kg

Specifications of Hydro Extractor Machine

Type/Parameter Model : TG-25
Capacity 25kg
Speed 820rpm
Diameter of Drum (diameter x depth) 570×290mm
Motor Power 1.1kW
Rated Voltage 380V/50HZ/3 P; 220V/60HZ/3 P; 400V/50HZ/3 P; 415V/50HZ/3 P
Width 950mm
Depth 900mm
Height 650mm
Weight 350kg

Another Specifications of Hydro Extractor Machine

Type/Parameter Model : RA-29
Capacity 30kg
Speed 850rpm
The diameter of Drum (diameter x depth) 590×3000mm
Motor Power 1.3kW
Rated Voltage 380V/50HZ/3 P; 220V/60HZ/3 P; 400V/50HZ/3 P; 415V/50HZ/3 P
Width 990mm
Depth 950mm
Height 600mm
Weight 350kg

Related Article You May Love to Read

  1. Garments washing
  2. Washing Defects
  3. R&D Department of Garments washing
  4. Sand Blasting washing
  5. ETP Plant setting up a process for Garments washing
  6. ETP process flow chart of washing

Written by
A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)
Email: [email protected]
Linkedin: A.M. Amirul Islam

Operator Grade Assessment in Apparel

Operator Grade Assessment and Improvement in Apparel

Objectives of Grade Operator Assessment

  • To assess 6th-grade operator’s operational performance.
  • To assess 6th-grade operators HR & behavioral performance.
  • To improve 6th grade to 5th grade based on performance from the evaluation.
  • To improve an operator’s skill, create motivation and enhance overall organizational efficiency.

Assessment Criteria (Marks and Grade)

Score (Out of 100) OP – 60 & HR – 40Grade
Above 75A
55.01 to 75B
35 to 55C
Below 30D

Assessment Base Consideration (Operational Performance)

  • Out of 100 assessment marks, 60 marks allocated
  • Types of operation (basic, medium, critical operation)
  • Number of operations performed (no of different operations)
  • Operation wise efficiency (different operations wise efficiency)
  • Minimum number of operations -03 (an operator must attain min 03 different operations)

Measurement of Operational Performance

Type Process Marking Efficiency Level Total Efficiency Mark Mark Per Efficiency (%)
Basic Below 40% = 0 41% – 100% 60 1
Medium Below 30% = 0 31% – 90% 60 1
Critical Below 25% = 0 26% – 85% 60 1

Assessment Base Consideration (HR and Behavioral Performance)

  • Out of 100 assessment marks, 40 marks allocated
  • Types of HR performance criteria (absent, late, lunch out, disciplinary action)
  • Score deduction based on negative performance

Measurement of HR & Behavioral Performance

Parameter Consideration Mark Per Day Marks Deduct
Absent 25 Days/Year 20 .80 for 1 Day
Late 25 Days/Year 10 .40 for 1 Day
Lunch Out 12 Days/Year 5 .42 for 1 Day
Disciplinary 2 Letter/Year 5 2.5 for 1 Letter

Example (For 4 Grades Assessment)

Card No. Employee Name Designation Performance (60) Absent (20) Late (10) Lunch Out (5) Disciplinary Action (5) Total Score Grade
100501 Ms. Khadiza Gen. O.L.O 53.67 17.6 8.8 4.58 5 89.65 A
100575 Ms. Tahmina Gen. O.L.O 34.33 20 10 5 5 74.33 B
100887 Ms. Tania Gen. O.L.O 13.67 18.4 8.4 5 5 50.47 C
100972 Ms. Maria Gen. O.L.O 8 10.4 0.8 4.58 5 28.78 D

Example (Grade Variation Because of Unsatisfactory Performance)

Grade Operator Assessment and Grade Improvement in Apparel

Proposal Based on Evaluation

  • Grade improvement based on evaluation (6th grade to 5th grade from current -govt. pay structure gross 8420 Tk/month to 8875 Tk/month)
  • Monitoring, assessment & evaluation from operational, HR & behavioral performance we can offer extra efficiency increment/ performance reward increment as per grading.
  • Proposed reward increment: grade a-100 Tk, grade b-75 Tk, grade c-50 Tk, and graded need training & re-assessment.

Written by:

Sharmin Akther Diba
Industrial & Production Engineer
Rajshahi University of Engineering & Technology
Email: [email protected]
LinkedIn: Sharmin Akther Diba

Lean Manufacturing Initiatives in Apparel Industry

Lean Manufacturing Initiatives in Apparel Industry


This article is about very basic of lean manufacturing, definition, principle, importance, and steps how you take initiatives to introduce to lean manufacturing in your garments manufacturing industry. Hope this writing would help you to get an idea of Lean Manufacturing initiatives.

Lean Manufacturing Initiatives in Apparel Industry

What is Lean?

A lean is a way of maximization of the benefit by ensuring proper utilization of resources without increasing its cost or wasting any materials. This is a systematic approach to minimizing the cost of any process that can be applicable for production or service-oriented companies. Lean manufacturing is nowadays commonly used the term in the apparel industry. The main objective is to reduce the production cost of garments. Although all companies using a systematic approach of lean manufacturing to reduce the wastage and maximize productivity but they do not name as a lean. Finally, we can say lean is a tool that uses a systematic approach to minimize the production cost which ultimately increases the productivity and overall profit of the company.

Principles of Lean Manufacturing

  1. Recognition of waste
  2. Standard the process
  3. Continuous flow
  4. Pull production
  5. Quality at source
  6. Continuous improvements
  7. Value-define by the customer
  8. Perfection

Why Lean is Important for the Company?

  1. It helps to eliminate the waste
  2. Makes a better environment at home & office.
  3. Change the culture
  4. Better understanding
  5. Productivity improvement
  6. Better quality
  7. To take the challenge of future business

Steps of Lean Manufacturing

  1. Value stream mapping
  2. Kaizen- continuous development
  3. Workplace organization-5s
  4. Quick change over- small quantity
  5. Overall equipment effectiveness- maximum utilization of people instead of mc
  6. Pull production
  7. Kanban– instruction card
  8. Six Sigma- statistical method of systemic analyze to reduce process variation use damic.
  9. Total productive maintenance- all level of function to maximize OEE
  10. Cellular manufacturing

Keys to Lean Success

  1. Prepare & motivate people
  2. Employee involvement
  3. Identify & empower champions
  4. Atmosphere of experiments

Lean Manufacturing Initiatives for Garments Manufacturing

  1. Lean awareness meeting
  2. data gathering  analysis
  3. Gathering data’s from the store, cutting
  4. Gathering data’s from sewing & finishing
  5. Gathering data’s from washing
  6. Train the core team about the lean concept
  7. Material & information flow from store ship
  8. Send all the report to assessment by lean responsible
  9. Draw the Value Stream Mapping of SIL the Current state
  10. Draw the Value Stream Mapping of SWWL the Current state
  11. Get the assessment report
  12. Describe how to make the lean storyboard, waste poster & others
  13. Describe how to make the presentation
  14. Design the Lean storyboard and the project office
  15. Design new posters related to the waste Illustration
  16. Gather the first Core implementation Team and assign them the task to find out the waste in their departments.
  17. Fill the Waste posters with them according to the type of waste under related departments
  18. Reevaluate the assessment data Washing only(inventory)
  19. Set a training calendar for middle management split into four sessions of training
  20. Develop the first presentation for top and middle management
  21. Arrange the first Training session-1 for the management(recognize the waste)
  22. Evaluate the marks.
  23. Analyze the process razing at the cutting
  24. Analyze the process razing at  the washing
  25. Draw the Value Stream Mapping of the Current state
  26. Develop the Future Value Stream Mapping
  27. Develop the second presentation for top and middle management
  28. Arrange the  Training session-2 for the management(How to see the waste)
  29. Evaluate the marks.
  30. Develop the third presentation for top and middle management
  31. Arrange the  Training session-3 for the management(How to think)
  32. Evaluate the marks.
  33. Develop the fourth presentation for top and middle management
  34. Arrange the Training session-4 for the management(How to develop)
  35. Evaluate the marks.
  36. Plan session with management to find the root cause of the each and every waste
  37. Fill the “Tools” sheet in “Kaizen event Master file” with the root causes and send to Lean leader
  38. Visit for the role of the steering committee for lean
  39. Team selection, leader selection & their activities training/ meeting with steering committee/ making operator training calendar/ train the operator for lean/5s, etc.
  40. start operator training for multiskilling/make format for training/ 5s in Bangla/ Arrange training program for staffs for Needs for change/discuss with all PM for process standardization&  sledding. Inform lean officer for next presentation/ training session with all line chief & floor managers
  41. Training program for Composition of SMV/ cross training for operator/attachments for a machine.
  42. Training program for Types of waste/ wasteful motions/ cross training for operator/attachments for machine/ searching machine
  43. Training program for practical waste full motion on the line/ Charles assessment review & findings.
  44. Conduct a meeting for Economical & simultaneous motion/ Quality system of the line.
  45. Training program for Engineering sheet / Line chief& supervisor/ Martine visit the factory / Cross training for the operator
  46. Training program for machine adjustment/ Training program for calculation KPI’s / Line chief& supervisor/ Martine visit the factory / Cross training for the operator/ 4th training session for steering committee “How to Develop?”
  47. Report making / Marking & evaluation/  and visit the plant
  48. Team selection from finishing, leader selection & their activities training/  train the operator for lean/5s, etc.
  49. Start training session for team #A for just in time/ Understand 5s
  50. Training program for Composition of SMV & workplace development/different types of waste in the workplace & how to create continuous flow/ discuss with Mr.  Aminul regarding QA procedure & arrange a meeting for continuous movement of the garments.
  51. Training about wasteful motion(theory & practical)
  52. Lean awareness training for finishing team A QC’s, Lean awareness training for team # 10 front & bk at(2 to 3 pm & assemble 3-4 pm).
  53. Economical & simultaneous Motion for the team leader, supervisor in finishing team #A, a Quality system of the line & product training for the team leaders & supervisors. Train the operator QA, sup of team # 5 in two groups (front & bk 2to 3 & assemble 3-4 pm)
  54. Training about operation breakdown, critical path, quality & tool (work aids), worker balance, Layout & machine requirements.
  55. Training in finishing Btn area for 5s & lean concept & cross training in team #A

Related article you may love to read

Implementation of Lean Manufacturing in Garments Factory

Written by
A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)
Email: [email protected]
Linkedin: A.M. Amirul Islam

Job Responsibilities of Inline Quality Inspector

Job Responsibilities of Inline Quality Inspector of Apparel Industry

Job Responsibilities of Inline Quality Inspector of Apparel Industry

Inline Quality Inspector

The inline quality inspector checks garments in-process sewing and finishing production line. End product quality depends on inline quality control which done as soon as an operation complete, it can be called online quality control. If inline quality inspector gets a defect, the product never goes the next process without rectification, that’s the importance of Inline quality control because ratification of end garments is almost impossible. 

Responsibilities of Inline Quality Inspector of Garments

  1. Check the complete operations necessary for passing a new style.
  2. Must keep a measuring tape, specs sheets, Alter stickers and inline reports during the inline checking.
  3. Make sure either all terms are available or not.
  4. Make sure cleanliness of the machines
  5. If any needle is making holes then must change it and use the needle according to the requirement of the garment.
  6. Point out the damaged (out of order) machines and try to make in order
  7. Otherwise, take the machine out of flow or mark it as (out of order).
  8. Check the sewing thread shades according to PPC file and matching.
  9. Must check the garments that either these are according to quality standards after the maintenance of machines.
  10. Confirm the trims attachments are passed e.g. Collar cuff, tapes, buttons, labels Placket, and sleeves, etc.
  11. Must Check and confirm the proper placement of HTL labels, pockets and printing or embroidery.
  12. Check all the bundles in this manner that 100% of every bundle must be checked.
  13. Confirm the stitching alterations must be done right after QC inspection.
  14. Sign the bundles’ barcode after completion.
  15. During inline inspection If continues fault immediately inform to production /quality supervisor to take corrective action urgently.
  16. An inline inspector must check the most highlighted area (fault) according to the QC supervisor instructions and must check the computer number of the operator at the back of barcode before sign it.

Tools Required by Inline Inspector

  1. Appropriate inspection table/area with appropriate lighting
  2. Approved Sample / Sewing Reference Garment
  3. Stitch Counter 4-SAM sheet
  4. PPC file
  5. Trims card
  6. Reporting page
  7. Pen
  8. Measuring Tape
  9. Faults’ sticker
  10. SAM sheet
  11. PPC file

Written by
A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)
Email: [email protected]
Linkedin: A.M. Amirul Islam

Operation Breakdown, SMV and Layout of Jogger Manufacturing

Operation Breakdown, SMV and Layout of Jogger Manufacturing Process

Jogger with Welt Pocket and Panel

A jogger is a casual bottom item; Welt pocket is an inside pocket with bone covered in the mouth. Here given all operation list sequence wise of jogger manufacturing. Here jogger total SMV is 19.61, 72 manpower required.
This Operation Breakdown is done by LOGIC ERP software, used to prepare operation bulletin & m/c layout & others departmental jobs as well.  There is a data bank, style SMV analysis, machine layout & operation balancing. This LOGIC ERP database can be linked with other software & web for different uses. 

Operation Balancing Sheet of Jogging Pant
Seq. NoBody PartOperationResourceSMVTarget (100%)Cycle Time(s)Theoretical MPLayout MP
1Front PartFront leg panel attach4T OL Auto1.444286.45.335
2NeckMatch n Back panel attach4T OL Auto1.444286.45.335
3Front PartFront Rise join4T OL Auto0.3200181.111
4Back PartBack rise join4T OL Auto0.3200181.111
5PocketingPocket position markAssistant Operator0.3218819.21.191
6PocketingPress welt with fusing paper n markSewing Iron0.4812528.81.782
7PocketingPocket welts attachSNL Auto0.5610733.62.072
8PocketingPocket liner attach behind weltSNL Auto0.5610733.62.072
9PocketingCut pocket mouth n form fishtailAssistant Operator0.786422.592
10PocketingWelt edge neaten4T OL Auto0.5120301.852
11PocketingSecure fishtailsSNL Auto0.728343.22.672.25
12PocketingTopstitch pocket welts with cornerSNL Auto0.847150.43.112.75
13PocketingPocket bag attach4T OL Auto0.6100362.222
14PocketingSecure pocket bags OL seamSNL Auto0.4150241.481.5
15PocketingPocket bag tack at side n waistSNL Auto0.4812528.81.782
16AssemblyFront n back part sticker matchAssistant Operator0.2821416.81.041
17AssemblySide mark n tackSNL Auto0.5610733.62.072
18AssemblySideseam join4T OL Auto0.767945.62.813
19AssemblyInseam join4T OL Auto0.649438.42.372
20AssemblySecure crotch pointBT0.1833310.80.671
21AssemblyElastic press and cut to lengthSewing Iron0.2300120.741
22AssemblyElastic join as a circle n markDNL Lock Switch Auto0.3200181.111
23Waist BeltWaist band join as circleSNDL Edg Cutter0.2623115.60.961
24Waist BeltMark n fusing attachSewing Iron0.2821416.81.041
25Waist BeltMark n form holes at waist bandBH Auto0.35171211.31
26Waist BeltElastic tack at waistbeltSNL Auto0.4812528.81.782
27Waist BeltWaist band topstitch form channelKNS0.5120301.852
28Waist BeltWB lower edge close n markSNL[Chain STS]0.45133271.672
29Waist BeltAttach waist band to body4T OL Auto0.4812528.81.782
30AssemblyCare label makeSNL Auto0.2425014.40.891
31AssemblyLabel attach at back waistSNL Auto0.4150241.481.5
32AssemblyLoop measure cut n attach at inside waistSNL Auto0.2821416.81.041
33CuffCuff join as a circleX2SNL Auto0.2821416.81.041
34CuffCuff fold into halfAssistant Operator0.2425014.40.891
35CuffCuff attach at leg opening4T OL Auto0.5120301.852
36AssemblySticker remove n GMTs turnAssistant Operator0.2623115.60.961
37Waist BeltWaist band topstitch1NDL FL0.4613027.61.72
38PocketingSecure Pocket cornersBT0.4812528.81.782
39AssemblyDrawstring insert through the waist channelAssistant Operator0.3200181.111
40Waist BeltSecure tie at CB waist bandBT0.1833310.80.671
41AssemblyDrawstring end knot makeAssistant Operator0.2821416.81.041
42AssemblyThread trimAssistant Operator0.35171211.31
 – – –Total19.6 – –72.6372
Operation Breakdown, SMV and Layout of Jogger Manufacturing Process

SMV Summary of Jogger

Sewing Helper3.69
Sewing Machine15.92
Sewing QI0
Finishing I/M0
Finishing QI0
Poly Helper0
Hand Tag0

Man Power Summary of Jogger

Sewing Helper13
Sewing Machine59
Sewing QI0
Finishing I/M0
Finishing QI0
Poly Helper0
Hand Tag0

Machine Summary of Jogger

4T OL Auto25
SNL Auto21
DNL Lock Switch Auto1
SNDL Edg Cutter1
BH Auto1
SNL[Chain STS]2
Balancing Graph of Jogger Manufacturing

Written by

Rabin Saha
PGD in Textile Management
BSc. in Textile Engineering
Email: [email protected]
LinkedIn: Rabin Saha