Classification of Yarn

Classification of Yarn

The yarn is a continuous strand which is made by natural or synthetic fiber or material twisted or laid together that can be made into a textile fabric. So, a continuous twisted strand of natural or synthetic fibers used in weaving or knitting to produce fabric. If you are involved in the apparel industry then you must know the classification of yarn.

Yarn Classification

  • Classification according to their structure

The yarn may be divided into three types according to their structure. They are as follows:

1. Single yarn/staple fiber yarn / spun yarn

By mechanically assembly or twisting of staple fibers together spun yarns are made. Ring spinning, Rotor spinning, wrap spinning, Air-jet spinning etc. machines are used to produce this single yarn or spun yarn.

2. Ply yarn

For normal textile and clothing producing single yarn is used. But ply yarns are often needed to obtain special yarn features such as:

  • To ensure high strength
  • For gaining special properties.

**A ply yarn is sometimes called folded yarn also. It is produced by twisting two or more single yarn together.

**Another is cabled yarn which is produced by twisting two or more ply or folded yarn.

The direction of twisting of yarn to make ply yarn is defined as S or Z twist. Generally, the folding twist is in the opposite direction to that of the single yarn.

classification of yarn

Single Yarn & Ply Yarn

3. Filament yarn

The yarn which is made from one or more continuous strands is called filament yarn. In filament yarn, each component filament which is used to make this filament yarn runs the whole length of the yarn.

Filament yarn can be classified in following ways

classification of yarn

Classification of Filament Yarn

Mono Filament yarn: Those filament yarns which are made from one filament is called mono filament yarn.

 Multi filament yarn: Those filament yarns which are made from more filaments is called multi filament yarn.

Texturing is the main method used to produce the bulked filament yarn. Silk is the only major natural filament.

classification of yarn

Filament Yarn

Classification of yarn according to their use

The yarn may be divided into two categories according to their use. They are as follows.

1. Weaving yarn

Yarns which are made for weaving purpose should have following properties:

  • Yarn of lengthwise direction should be stronger.
  • They should have a tighter twist.
  • They should be smoother
  • They should more even than filling yarns.
  • Highly twisted crepe yarns are usually found used as filling yarn.

Note: filling yarn means the yarn which is used in the crosswise direction of cloth.

classification of yarn

Ready Warp Yarn for Weaving

2. Knitting Yarn

Knitting yarns are twisted more slackly than weaving yarns. Knitting yarn can be of two types. I.e.

  • Hand knitting yarn
  • Machine knitting yarn
classification of yarn

Hand Knitting Yarn

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Fabric Consumption of a Basic T-Shirt

Fabric Consumption of a basic T-shirt

Consumption determination of fabric is a very important term in textile sector. Since it depends on fabric prices therefore accurate and closure consumption will reduce fabric wastage which will be beneficial for us economically. So, we should keep proper knowledge of fabric consumption properly.

Here today I am going to present fabric consumption of a basic T-shirt.

 Calculation of Fabric Consumption

For calculating fabric consumption of a basic T-shirt following measurement will be needed.

  1. Body Length
  2. ½ Chest
  3. Sleeve length
Fabric Consumption of a Basic T-Shirt

Fabric Consumption of a Basic T-Shirt

So, now consider

  • Body length = 76 cm (For body length allowance = 3+1+1 = 5 cm)
  • ½ Chest = 58 cm (For chest allowance = 2+1 = 3 cm)
  • Sleeve length = 23 cm (For sleeve length allowance = 2+1+1 = 4 cm)
  • GSM = 180
  • Wastage % = 8%

Fabric consumption per dozen, (all measurement in cm)

[{(Body length + allowance) + (Sleeve length + allowance)} ×

(1/2 chest + allowance)] ×2 × GSM × 12

=                                                                                                         + wastage % kg/dz

10000000

So, from given value we find,

[{(76 + 5) + (23+4)} × (58+3)] × 2 × 180× 12

=                                                                                                       + wastage % kg/dz

10000000

= 2.84 + 8 % of 2.84 kg/dz

= 2.84 (1 + .08) kg/dz

= 3.04 kg/dozen

= 0.25 kg/piece
Fabric consumption per dozen, (all measurement in inches)

[{(Body length + allowance) + (Sleeve length + allowance)} ×

(1/2 chest + allowance)] ×2 × GSM × 12

=                                                                                                        + wastage % kg/dz

1550 × 1000

 

Suppose,

Body length              = 30 inches (allowance = 2 inches)

½ chest                     = 23 inches (allowance = 1.75 inches)

Sleeve length          = 9 inches (allowance = 1.25 inches

 

So, from given value we find,

[{(30 + 2) + (9 + 1.25)} × (23+1.75)] × 2 × 180 × 12

                                                                                                      + wastage % kg/dz

1550 × 1000

= 2.94 + 8 % of 2.84 kg/dz

= 2.94 (1 + .08 kg/dz

= 3.17 kg/dozen

= 0.26 kg/piece

Result:Fabric consumption of basic t-shirt according to given data is(0.25 0r 0.26) kg/pc

Denim Market Overview in Bangladesh

Denim market overview in Bangladesh

Nowadays denim product is a very important product of garments sector all over the world. Beside Bangladeshi, foreigner investors are also increasing investment in the denim production related sector. And for increasing business environment of denim in Bangladesh different types of the exhibition are organizing in Bangladesh.

From last 15th October 2014, there are going on an exhibition of denim for two days in hotel Radisson.

Denim pant

Denim Pant

Till now Bangladesh is not in a good position of producing denim fabric. Maximum time we are importing denim fabric from China, India, and Pakistan.

Recently in a survey, we have come to know that in EU country we are in the second position in exporting of Jeans and in the United States of America we are in the third position.

In denim product which is included to be exported are shirt, Pants, Jacket, Blazer etc.

Denim Market Overview in Bangladesh

A Beautiful Denim Jacket

In Bangladesh, there are about twenty-five institutes which are producing denim fabric. But this is not enough as the requirement of denim fabric. We are in the back position of producing denim fabric rather than other countries. Beside ready-made garment of denim, if we want to increase our profit from denim section than we should try to increase denim fabric production. Because among all backward linkage (backward linkage means these which are related to making ready-made garments) fabric plays the vital role.

As denim product is a very potent part of garment sector so we should be more careful about its production. But for increasing denim related investment in the textile sector, there also should have proper gas and power supply system. And in that purpose Government should come forward.

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Fabric Consumption of a Basic Shirt

Fabric consumption of a Basic Shirt

Determination of fabric consumption of any garments is not so difficult actually which problem we face during such types of calculation. we face many problem with equation during consumption calculation. Here , I am going to present for all of you simple way of consumption calculation of a basic shirt. I wish it will be beneficial for textile related persons.

Main features of a nice basic dress shirt

In other words dress shirt is known as formal shirt. Special features of dress shirt are as follows-

  • A dress shirt should have a formal collar
  • It will contain full sleeve with cuff
  • It will have full-length opening at the front from the collar to the hem
  • It will contain clean button and stiff collar and cuff

 

Fabric Consumption of a Basic Shirt

Dress Shirt

For evaluating Fabric consumption of a dress shirt at first we have to know about the basic parts of a dress shirt.

 Basic parts of dress shirt:

  • Main body
  • Yoke
  • Sleeve
  • Collar
  • Cuff
  • Pocket
  • Placket Box
  • Top center
Shirt front

Anatomy of a shirt front

Formula:

For evaluating fabric consumption nothing about formula .It’s all about calculation sense. If you know about the area calculation of a rectangle than I want to say that we also know about the calculation of fabric consumption.

To determine fabric consumption of any parts of a woven shirt, we have to take reading length and maximum width of this part . And then we have to multiply length with width to find out the area of fabric required of this part and other should be followed as unit terms.

Measurement of a basic shirt

Measurement of a basic shirt

 

Measurement of a basic shirt Measurement of a basic shirt

 

Let,

fabric width : 56”

Marker Width : 55”

So, Fabric required = 37614/55 inch

= 684 inch

= 684/36 yds/dz

= 19 yds/dz

So, Fabric consumption,

= 19 yds/dz+7%(wastage %)

= 19+7% of 19 yds/dz

= 19 + 1.33 yds/dz

= 19/12 yds/piece

= 1.58 yds/piece

 

In short cut way we can find out fabric consumption of a Dress shirt in following way:-

Calculation of fabric consumption of a Dress shirt

Calculation of fabric consumption of a Dress shirt

 Note : Short cut way of fabric consumption determination is not so accurate as elaborate way determination system.But it is easy and time saved way.

Conclusion: Consumption determination is a very important term in garments section. Thought fabric covers the greatest part of garments costing, so we should have better knowledge about fabric consumption determination.

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Flow chart of textile Processing

Flow chart of textile Processing

Textile manufacturing process is consist of different types of manufacturing stages. Here presenting basic manufacturing process in a flow chart.

Flow chart of textile Processing

Flow chart of textile Processing

Textile fibers :

Fiber means any substance that have high length to width ratio. But textile fibre means any substance which have high length to width ratio with suitable charateristics for being processed into fabric

In a spinning mill from textile fibre yarn is made. Spinning from fibre to yarn is a very complex procedure. If we consider of yarn spinning process then we will see that there are two types of cotton yarn according to their manufacturing process. One is combed and another one is carded.

Textile Fibers

Textile Fibers

Yarn:

Yarn is a continuous strand which is made by natural or synthetic fibre or material twisted or laid together that can be made into a textile fabric. So, a continuous twisted strand of natural or synthetic fibres used in weaving or knitting to produce fabric. The yarn can be different types depending on which types of fibre is using.

Yarn may be divided into two groups according to their use:

  • Weaving yarn
  • Knitting yarn
Yarn

Yarn

Grey Fabric:

A cloth of flexible planar substance constructed from solutions, fibres, yarns in any combination. Textile fabrics can also be produced directly from webs of fibres by bonding fusing or interlocking to make non-woven fabrics and felts.

Grey fabric is the fabric before finishing such as dyeing, printing or any other finishing terms. Generally grey fabric is not ready to make garment.

gray fabrics

Gray Fabrics

Finished Fabrics:

Finished fabric is that fabric which we get after dyeing, printing or finishing process. Finished fabric is used to make garments.

We find finished fabric from dyeing section, printing section or finishing section.

Finished fabrics

Finished Fabrics

Garments:

It is the final step of textile processing. Garments section is also consist of some many section i.e. pattern making, cutting, sewing finishing etc.

Finished garments

Finished Garments

Introduction to Textiles

Introduction to Textiles

Textile :

Originally the word “textile” applied only to woven fabrics. But now this word is generally applied to fiber, yarn or fabrics or products made of fibers, yarns or fabrics.

The word textile originates from the Latin verb texere – to weave.

Textile fiber:

Fiber means any substance that have high length to width ratio. But textile fiber means any substance which have high length to width ratio with suitable characteristics for being processed into fabric. For being textile fiber some properties are very important to have i.e.

1. Primary Properties

  • High length to width ratio
  • Tenacity
  • Flexibility
  • Spinning quality/ spin ability
  • Uniformity

2. Secondary Properties

  • Physical Shape
  • Resiliency
  • Density
  • Flammability
  • Lusture
  • Color
  • Moisture regain
  • Elastic recovery

Classification of textile

If we observe than we will find that broadly we can divide textile in to four major categories according to the sources of materials from which textile is produced. These are:

  1. Animal textile
    • e. Wool, Silk
  1. Plant textile
    • Cotton, Flax, Jute
  1. Mineral textile
    • Asbestos, Glass fiber
  1. Synthetic textile
    • Nylon, Polyester, Acrylic

Yarn

Yarn is a continuous strand which is made by natural or synthetic fiber or material twisted or laid together that can be made into a textile fabric. So, a continuous twisted strand of natural or synthetic fibers used in weaving or knitting to produce fabric. The yarn can be different types depending on which types of fiber is using. It is the a very important raw material of textile.

Fabric

A cloth of flexible planar substance constructed from solutions, fibers, yarns in any combination. Textile fabrics can also be produced directly from webs of fibers by bonding fusing or interlocking to make non-woven fabrics and felts.

Introduction to textiles

Ready Fabric for Making Garment

           In textile , especially fabric is the fundamental component of a ready-made garment, because it is the basic raw material of a garment. So, to know the manufacturing sequence of fiber to fabric is very important. Present time is the time of quality product. It is impossible to maintain the quality of garment without proper knowledge of textile manufacturing i.e. fiber, yarn and fabrics.