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## Calculation of Weaving Cost and Profit

There are lots of weaving factory in our country. So, it’s very important to know about the calculation of weaving cost calculation. So, today I am presenting a sample calculation of weaving cost and profit.

Weaving Fabric in a Loom

Cost for following fabric construction

(128X60)/(20X16)

Twill 100% cotton fabric.

• Per yard cost for warp yarn: 45 BDT (for example)
• Per yard cost for weft yarn: 24 BDT

So per yard yarn cost: (45+24) = 69 BDT
Weaving charge: 18 Tk/yard
Total- 87 taka.

• Dyeing wastage: 5%m

So, for dyeing wastage: 5% of 87

= 4.35 taka
So, including dyeing wastage cost is : (87+4.35)=91.35tk

• Dying charge: 32 taka/yard

So, including dying cost total cost is – (91.35+32) =123.35tk/yard

• If desired Profit is: 15%

So profit = 15% of 123.35 taka

= 18.50 taka

• So overall price (you have to sell): (123.35+18.50)  = 141.85 BDT/YARD

= 1.89\$(us)/yard (Here 1\$ = 76.68)

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)
E-mail: [email protected]

## What is Knitted Fabric?

Knitted Fabric: Knitted fabrics provide comfortable wear to almost any garment. For making comfortable wear we first think about knitted garments. Though it has an open structure so most of the knitted garments contour to the body’s silhouette. That’s why knitted garments are so much popular as inner-wear, bodywear, and sportswear.

Nice comfortable wear made by knitted fabric

## Types of Knitted Fabric

There are basically two types of knit fabrics.

1. Weft knits
2. Warp knits

### Weft knits

Weft knitting is the simplest method of converting a yarn into fabrics. In weft, knitting loops are made in a horizontal way from a single yarn. In this way, inter-meshing of loops take place in a circular or flat form on a crosswise basis. Most of the weft knitting is of tubular form.

Weft Knitting

### Warp knits

In warp knits yarn zigzag along the length of the fabric. In warp knits the number of stitches in a row is equal of the number of separate strands of yarn. It is almost done by machine, not by hand.

Warp Knitting

Written By

Engineer Sheikh Nurja

B.Sc Engineer of Textile

## Folders in Apparel Industry

A folder is an attachment to a sewing machine for bending and folding the fabric previous to sewing. It belongs to the category of work aids (Additional devices that can be added to basic sewing machines)generally used in situations where fabric must be fold prior to sewing. Can be used for folds ranging from simple to complex. Different types of folders available in different size and thickness. The thickness of the folder is selected depends on the type of fabric.

1. Light folder (0.15mm to 0.25mm thickness) – silk, synthetic materials, poplin, shirting, bed sheet
2. Medium folder (0.27mm to 0.40mm thickness)–single jersey knit, flannelette, Oxford
3. Heavy folder (0.45mm to 1.5mm thickness)–twill, corduroy, rib knit, interlock knit, denim

Folders in Apparel Industry

## Features of a Folder in the Apparel Industry

There are some basic features of a folder, these are-

1. It helps to improve the productivity.
2. Improve or maintain quality standards.
3. Reduce training time of operator.
4. Reduce fatigue of the operator.

## Different Types of Folders Used in the Apparel Industry

1. Belt loop folder
2. Binding folder
3. Tape folder
4. Hemming folder
5. Collar setting folder
6. Cuff setting folder
7. Waistband folder
8. Piping folder. etc

These are some types of folders used in the garment industry.

### Hemming Folder

It is excellent for continuous hemming on automatic sewing operations. It’s suitable for double needle lockstitch machine. Used to make narrow hems, on prior to ruffling, curtains, and other straight hemming operations. Output piece seam line diagram is shown in the image.

Hemming Folder

### Sleeve Attaching Folder

It is used for sleeve attaching operation by using a single needle lock stitch machine. Output piece seam line diagram is shown in the image.

Sleeve Attaching Folder

### Piping Folder

It is used for preparing piping seam by using a single needle lock stitch machine. Output piece seam line diagram is shown in the image.

Piping Folder

### Belt Loop Folder

It is used for preparing belt loop by using a single needle lock stitch machine. Here stripe of fabric inserted on the folder. Output piece seam line diagram is shown in the image.

Belt Loop Folder

### Bias Binding Folder

It is used for cover the raw edge by using a single needle lock stitch machine. Here stripe of fabric inserted on the folder. It binds the fabric edge evenly. Output piece seam line diagram is shown in the image.

Bias Binding Folder

### Waist Band Folder

It is used for attaching waistband by using double needle lockstitch machine. It binds seam on the waistband. Output piece seam line diagram is shown in the image.

Waist Band Folder

Article by

P. Sivakumar

The author is currently an undergraduate student at the Department of Fashion Technology of Angel college of Engineering and Technology, Tirupur. His area of interests includes standardization, Lean Manufacturing.

Email: [email protected]

## How to Get a Merchandiser Job

Many people ask how to Get a Merchandiser Job, to answer their question I am sharing my own experience so that you can have some idea.

## General thinking about getting a job as a merchandiser

For getting a job in as merchandiser we must have a special reference, thinking so is not true. Definitely, you are thinking why am I saying this so confidently? I am saying this so confidently from my experience.

## How I got my first job as a trainee merchandiser?

After passing BSc engineering from textile I have been also disappointed, I was scared of thinking about my career. Most of my friends already joined on the job but I did not have a job yet.

I also wanted to get help from anybody. But in reality, I have found nothing is going well for seeking my job. Then I have taken a decision that I will not go to anybody for getting a job. I started to prepare myself by meaning that if any interview call will come; I will not let the chance to go. And I started an online application for a job and continue my study for the interview preparation.

After a few days, I have got an interview call from a company for trainee merchandiser. I present myself so confidently in the interview board and answered all questions so confidently. And I found they were so satisfied with my answers. Although there was a long list of candidates I was confident to get that job. And happens also so.

## How I got my job in buying house as assistant merchandiser?

I was always eager to do the job as a merchandiser in a buying house. I told to my senior person about this. He told me don’t worry; you can apply for buying house only through this is your dream. Then I have started for applying for buying house job. And in a few days, I have got a call for assistant merchandiser job in a buying house. I never stopped my study and acquiring knowledge.

On the day of the interview, I found a lot of candidates for this post only. Female & male both were there for one post only. Whatever after finishing my interview I was so happy because I was able to answer all questions in a good manner. I was satisfied with my interview and confident also to get this job. Next day I got a call from this office for re-interview next week.

In such a way I faced three times interview for this job and I was doing well confidently. On the last day from four candidates, I was selected and got a confirmation letter. After joining here I heard that there were more than eighty candidates for this post and they found me the best one. This word makes me feel someone special for my sector.

This is my story about my job getting experience. Believe me, there is nothing better than knowledge and smartness in own sector for profession carrier. If anybody can start his/her professional carrier with his/her own way it brings so much satisfaction and confidence which happens to me.

## What should you need to do to get a job as a merchandiser?

So, don’t worry if you don’t have any special reference. Avoiding wasting time to find out a reference, try to learn more and more. Read newspaper & magazine, follow up renowned blog & website and try to solve out your problem by exploring. And those are the student now; you should try to prepare your assignment very attentively. And don’t forget to practice frequently speaking English. No competition in the job sector is very high. So make yourself prepare for this competition in a proper way.

I am sharing my story of getting a job as a merchandiser for making you motivated for study. If you have any alternative idea about getting a job then please do not hesitate to share with us. If you have any question please put your question as a comment below the post. In future will try to write about which types of question you will face on the interview board for the post of merchandiser from my experience.

Written By

Engineer Sheikh Nurja

B.Sc engineer of textile

## Flow chart of spinning

In this article, you will have details idea of a spinning process because we present all the process sequence in a visual flow chart of spinning.

Input Process/ Machine Output

(Lap former is needed only for combed yarn)

Cone Winding Machine

Written by

B.Sc. Engineer of Textile

E-mail: [email protected]

## How to Calculate PV Using Excel

Sometimes students ask that how to calculate PV using excel. I have made this tutorial to show you calculation of pv using excel is very easy. All we have to do put the right value to the right place.

Simple formula for calculating present value is:

Present Value Formula

Calculation of present value is done for the purpose of making financial decisions. Because of passes of time, the value of money is decreasing, for this reason we have to know the current value of benefit.

This video will show you the procedure of calculating pv using excel, and for this we use following data:

### For Example:

Receive 100000 after 10 years where Required rates of return is 8% then what is the present value of 100000.

## What are the Basic Types of Risk?

We know that future is uncertain, because of uncertainty; involvement of risk can be traced to our every part of life. When we talk about any investment we have to think about risk and return, higher the risk higher the rates of return and lower the risk lower the rates of return. Our life is directly related with economic activities where risk is the considerable element that cannot be overlooked.

To minimize the risk people go for savings and some people take the help of insurance companies/ agencies by paying insurance premium. Risk can be categories into different perspective but here we only discuss about the business risk.

Before discussing the types of risk, let’s have some idea of risk. Risk is the deviation between the actual outcome and expected outcome. Some risk can be minimized and some risk cannot be minimized. Some risk arisen from the micro economic factor and some from macro economic factors.

Basic types of risk that we may found are:

Basic Types of Risk

## Unsystematic Risk

Unsystematic risk is that portion of risk which can be minimize through diversification of the investment by forming portfolio. If we form a portfolio using the negatively correlated investment securities then it would be possible to minimize the risk at lower level. This types of risk is known as diversiable risk Theoretically it is possible to eliminate the portion of unsystematic risk but in real sense it is not possible to eliminate the risk through diversification.

### Systematic Risk

Systematic risk is that portion of risk which cannot minimize through diversification of the investments. Systematic risk is mainly arisen from the macro economic variables which are beyond our control. Beta is the measure of the systematic risk. Sometimes this risk is also known as systematic market risk. Sources of systematic risk are given below with short explanation.

Business risk is the risk which mainly arise when a firm or business organization unable to generate sufficient revenue to maintain its operating expenditure through providing service or selling products, that is risk is directly related with the operation of the firm.

### Financial Risk

When a firm is unable to pay off its fixed financial obligation then this type of risk may arise. This type of risk is involved with the levered firm which uses debt capital for business. In some cases this risk can lead a lead a company to bankruptcy.

### Liquidity Risk

This risk is involved with the marketability of a security or investment that is the capacity to generate asset into cash as much quicker as possible. If an investment is takes less time to convert into cash then it is liquid asset or investment.

### Country Risk

Unstable political condition of a country is responsible for this type of risk. If this risk is more than an economy definitely fall, so does business. In our Bangladesh this type of risk is higher.

### Exchange Rate Risk

Exchange of currency is required when a country is involved with import and export. For importing product or services foreign currency basically dollar is used. So if there is more fluctuation of the exchange rate frequently then a business may incur loss. This probable loss is the risk for the business.

Although every economic activity is involved with risk, we need to be more cautious to minimize the risk. If we can minimize the risk of doing business then it will be possible to generate profit for the company/ business organization.

Written by

Md. Nahian Mahmud Shaikat

Student of MBA

Jahangirnagar University

Email: [email protected]

The Lungi is a traditional dress mainly worn by men & women in South Asia. It is commonly worn by the people around the waist in Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Thailand, and Malaysia as a traditional dress lungi. Normally men wore this dress for its comfort but we can see that tribe women also worn Lungi. The origin of Lungi can be traced back in south India where this dress is worn for thousands of years.

In Bangladesh, most of the men wear Lungi when they at home. It is very popular where the heat and humidity create an unpleasant climate for other dress like pent, pajama or trouser. This dress is comfortable because it is made of a tube/ skirt. This is a kind of loin cloth, stitched, unlike a dhoti resembles a skirt which upper borders is tucked into the waist after tying single or multiple knots.

Different sizes of Lungi can be found in the market for adult 115 cm in height and 200 cm in length is available, for kids aged below 8 years Lungi also available and for teenager’s average size Lungi can be found. Both cotton and silk lungi is available in the market but people prefer cotton lungi to wear.

Lungi mainly woven from cotton and price depends on the size, color, and quality of the product. Normally you can find a Lungi at tk150 but it is a lower quality product. A good quality Lungi can be bought for Tk 400. The more price the more the quality of cotton and design. If you go through in the market you can get a higher quality beautiful lungi at tk1200 to tk4000. In Bangladesh some famous brands of lungi, these are, ATM Lungi, standard lungi etc

Before industrialization, people knit Lungi by hand and handmade tools, and it basically took more time to make a lungi, but the quality of that product is higher because of the careful knitting by the knitter. When a lungi is designed by different color it basically required more time and energy than as usual. In Bangladesh sirajganj, kustia, Khulna is famous for Lungi production where many factories are producing lungi each year for meeting the demands of the customer. In Dhaka, a quality lungi is produced by the Ruhitpuri knitter.

Weaving Lungi

Now a day’s technology makes it easier to produce because of customized machinery. For producing lungi Knitter needs more than 2 days but now with the automated machine, it is possible to produce thousands of lungi within one day. Technology made it possible but if we want to have a quality lungi with the customized design then we have to use the old way of producing lungi by the knitter who knit lungi with passions. Knitters are the artist who innovates new design which is very lucrative.

Lungi Production Using Automated Machine

The way people worn lungi is depended on the occasion and the region. For the occasion, people prefer white or cream color lungi, but for fashion, people prefer multi-color/ colorful lungi. Some people worn lungi short and some people ware it from waist to bottom. Labor/ worker basically worn it lower, in some cases they bend it so that they can work comfortably.

The Way People Wear Lungi

Lungi can be found in different colors like- single color, multi-color, butik print, and stripe. Normally old people like to wear white color Lungi on the other hand child or middle age people wear strip Lungi or single color Lungi.

Different Types of Lungi

Depending on the occasion a Lungi can be worn differently. It looks nice when many people wore the same dress and standing together. Now modes also using lungi to their ramp show because of its unique design and style. Last year an Indian movie song showing the lungi dance where models wore lungi and dance, they look very nice with this traditional dress lungi.

Lungi wore at Different Occasion

Tribe people, both male, and female also wear lungi on the normal and occasional cases.

So I think that because of its designs, popularity, and comfort Lungi is one of the most attractive traditional dresses found in the south Asian region. For this reason, we have to keep this tradition with us and let the world to know about our traditional dress Lungi.

Written by

Md. Nahian Mahmud Shaikat

Email: [email protected]

Phone: +8801914262602

## Calculation of Yarn English Count

English Count

English count indicates how many hanks of 840 yards length weigh one pound. That means if count 40 Ne Than it means 40 hanks(bundle) of 840 yards will give 1 pound weight.

(Note: So, for gaining 1 pound weight, 840 yards long how many yarn bundle we will in need, this require a number of bundles is the English count of this yarn.)

Different Count Yarn

• Why calculation: Most of us are fear from count calculation. But we should have a common sense of calculation to be good textile personnel.

Let’s try to solve the following problem of English count

On one cone there are 9800 m yarns which weigh 490 gm. What is the English count of this yarn?

We know,

For Ne(English count),

Calculation of Yarn English Count

So, Here count 12 Ne means, 12 bundles of yarn with 840 yards length will be required to get 1 pound weight.

So, wish it was helpful for you to understand English count properly. If you like it doesn’t forget to put down your valuable comments and share on facebook

Written By

Engineer Sheikh Nurja

B.Sc engineer of textile