Objects of winding

What are the objects of winding?


Winding is the process of transferring yarn or thread from one type of package to another to type of package. Winding is one of the most important operation in textile sector. It is mainly done in spinning mill. Rewinding is also an important operation in fabric manufacturing factory.

objects of winding

Winding of yarn

Types of winding

According to winding way:

There are basically two types of winding. They are

  1. Precision winding
  2. Non precision winding

Precision Winding

The winding process in which yarn is laid close together in a parallel or near parallel manner is called precision winding. Maximum amount of yarn storing is possible by this system.

Non precision Winding

The winding process by which yarn is laid in helix angled way so that the layers cross one another and give stability to the package is called non precision winding. These types of winding package are more stable than precision winding package.

According to package winding can be classified as:

  • Pirn winding
  • Pool winding
  • Cop winding
  • Cone winding
  • Cheese winding
  • Flanged winding

Objectives of winding

  1. To transfer yarn from one package to another package.
  2. To remove faults like hairiness, neps, slubs, foreign matters.
  3. Improve the quality of yarn.
  4. Reduce the end breakage.
  5. Improve productivity.
  6. To store the yarn in suitable package.
  7. To get required package of yarn.

Requirements of winding

  • Minimum fault
  • No damage of yarn
  • Easy unwinding
  • Suitable size and shape
  • Correct tension
  • Cheap cost of package

Faults during winding:

  • Breakage of yarn during winding
  • Variation of twist
  • Improper shaped winding
  • Dirty packages
  • Hairiness package
  • Poor unwinding
  • Softer or harder winding package in great rate etc.


Engineer Sheikh Nurja

B.Sc engineer of textile

Merchandiser at buying house

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How to Measure Fabric Weight of Big Quantity

How to Measure Fabric weight of Big quantity

To know the fabric’s weight

For measuring fabric weight in large quantity we can follow the following way which now I am going to present for you. Wish it will be helpful for you who are related to textile. After reading this article you will have a proper idea of how to measure fabric weight of big quantity.

how to measure fabric weight of big quantity

Huge quantity contained different fabric.

Usually, we measure GSM (Gram per square meter) by GSM cutter.

  • We can get GSM by fabrics construction also. Let’s try to get GSM of the following construction:

(20 × 16/128 × 60) twill.

We know,

GSM = {(EPI/Warp count) + (PPI/ Weft count)} × 25.64
Here ,    EPI = 128
PPI = 60
Warp count = 20
Weft count = 16

So GSM will be = {(128/20) + (60/ 16)} × 25.64

=260 GSM

  • Then you can get GLM (Grams per linear meter) via GSM.
GLM = ( GSM × fabric width)/39.37


GSM = 260
Width = 58
GLM = (260 × 58)/39.37

So 500-meter fabrics total weight = GLM × Fabric quantity.

= (383 × 500 m) (here fabric quantity = 500m)
=191500 grams
=191500/1000 Kg.
=191.5 kg.

So, this is the way how we can measure fabric weight by the known GSM of this fabric. If you have any question related this post never hesitate to ask me.

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)
E-mail: [email protected]
Cell : +8801929643301

Present Situation of Denim Business in Bangladesh

What is the Present Situation of Denim Business in Bangladesh

Before discussing the Present Situation of Denim Business in Bangladesh let have some idea of global market trends of denim.

Global Market Trend of Denim

Since the commencement, worldwide market of denim remains evergreen. Centuries ago, denim had a limited usage but with the versatility of its utility now the demand for denim is always sky high in the global market. Irrespective of any market condition, denim gets ready for acceptance to the consumers.

present situation of denim business in bangladesh

The Present Situation of Denim Business in Bangladesh

In 2013, three countries clearly stood out from the mass of jeans suppliers to the European Union: Turkey, Bangladesh, and China. Together they supply two thirds (62%) of jeans imports in terms of value and 69% in terms of pairs of jeans. These three suppliers are followed by Pakistan and Tunisia, then trailed by Morocco and Cambodia fairly far behind.

top denim consumers

Top Denim Consumers

One of the significant differences in 2013 is that China ceded its place as a prime supplier to the European Union, which is still occupied in 2012; it was overtaken not just by Turkey but also by Bangladesh. China, however, remains top-ranked in terms of numbers of pairs, with 142 million pairs of jeans exported to the European Union in 2013 Many other countries, Asian ones, in particular, export jeans to the European Union. Some, like India, is on the wane while other suppliers like Cambodia or Vietnam are advancing rapidly.

top denim consumers

Top Denim Consumers

The Export Market of Denim

Bangladesh is the second largest exporter of denim after China; denim has been playing a significant role in our economic development over the last few years. Usually, denim is used for making stylish clothes for all the seasons. Most of the people of our country are familiar with denim. Usually, Bangladesh exports it to the European countries, including England, Russia, Norway, Italy, Poland, Germany, Romania, and many countries of Latin America, including Brazil, Argentina etc. Apart from USA and EU, the BD denim apparels are also shipped to African countries and Australia.

 In 2013, Bangladesh exported about 74 million pieces of denim apparel to the US market and around 140 million to Europe. The country was also the largest exporter of men’s jeans to Europe in 2013 with 89 million pieces compared to 65 million from China.


The global market for denim is projected to reach a mammoth sixty-five billion dollars by 2015. Though the United States were the major denim producer throughout the years but now with the emergence of the Asia Pacific countries like China, India, Pakistan and Bangladesh you can say denim is not anymore an American product. So, to meet the demand of both the requirements of our country as well as abroad country we should come forward to produce quality denim products.

Written By

Engineer Sheikh Nurja

B.Sc Engineer in Textile

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Famous Denim Brand in the World

What are the Famous Denim Brand in the World?

Denim can be considered as the staple garment of the world as all of the people irrespective of their location, age, gender and status own a pair of jeans or two. It’s hard to find a wardrobe where there are no denim products in it. Europe, America or Asia, denim is the most common casually used outfit. The global market value of denim products are projected to reach a mammoth sixty five billion dollars by 2015.

famous denim brand in the world

Nice Ladies Denim Pant

Bangladesh Denim Market

Bangladesh is one of the most important centers for denim apparel production and export around the world. In fact, it has come up as the third most important exporter of denim apparel to US after Mexico and China and second highest to EU after China.  So, as a textile person we should know about worldwide famous brand of denim because it is a potential sector of Bangladesh garments.

 Worldwide renowned Denim Brands

Here I am presenting some worldwide famous denim brand name:

Some of the famous denim brands are as follows

  • Wrangler
  • Levis
  • G Star
  • Armani Brand
  • Lee
  • Diesel
  • Gap
  • Tommy Hilfiger
  • True religion
  • Guess
  • Pepe jeans
  • Calvin Kelvin
  • Lucky
  • Rock and republic
  • Seven for all Mankind
  • APC

Swedish Denim brand

  • Nudie jeans
  • Acne
  • Cheap Monday

Pakistani Denim brand

  • Stone Age
  • Cross Road
  • Leisure Club
  • Club X
denim jacket

Nice Denim Jacket



Engineer Sheikh Nurja

B.Sc engineer of textile

Merchandiser at buying house


Agency Cost

What is Agency Cost and who bears them?

An agency cost is a cost of reducing agency conflict among the owner/ principal (stockholders) and managers (agent). We can also say the cost which is bears by the company to reduce the agency conflict is basically known as agency cost and this cost must be maintained by the respective parties or by the company. To reduce agency conflict some effective measure can be taken which is cost worthy.

Managers can be encouraged to act in the stockholders best interests through incentives, constraints, and punishments. But these tools are effective only if shareholders can observe all of the actions taken by managers. A moral hazard problem, defined here as a situation in which agents take unobserved actions in their own interests, arises because it is virtually impossible for shareholders to monitor all managerial actions. To reduce agency conflicts and the moral hazard problem, stockholders must incur agency costs, which include all costs designed to encourage managers to maximize shareholder wealth rather than act in their own self-interests.

agency cost

Agency Cost

There are three major categories of agency costs

  1. Expenses to monitor managerial actions, such as audit cost,
  2. Expenditures to structure the organization in a way that will limit undesirable managerial behavior, such as appointing outside investors to the board of directors, and
  3. Opportunity costs which are incurred when restrictions, such as requirements for stockholders to vote on certain issues, limit the ability of managers to take timely actions that would contribute to shareholder wealth.

 Agency costs must bear by shareholders. In the absence of any effort whatever to affect managerial behavior, and hence with zero agency costs, there will almost certainly be some loss of shareholder wealth due to improper managerial actions. Conversely, agency costs would be very high if shareholders attempted to ensure that every single managerial action coincided exactly with shareholder interests. Thus, the optimal amount of agency costs to be borne by shareholders should be viewed like any other investment decision.

Written by

Md. Nahian Mahmud Shaikat

Student of MBA

Institute of Business Administration (IBA)

Jahangirnagar University

Email: [email protected]

Facebook: Ördïnärÿ Böÿ

Conflict Between Shareholders and Creditors

What kind of agency conflict between shareholders and creditors may exist?

A conflict between shareholders and creditors is common for the company which uses debt capital to form an optimum capital structure. Agency relation exists when one party works as an agent of the principal. In an organization, management works as an agent of owner or shareholders. When managers work for the company they can be influenced by the own interest so that they prefer their own interest rather than the interest of the company, on the other hand, creditors interest is to provide credit and get the principal amount and interest timely. For ensuring their credit return creditor always concerned whether the company is doing business in the right manner or not. By monitoring the financial performance of the company creditors actually, want to ensure their interest. So if there is any dispersion then creditors work to resolve the issue by taking necessary steps.

Conflict Between Shareholders and Creditors

The conflict between Shareholders & Creditors

Creditors have a claim on part of the firm’s earnings stream as well as a claim on the firm’s assets in the event of bankruptcy. However, the stockholders have control through the firm’s managers of the decision that affect the profitability and risk of the firm. Creditors lend funds at a specific rate which is based on the several factors. These are:

  1. On the riskiness of the firm’s existing assets,
  2. On expectations concerning the riskiness of future asset additions,
  3. On the firm’s existing capital structure (that is, the amount of debt financing used), and
  4. On expectations concerning future capital structure decision.

These are the primary determinants of the riskiness of a firm’s cash flows and hence its debt, so creditors base their required rates of return on these factors.

 Now suppose the stockholders, acting through management, have the firm take on a large new project that has a greater risk than was anticipated by creditors. This increased risk will cause the required rate of return on the firm’s debt to increase, which in turn will cause the value of the outstanding debt to fall. If the risky capital investment is successful, all of the benefits will go to the firm’s stockholders, because creditors’ returns are fixed at the old, low-risk rate. However, if the project is unsuccessful, the bondholders will have to share in the losses.

Written by

Md. Nahian Mahmud Shaikat

Student of MBA

Institute of Business Administration (IBA)

Jahangirnagar University

Email: [email protected]

Facebook: Ördïnärÿ Böÿ

Agency Conflict

What is Agency Conflict?

Agency conflict is a common problem we face in an organization, this problem arises because of the difference in the interest of management, owner, and other related parties. An agency relationship arises whenever one or more individuals hire other individuals to perform some service and also delegate decision making authority to the agents. Here the hiring parties are principal and hired individuals are the agent. But the question is what is agency conflict?

agency conflict

Agency Conflict

Agency Conflict

A potential agency conflict exists whenever a manager owns less than 100 percent of the firm’s common stock. If the firm is a proprietorship business then the manager is the owner, the owner-manager will take actions to maximize his or her own welfare, or utility. The owner-manager will probably measure utility primarily by personal wealth, but other factors, such as leisure time and perquisites, will be considered. However, if the owner-manager sells some of the firm’s stock to outside investors, a potential conflict of interest, called an agency conflict, arises. For example, the owner-manager may now decide to lead a more relaxed life and not work as strenuously to maximize shareholder wealth because less of this wealth will accrue to him or her. Also, the owner-manager may decide to take more “business trips” to fun locations because some of the cost will now be borne by the outside shareholders.

In most large corporations, potential agency conflicts are quite important, because managers generally own only a small percentage of the firm’s stock. In this situation, shareholder wealth maximization could take a back seat to any number of possible managerial goals. In an organization, an agency conflict may always be there but it is owners responsibility to reduce agency conflict as much lower level as they can.

Written by

Md. Nahian Mahmud Shaikat

Student of MBA

Institute of Business Administration (IBA)

Jahangirnagar University

Email: [email protected]

Facebook: Ördïnärÿ Böÿ

What is a Bond

What is a Bond?

Question may arise in your mind that what is a bond. A bond is a financial instrument used by the government or corporations to collect money from the market. It provides a fixed benefit to the bondholders periodically and also at the time of maturity. Although the use of bond as a financing instrument used in developed countries and is very popular around the world. But in Bangladesh the use of the bond not getting enough popularity yet.

By selling a bond, borrowers make a contract with the buyer to pay interest and principal at the time of maturity. All provisions, terms & conditions are written in the bond indenture. A bond indenture is the written document where all terms are clearly mentioned which actually helps to ensure the right of the bondholders.

Basically, a bond pays interest semi-annually to the bondholders at the specific rate which is mentioned in the bond indenture.

Bonds with the maturity of 10 years or more are considered as long-term bond. The interest of bond is set on the basis of market interest rate. Every bond has coupon rate (except zero coupon bonds), maturity date, and face value (basically Tk 1000). Some may have call provision and convertible features.

There is an inverse relationship between interest rate (market interest) and the price of the bond. Higher the interest rates lower the price of the bond and vice versa. We get the price of the bond by discounting the cash and capital gain received from the bond by the required rates of return. Normally large companies issue a bond for the purpose of collecting long-term funds from the market.

Basic Characteristics of Bond

what is a bond

Characteristics of a Bond

From above-mentioned issues we can draw some basic characteristics of a bond, these are:

  • Bond is a long-term financial instrument issued by the large companies to collect long-term funds.
  • Every bond must have a face value, maturity value, and coupon rate and maturity period.
  • It provides periodical benefit to the holders (basically for an interval of six months).
  • The terms and conditions are written in the bond indenture.
  • Zero coupon bonds do not provide any coupon/interest. It provides benefit at the maturity where the bond is issued at discount.
  • There is an inverse relationship between interest and price of the bond.
  • The callable or convertible feature is common for a bond.

Actually, the characteristics of a bond are depended upon the types of a bond which is being issued and where it is issued. Country to country the type and features of the bond vary.

How to Become Successful in Textile Sector

How to Become Successful in Textile Sector

Whether you are a textile engineer or a student of textile going to be graduated soon, you may have many confusions in your mind that from where you can start your career. The expectation of getting a job for developing career varies from person to person. But remember one thing; you can start your career by joining any department of textile sector. After that, you can rotate your career and enrich your knowledge of different departments.

how to become successful in textile sector

There are lots of people who didn’t have any educational background in textile but they are doing well. Question is how they are doing better day by day; you can get the answer if you observer their motive of working, they have the capability of learning through working. Positive motive towards work actually brings success in career. So why are you waiting for? You can read get the core knowledge of textile. All you need to keep patience learn & apply your knowledge, one day you will get what you are looking for.

Some basic qualifications you should have to work in the textile industry

  1. Confidence
  2. Technical skills
  3. Management skills
  4. Interpersonal skills
  5. Problem-solving capability
  6. Knowledge of IT and numerical calculation
  7. Communication skills
  8. Capability to work in a team

You can find that some textile engineers initially work as a production manager and their core responsibilities are

  1. Supervising and motivating a teamwork
  2. Maintain thing as of SOP(Standard operating procedure)
  3. Responsible for ensuring effective production cost
  4. Make sure that products are produced on time with good quality.
  5. Monitoring the production process
  6. Being responsible for the selection and maintenance of equipment
  7. Reviewing worker performance and identifying training needs.
  8. Working with managers to implement the company policies and goals.

If you like this article then please do not forget to leave your valuable comment in the comment box.

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)
E-mail: [email protected]
Cell : +8801929643301

Calculation of Weaving Cost and Profit

Calculation of Weaving Cost and Profit

There are lots of weaving factory in our country. So, it’s very important to know about the calculation of weaving cost calculation. So, today I am presenting a sample calculation of weaving cost and profit.

calculation of weaving cost and profit, Weaving Fabric in a Loom

Weaving Fabric in a Loom

Cost for following fabric construction


Twill 100% cotton fabric.

  • Per yard cost for warp yarn: 45 BDT (for example)
  • Per yard cost for weft yarn: 24 BDT

So per yard yarn cost: (45+24) = 69 BDT
Weaving charge: 18 Tk/yard
Total- 87 taka.

  • Dyeing wastage: 5%m

So, for dyeing wastage: 5% of 87

= 4.35 taka
So, including dyeing wastage cost is : (87+4.35)=91.35tk

  • Dying charge: 32 taka/yard

So, including dying cost total cost is – (91.35+32) =123.35tk/yard

  • If desired Profit is: 15%

So profit = 15% of 123.35 taka

= 18.50 taka

  • So overall price (you have to sell): (123.35+18.50)  = 141.85 BDT/YARD

= 1.89$(us)/yard (Here 1$ = 76.68)

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)
E-mail: [email protected]