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Functions of Financial Manager

Functions of Financial Manager

Finance works as a lifeblood for an organization, without finance, it is not possible to run any business. Every business organization requires managing and ensuring the effective use of funds and financial resources. But the question is who will manage these funds. It is a financial manager’s responsibility to manage funds (collection and proper use of funds). Managing funds is the main functions of financial manager.

Financial Manager

Financial Manager

Financial Managers are those who mainly deal with financial resources and make a decision about financial matters. Every decision taken by financial managers is concerning investing and financing.

Basically, the functions of a financial manager can be categorized into three main functions. These are:

  1. Capital structure decision
  2. Investing and Financing Decision
  3. The decision about dividend policy

Functions of Financial Manager
Capital Structure Decision

The main function of a financial manager is to form an optimal capital structure for the organization. The optimal capital structure depends on the type of company and its financial capability. Capital structure means the ratio of debt and equity. The financial manager set the proportion of debt and equity for a company. It can be 50/50 ratio or 60/40, or 70/30, or 55/45, or others according to the decision of managers.

Investing and Financing Decision

Financial managers always concern about the cost of collecting funds and the return on the invested capital. Where cost is less, the fund should be collected from there. And where the return is maximized with lower or moderate level of risk, funds should be invested there. So it’s a financial manager’s responsibilities to make the right choice which can bring profit for the company.

Dividend Policy

When companies make a profit, a question arises there that whether profit will be distributed or not. If distributed then what proportion of profit will be distributed among the shareholders and what will be kept as a retained earnings. As a function of managing funds, the financial manager makes a decision about dividend policy.

In addition to these, there are many functions/ roles that financial manager does. Some of these functions are given below:

  1. Identifying what amount of funds is required for the company.
  2. Managing working capital which mainly deals with short-term asset and liabilities.
  3. Cash forecasting that is forecasting of cash inflow and outflows.
  4. Provides required fund to every department of the company.
  5. Ensuring optimal use of the financial resources.
  6. Ensuring substantial growth of the company.
  7. Buying and selling of financial assets.
  8. Valuation of a company’s stock.
  9. Maximizing the wealth of the company by increasing the stock price in the market.

Written by

Md. Nahian Mahmud Shaikat

Student of MBA

Institute of Business Administration (IBA)

Jahangirnagar University

Email: [email protected]

What is dye

What is dye?

A dye or dye stuff is usually a colored organic compound or mixture that is used for imparting color to a substrate such as cloth, paper, plastic or leather in a reasonably permanent fashion.

In other words, a dyed substrate should be resistance to a normal laundry or cleaning procedures.

 what is dye

Dye can be synthetic or natural i.e. it can be collected from nature or can be made by chemical. Traditionally natural dye was used but in 19th century synthetic dye produced in a large scale and created demand in the market. Now for dying purpose most of the cases synthetic dye is used rather than natural dyes. Synthetic dye is human made dye getting very popular because of low cost and availability.

 White dye

White dye is one kind of commonly used dye. Some colorless compounds are used as the optical brightness. They may also be called white dye. They have the special properties of absorbing uv light & re-emitting the visible light so that the fabric appears bright Example: OBA that means optical brightening agent.

 Selection of dye

There are numerous factors involved in the selection of dyes for coloring a fabric in a particular shade. Some of important factors that need to consider before selecting dye are:

  • Types of fibre
  • Form of textile materials
  • Fastness properties
  • Method of dyeing
  • Cost
  • Available machine
  • Available of dyes.

Written by

Samina Ferdous (pue)

Chittagong textile engineering college (CTEC) 6th batch.

What is Pigments

What is Pigments?

Pigments are such colorants which composed of particles that are insoluble in the application medium. They have no substantivity for the material since the particles are too large to penetrate into the substrate. They are generally present on the surface of the substrate. That’s why pigments are made fixed with an adhesive to the surface so that they are not being removed easily.What is pigments

Pigment-Dyed Fabric

A pigment is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength-selective absorption. This physical process differs from fluorescence, phosphorescence, and other forms of luminescence, in which a material emits light.

Required Properties of pigments

  1. Pigments should be opaque in such a way that they may have good covering power.
  2. Pigments should be chemically inserted so that after use remain stable and get long life.
  3. They should have the proper to freely mix.

General Classification of Pigments

Natural or Mineral Pigments

These are pigments such as

  • Iron
  • Ores
  • Clays
  • Chalk etc.

Chemical or Synthetic Pigments

These mainly include

  • Zinc oxide
  • White lead
  • Titanium dioxide
  • A larger number of inorganic and organic colors

Reactive Pigments

Some pigments on account of their chemical character react with oil, fatty acid, and soaps, e.g

  • Zinc oxide
  • Red lead

Inert pigment: As for example titanium dioxide

 Classification of Pigments in Textile

Pigments are used in textile may be broadly classified as

  1. Azoic pigments
  2. Vat pigments
  3. Miscellaneous pigments

Of all the Azoic pigments are occurring major places in pigments.

 Advantages of Pigment Dyeing and Printing

  • No wet treatment so it is so simple to do dry and curing
  • It is applicable to all fibers
  • Extensive color range with a high light fastness

Disadvantages of Pigment Dyeing and Printing

  • It has an adverse effect due to binders
  • Chemical and physical properties of binders influence in dyeing and printing
  • Using a solvent like kerosene, Spirit, etc. produce the problem of flammability, pollution, etc.
  • It covers the high cost.

Written By

Engineer Sheikh Nurja

B.Sc engineer of textile

If you like this article please do not forget to share on facebook and put your valuable comments.

Overview and Growth of Financial Industry

Overview and Growth of Financial Industry of Bangladesh

The economy of Bangladesh is a mixed economy where both government and private sector control the economy by planning and mixture of market. In a broader sense we can divide our economy into several industries. Financial industry is one of the leading industries which have great potentiality. Every year this industry is contributing large amount of value to the GDP (Gross Domestic Product) of our country (Bangladesh).

With the expansion of the economy we require to ensure security of money and effective use of the money. Considering these needs financial institutions are formed. In our country both bank and non bank financial institutions are available. Bank provides pure banking services and other financial services provided by non-bank financial institutions. Non bank financial institution can be financial intermediaries, insurance companies and leasing companies.

Central Bank of Bangladesh (Bangladesh Bank) is the sole institution responsible for controlling the financial institution and financial industry. Under the control of Bangladesh bank there are 65 banking institution (private, public/ state owned, specialized, and foreign) and 32 non bank financial institutions (mainly private) provides leasing and investment facilities and 62 insurance companies (private, public, foreign) providing life insurance and non life insurance policies.

Contribution of Financial Institutions to our (Bangladesh) GDP

Every year millions of taka is contributed by these financial institutions and is expanding exponentially. For this reason this industry considered as a base industry for our country. If we see the trends of contributions made by this industry then it will be clear that how much value added. From the last 5 years of data we can forecast that in the upcoming year our GDP will grow much more than these years.

contribution of financial institutions to our GDP

Contribution of Financial Institutions to our GDP

Percentage of Contribution to our GDP:

People can say that only 3% plus contribution is not much for an economy. But I am strongly saying that this percentage looks small but the amount of contribution is huge. In 2009-10 the contribution was 3.08% but with the passes of time this percentage is increasing. Last year that is 2013-2014 the contribution was 3.85%. Hope in the next year this will reach to 4%.

overview and growth of financial industry

Percentage of Contribution to our GDP

Growth of Financial Industry:

Although this industry is doing well but with the change in the economic condition the growth also changes. There is huge change in 2011-2012 in the financial sector according to the contribution to our GDP. Because of more foreign direct investment there is inflow of funds in the economy which circulate through financial institutions. Investment in long term asset and infrastructural development was done by the government and private sector. The positive sign is average growth is 15% plus. Near future hope this will reach at 20% plus with the expansion of total economy.

growth rate of financial institution

Growth Rate of Financial Institution over the Years

From the above identification we can assume that one day our economy will be much more efficient. Because we have financial institutions with modern technology which providing services as per required by the people at any time anywhere.

Written by

Md. Nahian Mahmud Shaikat

Student of MBA

Institute of Business Administration (IBA)

Jahangirnagar University

Email: [email protected]

Flow Chart of Textile A to Z

Flow Chart of Textile A to Z or Sequence of Textile A to Z

Textile manufacturing industry is a large sector dealing with many process. The textile manufacturing is not a new idea. If we look back the history of textile manufacturing we can get the idea that people using it according to their needs and the way of manufacturing is changing day by day. Textile manufacturing mainly deals with conversion of fibre into yarn, then yarn into fabric and then finally fabric into textiles.

It’s very difficult to create a flowchart of textile manufacturing. Here I am presenting the textile manufacturing flow chart in shortly. This process includes getting textile raw materials, fiber making, yarn manufacturing, fabric manufacturing, wet processing, garments manufacturing or clothing, fashion design, textile calculation and finally marketing.

flow chart of textile A to Z

Flow Chart/ Sequence of Textile A to Z

Several types of calculation is required to be calculated for every stages of this process. Basic cost includes process costing, production, cloth consumption, all types of direct and indirect costing. After calculating cost of every department then profit can be identified which is the one of the main concern of the manufacturers.

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)
E-mail: [email protected]
Cell : +8801929643301

Classification of Dyes

Before discussing the classification of dyes lets have some idea of dyes and what can be the basic characteristics of dyes.

What is Dyes

A dye is such type of colorant substance which is capable of imparting it’s color to a given substance, by being soluble in the application medium (usually water) at some points during the coloration process.

classification of dyes

Direct Dyes

In the most textile dyeing process, the process initially involves the transfer of the colored chemical from the aqueous solution onto the fiber surface which called adsorption process. From there the dye slowly diffuses into the fiber. Depending on the internal structure of the fiber, this occurs down pores, or between fiber polymer molecules. The overall process of adsorption and penetration of the dye into the fiber is called absorption. Absorption is a reversible process. The dye can, therefore, return to the aqueous medium from the dyed material during washing which is called desorption.

Major Characteristics of Dyes

  • Intense color.
  • Solubility in water at some point during the dyeing cycle.
  • Some substantivity for the fiber being dyed.
  • Reasonable fastness properties of the dyeing produced.
dyed finished fabric

Dyed Finished Fabric

Classification of Dyes (according to textile usage)

  • Acid Dyes
  • Azoic dyes
  • Basic Dyes
  • Direct Dyes
  • Disperse Dyes
  • Mordant dyes
  • Pigments
  • Reactive Dyes
  • Sulpher dyes
  • Vat dyes

Written By

Engineer Sheikh Nurja

B.Sc engineer of textile

If you like this article please do not forget to share on facebook and put your valuable comments.

Flow Chart of Wet Processing of Woven Fabrics

Wet processing is related with the manufactured gathering of fibers, filaments and for yarns. It is a process involved with the aqueous stage of pretreatment, dyeing, printing and finishing.

Wet Processing

In a broader sense wet processing is the process of inspection of grey fabric, stitching, singeing, resizing, scouring, bleaching, sample testing, mercerizing, souring, washing, sample testing, dying, after treatment, printing, finishing, quality test of sample, assure quality, inspection, rolling, packing and finally deliver to buyer.

Wet processing is very important process of fabric. It is a Textile engineering department. Wet processing engineering is one of the major streams in textile engineering refers to textile chemical processing engineering and applied science.There a lot of factory just for wet processing call dying industry/mill.

wet processing

Flow Chart of Wet Processing of Woven Fabrics

  • Sample tests after bleaching: pH, Absorbency, whiteness, Tegwa
  • Sample test after Mercerizing: pH, Absorbency

Quality test after finishing: all quality test according to buyer requirement and keep all quality of their want.

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)
E-mail: [email protected]
Cell : +8801929643301

Flow Chart of Lab Dips Production

What can be the flow chart of lab dips production?

Lab Dip

Lab dip is very important of dying factory. Because bulk production order depends on lab dips. A lab dip is a swatch of fabric that is made to test dye to meet the asking color standard.  Lab dip plays a vital role in shade matching & this is an important task before bulk production of dyeing.

flow chart of Lab dips process

Simply we can say that a lab dip is a swatch of fabric test dyed to hit a colour standard.

Objectives of Lab Dip

  • To ensure the calculation of sample dyeing.
  • For comparing purpose of dyed sample with spectrometer or light box.
  • To get clear concept about recipe of sample dyeing.
  • To get approval from buyer by meeting their requirements.

Flow chart of Lab dip production/process:

flow chart of lab dips production

Flow Chart of Lab Dips Production

**Swatch is a small sample which is generally provided by buyer. It indicates which exact shade what they are in need.

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)
E-mail: [email protected]
Cell : +8801929643301

Current Economic Condition of Bangladesh

Current Economic Condition of Bangladesh

Bangladesh is a developing country with the population of 157,949,908 where economic is expanding day by day. After the independence, our economy is reformed to manage it in our own way. Now ready-made garment (RMG) sector is performing very well compared with another sector. With the expansion of information technology, many new industries have emerged. The contribution of each and every industry is considerable although 10 to 15 years back the contribution of information technology & telecommunication sector to our economy was minor. But now these two sectors generating a large amount of revenue for their own and make a good contribution to our economy. With the increase of educational status, the standard of living is improving. If these continue our economy will be a model for other developing countries. Although the current economic condition of Bangladesh is good enough government needs to monitor every economic activity closely.

Contribution to our GDP

The performance of economy can be measured with the help of GDP (gross domestic product) i.e. the value of all products and services produced within the boundary of our country. Our GDP for the year 2013-2014 was 6.12% where the growth is 12.68% from the previous year. GNI is 4.76% which is grown by 11.24% compared with previous year.

Industrial Contribution to our Economy

  • The contribution of agriculture to our economy is most. Once upon a time, we cannot think about our economy without agriculture because 85% people of our country were involved with agriculture. But now the situation has changed, with agriculture now ready-made garments (RMG), bank and non-bank financial institutions, outsourcing, exporting manpower adding extra value to our economy.
  • Our economy can be divided into 15 different industries in a broader sense. If you check the industrial contribution to our GDP for 2014 we will see that manufacturing industry is contribution larger portion to our GDP of 17% whereas agricultural and wholesale-retail trade contributing each 13% of total 26%.
  • Communication and service sector contribution total of 23%. Where community and service sector contributing 12% of our total GDP and communication (transportation, telecommunication) sector adding 11% value to the GDP of Bangladesh for 2014. Other ten industries also contributing a considerable amount each and every year.
Current Economic Condition of Bangladesh

Industrial Contribution to GDP of Bangladesh

For ensuring economic growth government should take following things seriously otherwise our economy down soon.

The condition of Stock Market of Bangladesh

In our capital market, there are two stock exchanges. One is DSE-Dhaka Stock Exchange and other is Chittagong Stock Exchange-CSE. Dhaka stock exchange has total 549 listed companies and Chittagong stock has total 250 listed companies. Although stock market doing well over the years a few years back stock market (capital market of Bangladesh) crashed. Stock market accelerating unpredictably, at that time many investors acquire much capital gain. The capital market rises 62% in 2009 and 83% in 2010 but then went down 10% in January 2011, and a further 30% fall in Feb 2011. These falls continue for this reason many investors lost them all investment. The government tried to make a correction and still trying but it will take time to stabilize. In 2015 if we check the index of stock market then we can see that market still not doing well. So investor must be cautious before making any investment decision in the stock market.

The flow of Remittances of Bangladesh

People working outside Bangladesh are contributing to our economy indirectly by sending remittance each month. This large amount of remittance is helping us to improve our economy. Foreign currency reserve also increasing by the remittances and export of ready-made garments. Here is the scenario of remittances for the year 2014 and 2015. Remittances flow looks like stable but in this year remittances are decreased compared with previous year.

flow of remittances of bangladesh

The flow of Remittances of Bangladesh

Reserves of Foreign Currencies of Bangladesh

There is a considerable change in the reserve of foreign currencies. If we look at the reserves for each year we will see there is a positive movement each year. In 2004-2005 our foreign currency reserve was only 2930 million dollars whereas in 2013-2014 our reserve is 21558 million. Within these 10 years, the rate of increase of reserve is 635% which is a great achievement for our economy. If we can utilize this large amount of foreign currency reserves by importing capital goods and invest in productive sources then our economy will be much more efficient. This ultimately helps our economy to grow faster than previous.

reserve of foreign currencies of bangladesh

Reserves of Foreign Currencies of Bangladesh

Scenario of Import

Every year we import a large number of goods from different countries around the world but larger portion comes from China and India. Last year we imported from China 20.70%, 16.60% from India, 6.30% from Singapore, 5.60% from Malaysia and 3.50% from Japan. The electronic product mainly imported from China. Reserved foreign currencies are used to import.

China 20.70%
India 16.60%
Singapore 6.30%
Malaysia 5.60%
Japan 3.50%

Potentiality of the Economy of Bangladesh

  • RMG sector is the highest growing sector which contributes a huge amount of money each year. It is government’s responsibility to ensure a positive environment so that this sector can grow fluently. One of the main reasons for the success of RMG sector is the cheapest labor available in our country, which ensures low cost of production.
  • We have a large number of young people those have the ability to world. If we can ensure proper use of the human resource then we will be a developed country soon.
  • Availability of natural resources and low cost of factors of production foreign buyers are interested to invest here. If there is a large amount of foreign direct investment then it will create employment of many peoples.
  • Outsourcing and tourism are two potential industry which will bring millions dollar’s foreign currency, which will increase our reserve of foreign currencies. We required foreign currencies to import capital goods.

Major Problems for Economy of Bangladesh

  • Political instability is one of the main problems which we can see in recent years. At the end of the 2013 political condition started to deteriorate now 2015 looks like our economy is stuck.
  • Export is decreasing for the reason of delay in delivery of goods. Exporters cannot send the goods timely because of a lockout of internal route transportation. Burning and breaking of vehicles etc.
  • The decision taken by the economic policymaker is most of the cases wrong and in some cases are not an effective one.
  • There is an absence of proper monitoring system for the potential sector, so government failed to deliver the subsidiary and ensure a positive environment.

Although our economy is doing well there are many problems that we must overcome. We need a good leader who will lead us toward our goal and take every decision by giving priority to our national benefit, not their personal benefit. Things also required are:

  • Ensuring political stability to attract foreign buyers and investors.
  • Forming proper monitoring and controlling cell.
  • Taking effective economic decisions to ensure proper use of resources both natural and technical.
  • Keeping inflation rate at a normal level so that buying the power of money not reduce significantly.

If we can ensure above-mentioned things then our economy will be perfect for investment. And one day this economy will be stable and more growth potentials.

Written by

Md. Nahian Mahmud Shaikat

Student of MBA

Institute of Business Administration (IBA)

Jahangirnagar University

Email: [email protected]

Properties of Cotton

Physical and chemical Properties of Cotton

Cotton fibre:

Cotton is natural celllosic fibre.Cotton is called the king of textile fibre. Now cotton is the most used textile fibre in the world. Cotton is soft fibre that grows around the seed of the botto plant. The long cotton fibres are use to make cloth. The other short fibre can be use in the paper industry.

Botanical names of cotton:

  1. Gossypium Herbaceum
  2. Gossypium Arboreum
  3. Gossypium Hirsutum
  4. Gossypium Barbedense
properties of cotton

Cotton in the Field

Chemical composition of cotton fibre:

  • Cellulose -94%
  • Protein -1.3%
  • Ash -1.2%
  • Pectin -1.2%
  • Oil,Fat,Wax-0.6%
  • Sugar -0.3%
  • Others -1.4%

Physical properties of Cotton:

  • Comfortable soft hand
  • Good absorbency
  • Prints well
  • Machine washable
  • Dry cleanable
  • Good strength
  • Drapes well
  • Easy to handle and sew
Use of cotton:
  • Shirts
  • Blouses
  • Childrenwear
  • Active year
  • Swimwear
  • Suits
  • Jacket
  • Skirts
  • Pants
  • Sweaters
  • Hosiery
  • Table cloths
  • Table mats
  • Napkins

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)
E-mail: [email protected]
Cell : +8801929643301