Textile industry produces textile materials. Different sectors of this industry are spinning, weaving, knitting, dyeing, and garments. Basically the working flow chart of textile industry consists of getting a buyer order, understanding buyer requirements, brought raw material, set program, start production, processing step by step, finishing (if need), testing product, qualified product according to buyer requirement and finally make delivery to buyer according to the buyer requirements. I made a common flow chart to show how they work which is given bellow:
Working Flow Chart of Textile Industry
Buyer requirement refers which process will be done, how to do that, Quality of the product. Everything they provide with the order. They control manufacturing process.
Raw materials are relative word. Spinning raw material is textile fibre, for weaving yarn, for wet processing Grey fabric. So feed material is raw material any kinds of textile production.
Industry has to provide to buyer the latest update of their production order in proper time.
Share is the small proportion of the capital of a company. Both private and public limited companies have share capital. But the only public limited company can issue their share in public through IPO (Initial Public Offering) to raise their share capital. Basically, the shares of the public limited company are traded in the stock market. Buyers and sellers are involved with this market through brokers (commission agent). There are thousands of millions of investors investing a large amount of money in the capital market. It is an investor’s responsibility to choose right share of a right company so that they would get a benefit (capital gain and dividend) from investing.
Question is what are the things an investor should consider before investing in the capital market through purchasing share/stock or how to take share buy decision?.
Share/Stock Buy Decision
There are several factors/things that need to consider before investingin the capital market/stock marketthrough purchasing share/stock of a company. These factors are:
Calculate the present value of all future benefit. If the present value is more than the current price then buy the stock/share. On the other hand, if the current market price is more than the calculated present value then definitely sell the stock.
To reduce the risks of investment do not forget to choose a company from a different industry. So that you can diversify your investment also make sure that you pick the right company stock
Check the growth rate of the company in which you want to invest. You can get growth-related data from the annual report or in the stock market/capital market
Choose stock/share which company has a lower price-earnings ratio
You can also choose stock which provides higher EPS (Earnings per Share) compared with other companies
If you have financial knowledge then check the financial statement (cash flow statement, income statement, balance sheet) of the companies over the period of time. Cash flow will help you to check the cash inflow and outflow. And from other financial statements, you will get profit/loss, assets & liabilities related information. It is your responsibility to check ever information that may have an impact on the future earnings of the stock/share
Never buy share without knowing anything or if anyone influences you to buy a share
These are the some of things that you can consider before investing. If you analyze properly and invest in the capital market then there will be less chance to lose your investment. Never try to gamble in the market, although many people think that buying and selling a stock is one kind of gambling.
Singing is a process of burn out the projecting fiber to increase smoothness and evenness of the fabric.
Objective of Singeing
Burning of projecting fibers from yarn/fabric surface.
Fabric/Yarn surface becomes smooth, even and clean.
Maximum Luster is produced by mercerizing.
Help to create a smart design by printing.
Save from uneven dyeing & printing.
Classification of Singeing
There are three types of singeing. They are as follows:
Classification of Singeing
In plate singeing open fabric is passed upon the copper plate. To maintain ever speed some guide roller and draw roller are used. The temperature of singeing plates are heating but the problem is the plate temperature vary. The processing speed varies at 135-225 m/min.
Advantages of Plate Singeing
Due to friction between cloth surface and copper plate fabric surface become smooth.
Disadvantages of Plate Singeing
Copperplate not to be evenly so uneven singeing is performed.
Some defects of plate singeing machine are overcome in roller singeing machine.
In roller singeing machine, there is used a rotating cylinder instead of a stationary curved plate as plate singeing machine. It may be made of either copper or cast iron and provided with internal firing system.
In this machine, the surface temperature of the cylinder is more uniform at all places.
The rotation of the cylinder is opposite to the fabric movement, so raise the nap ensuring efficient singeing.
Accounts manager is responsible to work with day to day finance and accounting related activities. The main purpose of accounts manager/ accounting manager is to prepare financial statements (income statement, balance sheet, cash flow statement, owner’s equity statement, etc.) for the company. Basically accounts manager deals with the accounts of customers.
Job Description of Accounts Manager
The simple job description of accounts manager/ accounting manager may contain followings:
Handle all types of accounts of an organization and monitor accounts.
Prepare financial statements (income statement, balance sheet, cash flow statement, owner’s equity statement, etc.) monthly, quarterly, semi-annually, or yearly in accordance with the requirement of the company.
Prepare proforma financial statements to forecast the financial condition of the company or see the potentiality of the company’s financial position.
Analyzing the costing of different accounts and keeps a record of all revenues and expenditures.
Work as an internal auditor for the company to support the external auditor.
Make a decision about the financing and investing decision, if there is no other financial manager.
Ensure proper monitoring of each and every transaction.
Provide account/ financial information to the top manager.
Support senior manager as per the requirements.
To perform these functions an accounts manager should have the following qualities:
Should have adequate knowledge of accounting and finance
Ability to use accounting software so that the manager can use it according to their needs.
Experience of managerial work will add value to the educational qualification.
Weaving is a process of producing fabric in which two separate sets of yarns are interlaced at right angles to form a fabric or cloth. In a weaving factory basically woven fabric are made. Basically the process of making woven fabric is known as weaving.
Flow chart of weaving
The process of weaving related with yarn form spinning, doubling & twisting, winding, creeling, warping, sizing, drawing-in/drafting-in, denting, looming, ltying-in, weaving and grey fabric. This process is shown in the following chart:
Flow Chart of Weaving
Winding is the process of transferring yarn or thread from one type of package to another to type of package.
Sizing is the method of adapting material size on yarn. It is mainly used to twist yarn to attach the fiber together.
Warping is the process of using lengthwise yarns that are seized to form a frame or loom.
The denting plan indicates how each of yarn is pinched through a dent in the reed.
The financial manager is responsible for managing the financial resources of an organization. Basically, those who make a financial plan for effective use of the fund to ensure organizational wealth maximization are known as a financial manager. The success of an organization depends on the right use of the financial resource, although it is a very tough job to manage. But financial manager/ finance manager always work for collecting fund from least costly sources and invest in a potential sector where maximization of return is insured.
Job Description of Financial Manager
A job description contains a list of responsibilities that have to be performed by a financial manager/ finance manager. It also contains what are the qualities and qualifications are required to be a finance manager. A simple job description may include followings:
Title of the Job: This indicates the position of financial manager that is position can be of assistant manager/manager/ senior manager.
Role of the Job or job responsibilities: There are several roles that a manager have to perform, these are
Required to formulate financial planning and taking a financial decision as per the requirement of the company.
Preparing a monthly/ quarterly/ yearly budget for the company.
Monitoring cash inflow and outflow over the period.
Preparing reports and financial statements.
Ensuring the wealth maximization of the company as it is the primary goal.
Prepare a financial report to check the performance of the company, whether the performance is upward or downward.
Make a forecast of future demand of the fund and take initiative to manage this fund timely.
Maintain a good relationship with the creditor.
Ensuring balance between long term and short term asset and liabilities.
Formulating collection and payment mechanism (collection of accounts receivable, payout the accounts payable)
Location of the Job: Location of job or workplace for the manager, current location or probable future location need to be mention clearly.
Remuneration/ Benefit of the Job: The amount of remuneration which will be provided for the financial manager over the period is needed to be mentioned. Because this one is the influential factor that will create interest in working.
The wet process must have to do for both Woven and knit fabrics. It’s a textile engineering department. It is a very sensitive process done by chemicals and water. Mainly wet processing includes three processes. These are:
Pretreatment is the treatment before Coloration process. The main objective of pretreatment is to make ready for coloration. All the steps of pretreatment should follow:
Coloration is to color the textile material using dyes or pigment. Two processes of coloration are:
Finishing is done to make useable, getting comfortable wear. Some Finishing process is:
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Finance works as a lifeblood for an organization, without finance, it is not possible to run any business. Every business organization requires managing and ensuring the effective use of funds and financial resources. But the question is who will manage these funds. It is a financial manager’s responsibility to manage funds (collection and proper use of funds). Managing funds is the main functions of financial manager.
Financial Managers are those who mainly deal with financial resources and make a decision about financial matters. Every decision taken by financial managers is concerning investing and financing.
Basically, the functions of a financial manager can be categorized into three main functions. These are:
Capital structure decision
Investing and Financing Decision
The decision about dividend policy
Capital Structure Decision
The main function of a financial manager is to form an optimal capital structure for the organization. The optimal capital structure depends on the type of company and its financial capability. Capital structure means the ratio of debt and equity. The financial manager set the proportion of debt and equity for a company. It can be 50/50 ratio or 60/40, or 70/30, or 55/45, or others according to the decision of managers.
Investing and Financing Decision
Financial managers always concern about the cost of collecting funds and the return on the invested capital. Where cost is less, the fund should be collected from there. And where the return is maximized with lower or moderate level of risk, funds should be invested there. So it’s a financial manager’s responsibilities to make the right choice which can bring profit for the company.
When companies make a profit, a question arises there that whether profit will be distributed or not. If distributed then what proportion of profit will be distributed among the shareholders and what will be kept as a retained earnings. As a function of managing funds, the financial manager makes a decision about dividend policy.
In addition to these, there are many functions/ roles that financial manager does. Some of these functions are given below:
Identifying what amount of funds is required for the company.
Managing working capital which mainly deals with short-term asset and liabilities.
Cash forecasting that is forecasting of cash inflow and outflows.
Provides required fund to every department of the company.
Ensuring optimal use of the financial resources.
Ensuring substantial growth of the company.
Buying and selling of financial assets.
Valuation of a company’s stock.
Maximizing the wealth of the company by increasing the stock price in the market.
A dye or dye stuff is usually a colored organic compound or mixture that is used for imparting color to a substrate such as cloth, paper, plastic or leather in a reasonably permanent fashion.
In other words, a dyed substrate should be resistance to a normal laundry or cleaning procedures.
Dye can be synthetic or natural i.e. it can be collected from nature or can be made by chemical. Traditionally natural dye was used but in 19th century synthetic dye produced in a large scale and created demand in the market. Now for dying purpose most of the cases synthetic dye is used rather than natural dyes. Synthetic dye is human made dye getting very popular because of low cost and availability.
White dye is one kind of commonly used dye. Some colorless compounds are used as the optical brightness. They may also be called white dye. They have the special properties of absorbing uv light & re-emitting the visible light so that the fabric appears bright Example: OBA that means optical brightening agent.
Selection of dye
There are numerous factors involved in the selection of dyes for coloring a fabric in a particular shade. Some of important factors that need to consider before selecting dye are:
Types of fibre
Form of textile materials
Method of dyeing
Available of dyes.
Samina Ferdous (pue)
Chittagong textile engineering college (CTEC) 6th batch.