Financing for Textile and Garments

Financing for Textile and Garments

A good financing decision works as a driving force for an organization to build a strong financial position. Financing decision varies industry to industry, organization to organization according to their financing requirement, financial strength and risk taking behavior of that particular parties. Here in this article you will have basic ideas of financing and how you can take financial decision for your textile and garments business.

Basically the objective of financing is to collect money from the least cost sources and then invest in the profitable sectors. Here the challenge is minimize the cost and maximize the profit of the investment. Financing is required for different stages of business, like initial startup of business, or for maintaining the operational expenditures or for expansion of business. The mechanism of these financing need varies business to business.

If you are going to finance for the manufacturing industry then you will be required a large amount of fund for startup or for expansion of your business, and for operating expenditure you will be required working capital which is much less than the initial investment. On the other hand for service industry you have to invest a large amount of capital in the initial year and the operation cost is not that much high.

Requirement of Money for Textile and GarmentsNow come to the point of financing for textile and garments industries, as this one is manufacturing industry which requires to buy different types of equipment (power and electricity generator, spinning machine, knitting machine, dyeing machine, printing machine, sewing machine, cutting machine and many more) we have to spends lots of money and our huge amount of capital will be invested for this purpose. In addition to this thousands of garments worker will be working here, for payment of salary and wages you will be required a larger amount of working capital. On the other hand for importing raw materials you will also be required huge amount of money.

If you want to expand your business to increase production capacity you have to invest huge amount of money for long term basis.

The question is how you can manage these required money and from where you can source this money. At the time of sourcing of money/ fund you always have to be careful about the cost of that fund, least costing source will be preferable.

Financing for Textile and GarmentsFinancing for Textile and Garments can be for:

  • Initial startup of business.
  • Maintaining daily expenditures.
  • Expansion of Business/ Production Capacity.

Initial Expenditure for Starting a Textile and Garments Business

You already know that for starting a new setup for textile and garments you must spend a large amount of capital for purchasing capital machinery. The important thing is how you are going to finance for this, my suggestion is, and as capital machinery and equipment’s for long term it will be a better decision of financing from the long term sources. Available options of financing are:

  1. Long term bank loan (Debt Financing).
  2. Selling share (Equity Financing); in case of public limited company.
  3. Or you can choose both debt financing and equity financing (the ratio of debt to equity will be depend on the financial strength and the business risk of that company).

From the above alternatives, my personal suggestion is to choose third one because you cannot use fully debt financing because you have to bear a fixed cost (interest) for a certain interval of time for a period.

  • Fixed cost financing may increase your financial risk, so try to avoid fully debt financing.
  • On the other hand, equity financing is more costly as you have to share your all of your profit proportionately according to the contribution of equity capital.

The right choice is to use debt and equity to minimize the weighted average cost of capital. And you have to form your optimal capital structure by considering two major factors (business risk & financial strength). Taking loan for new business is not that much easy, that’s why initially we have to depend upon our own capital first. With the passes of time, for a successful business, it will be better to increase the debt percent so that taxable income can be reduced.

Financing for Maintaining Daily Expenditures

Actually maintaining daily expenditures means, managing working capital funds for your business operations or management of current assets and current liabilities. You may source your working capital either from long term or short term sources and the decision will be depend on the working capital management policy (hedging, conservative, aggressive) of yours. Before choosing working capital management policy you have to have brief idea of these policies:

  • Hedging Policy of Working Capital Management: Hedging policy is one of the popular policy of managing funds where a matching principle is used. Financing for current obligation is done from the current assets (current sources) and on the other hand financing for long term obligation is done for the long term assets (long term sources). That means for short term requirement of funds you need to collect from short term sources and for long term requirements you have to collect from long term sources.
  • Conservative Policy of Working Capital Management: In case of conservative policy company has the intention of taking low risk for financing current asset. Additional fund required for fixed assets company keeps extra fund for using as current asset. Here company financing (collecting) more funds from the long term sources for both current asset and fixed/long term assets. The main intention is to lowering the risk of financing for current asset.
  • Aggressive Policy of Working Capital Management: Aggressive policy of working capital management is risky policy in a sense that most of required funds for current and long term assets is to be financed from the short term sources, lower amount of funds will be collected from the long term sources. Basically money will be kept less than the required amount for working capital that why risk is higher.

Before taking a policy form all these above mentioned policies you must evaluate your ability to liquid your asset and liquid (cash) required for your business. Another thing is your risk taking behavior towards working capital management.

The question is from which sources you can finance for the maintaining daily expenditures? The probable source available for the textile and garments are:

  • Lowering the collection period of accounts receivables.
  • Delaying the payment of accounts payable.
  • Delaying the payment of salaries and wages.
  • Taking short term bank loan.
  • Purchasing raw materials on credit.

Financing for Expansion of Textile and Garments Business

As you already know that for business of textile and garments you will be required a lot of money. Expansion of business or expansion of production capacity requires larger investment to for purchase machinery and equipment, land, construct building etc. This is more or less similar with the initial investment for your business. In addition with acquiring capital assets, you have to hire workers and employees for supporting your business expansion. The thing is you have to pay wages and salaries, purchase of additional raw materials or any other operating expenditures. So you can manage these extra money from both long term sources and from short term sources. Whether you choose long term or short term source, is mainly depends on your financial strength and adequacy of money of your existing business. Normally a profitable textile and garments company has intention to expand when they find that the business is profitable and they can manage their extra required fund from their own profit.

Financing for Textile and Garments

After these discussion, I think that it is clear how you can finance for your textile and garments and which sources are available for financing. Careful analysis is to be done before any larger investment because for large investment risk is higher and involve cost also.

If you have any confusion then you can comment here. I will try to give you suggestion about financing and different problematic situations.

Written by: Md. Nahian Mahmud Shaikat

Financial Analyst

Mail: [email protected]

Top University in Bangladesh

Top University in Bangladesh

Although there is a huge contradiction that which one is the top university among private and public universities in Bangladesh. Those do not have idea of the ranking they actually select university randomly or ask others to know which one can be the best alternative university for graduation or for post-graduation. I think before getting admitted to any university you have to know the quality of that university and how they admit student in different semester. Remember for admission you have to prepare yourself so that you can compete in the competitive admission test.

Factors you should consider before selecting a business school are educational environment, success records, qualities of the facilities, tuition fees, session delay(if any), type of course offers, library facilities , laboratory, scope of research, scholarship facilities, credit transfer facilities etc. If you find these things belongs to any university then you may consider that university as a quality university. If you look into the top ranked universities then you will find all these facilities/factors available there.

Although success stories/records in the public universities is very much impressive over the years but now private universities are coming forward and providing world class educational facilities. But the problem is the cost of education is much more than that of public universities.

Public universities preferred by the students because of quality of education, reputation of that university and lower cost of studying.

Top University in Bangladesh

Considering the reputation of universities and educational quality, I have tried to make a list which may help to have idea about Top Universities in Bangladesh:

Top 20 University in Bangladesh 2016

  1. Dhaka University
  2. Institute of Business Administration, Jahangirnagar University
  3. Institute of Business Administration, Dhaka University
  4. North South University
  5. Khulna University
  6. Jahangirnagar University (Business Faculty)
  7. Ahsanullah University of Science and Technology (AUST)
  8. East West University
  9. Rajshahi University
  10. Brac University
  11. Chittagong University
  12. National University of Bangladesh
  13. United International University
  14. American International University
  15. Jagannath University
  16. Shahjalal University of Science & Technology (SUST)
  17. Bangladesh Agricultural University
  18. Bangladesh University of Textiles (BUtex)
  19. Independent University
  20. Bangladesh University of Professionals (BUP)

Top 10 Public University in Bangladesh

  1. Dhaka University (DU)
  2. Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology (BUET)
  3. Khulna University (KU)
  4. Jahangirnagar University (JU)
  5. Rajshahi University (RU)
  6. Chittagong University (CU)
  7. National University (NU)
  8. Jagannath University (JNU)
  9. Shahjalal University of Science & Technology (SUST)
  10. Bangladesh Agricultural University

Top 10 Private University in Bangladesh

  1. North South University
  2. Ahsanullah University of Science and Technology (AUST)
  3. East West University
  4. Brac University
  5. United International University
  6. American International University
  7. Independent University
  8. Asia Pacific University
  9. Eastern University
  10. Daffodil International University

If you think that I have missed something then you can comment here and share your opinion with us. Above ranking is based on the market value of universities. My suggestion for you is to evaluate first and then select a university to admit rather blindly believing this ranking.

5S Implementation in Apparel Educational Institution

5S Implementation in Apparel Educational Institution

This article is mainly focused on the implementation of 5S in educational institutions, a Japanese Technique in order to manage the waste and improve the cleanness of the Institution. 5S is an approach to make the workplace a better organization with an efficient and managed production. It is not only used to identify and eliminate the waste but also to work with improved methods where many teams get involved in the process. In this study, we concentrated the enactment in the Garment construction Laboratory. Firstly, the tools and equipment in the laboratory were identified and sorted according to their requirement. Later, they were arranged in a systematic order and standard operating procedure for each process was created considering safety and rules and regulations of the institution. Awareness was created among the members of the institution.

5S Implementation in apparel educational institution

  1. Introduction:

Today, every organizations has implemented the 5s management techniques for enhance productivity and competitiveness. 5s is mainly concerned with creating a well-organized and clean working environment in the whole working place. In educational sector the implementation of 5s will improve the work place, enhance better environment and elimination of accidents in workplace. This report will help to know and identify the wastes and also would provide the methods for removing and controlling the waste in the institution which will help in more systematic work procedures in the college. Students will easily adopt the industry management techniques and systems through the best practice of 5s in the educational institution. This project explains the importance of a well-organized work place in an educational institute and benefits of that is implemented. This project helps to creates clean workplace and systematic work process in the institution.

  1. 5S policy

5s is the technique to create systematic culture of organization. It is the basic foundation for the lean manufacturing. 5s is a management technique from japan. This technique focuses on establishing a quality environment in the organization, creating standard operating procedure, continuous improvement of the organization.

5s is the acronym of five Japanese words

  • Seiri – Sort
  • Seiton – Set in Order
  • Seiso – Shine
  • Seiketsu – Standardize
  • Shitsuke – Sustain

1S: Sort: Clearly distinguish needed items from unneeded and eliminate.

2S: Set in order: Keep needed items in the correct place to allow for easy and immediate retrieval.

3S: Shine: Keep the workplace neat and clean.

4S: Standardize: The method by which Sort, Set in order, Shine are made habitual.

5S: Sustain: Maintain established procedures.

Additional S: Safety – Strive to eliminate the accident in workplace.

process chart of 5sFig. no. 1- Process chart of 5S

Implementation of 5s in educational institute is making the professional with the best practice of 5s. It is not only for identifying the waste and removing, it is a process of creating quality environment and improving the safety of the organization also improving the productivity in the industries and educational institute. It will help to the student in future; they can easily adopt the 5s system in the industries after completing the studies.

3. Benefits of 5s implementation in educational institutes:

  1. Reduce the wastage level such as
  • Waiting for materials, machines, or instruction
  • Unwanted transportation or movement
  • Excessive inventory
  • Inefficient machine processing and/or operation
  • Producing defects
  • Inadequate housekeeping
  • Miscommunication or inadequate instruction
  • Time
  1. Effective utilization of resources
  2. Identification of materials makes easy accessible of workplace.
  3. Clean working environment
  4. Health and safety is ensured
  5. Machine maintenance easy
  6. Organized and disciplined way of work by sop (standard operating procedure)
  7. Uniform terminology created
  8. Quick retrieval
  9. Accidents & mistakes minimized
  10. Increases space
  11. Visual management system

4. Step by step implementation of 5S in educational institution:

1S-Sort:

Sort is the process of clearly distinguish needed items from unwanted and eliminate the unwanted items. By using the sorting form the necessary items are identified (table: 1). Then it eliminate the waste materials from the workplace. It helps to maintain the clean workplace and improve the efficiency of the searching things also the time will be reduced.

1S sortFig No: 2

After listing the Materials ask the following questions

5s implementation in apparel educational institutionFig No: 3

Step: 1 – List out the things present in the workplace.

Step: 2 – Is it needed or unwanted.

Step: 3 – If it is needed means, how much needed?

If it is needed means, when it is needed?

Step: 4 – If it is unwanted means, Move the material to red tag area

Table No 1 – 1S in Stationary

Serial No. Item Needed How much needed When needed
1 Pen Yes 1 Daily
2 Pencil Yes 1 Daily
3 Stamp pad Yes 1 Weekly
4 A4 Paper Yes Maximum 10 Daily
5 Petrol No
6 Eraser Yes 1 Daily
7 Snacks No
8 Scale Yes 1 Daily
9 Stapler Yes 1 Daily
10 Mobile charger No

2S: Set in order:

set in order

It is very important to make the visualization of workplace. Here the shortlisted needed items should be placed in appropriate place. Floor marking helps to identify the places of storage of each material and transport ways or pathway. Labeling helps to identify the material easily.

setps in set in orderFig No: 5

Step: 1- Shortlist the needed things and allocate the place for the things

Step: 2 – Needed things are divided into the following category

  • Daily usage, Weekly Usage, Monthly Usage

Step: 3 – Floor marking & Mark the location for placing the things, and give labeling to the same

Step: 4 – Prepare overall layout for the workplace to find the location.

                 Prepare the switch board layout for easy identification of switch.

Step: 4 – Always kept the things in that allocated place

3S: Shine

shineFig No: 6

Daily cleaning of workplace permits to identify and eliminates dirt and dust sources from the workplace. It maintains the workplace clean and neat.

3s stepsFig No: 7

Step: 1 – First of all find the dirt sources and identify causes for the same.

Step: 2 – Then make schedule for cleaning the workplace. According to the schedule make the cleaning checklist. Make Sign after the cleaning process.

Table no. 2- Cleaning Schedule

cleaning schedule

4S: Standardize

standardize

Implemented Sort, Set in order, Shine steps must be made habitual. Form the standard operating procedure for each and every process. Standardization helps to effective communication and easy to understand. SOP (Standard operating procedure) should not violate the standard rules of organization.

4s standardization stepsFig No: 9

Step: 1 – Standardize every process in the institute

Step: 2 – Giving responsibility to every one

5S: Sustain

sustainFig No: 10

Maintain the established procedures in the organization. Create awareness to new comers of the educational institute. They should obey the system of 5S.It helps to continuous improvement of the institute. Once a month must make a 5S inspection of workplace and everyone should know the importance of 5S concept. It helps to the sustainability of 5S in the educational institute.

5s sustain stepsFig No: 11

Step: 1 – Follow and maintain the established standards

Step: 2 – Monthly once make auditing in the workplace.

  1. During 5S Implementation:

5S Implementation10. Before 5S and after Implementation of 5S Photos

effect of 5s implementaion in apparel industry

Before and After Implementation of 5S

effect of 5S implementation in apparel educational institution

5S implementation techniques11.Conclusion

Implementation of 5S in college and educational institute, the workplace becomes organized and proper place for education. Implementation of 5S helps to make the work of each and every individual easier. Students discipline improved with the help of 5S practice. In future student can easily adopt the industry rules and regulation through the best practice of 5S. This helps to make every work in smart way. Most of the accident and mistake reduced. 5S implementation in the college will improve its effectiveness.

References:

  1. Michalska Cwiek,“The quality management system in education, implementation and certification” , Dec-2009, Volume 3 Issue 2, JAMME
  2. Nik Zainiah Nik Abd Rahman, “Step by step implementation of 5S” www.npc.org.my
  3. K. Ho, TQM N INTEGRATED Approaching- Implementing Total Quality through Japanese 5S and ISO 9000, Kogan page, London. 1996

AUTHOR BIOGRAPHY

 SIVAKUMAR.P

 P. Sivakumar

The author is currently an industrial engineer in JayJay Mills (India) Pvt Ltd. His area of interests includes standardization, Lean Manufacturing. Email: [email protected]

Difference between Systematic and Unsystematic Risk

Difference between Systematic and Unsystematic Risk

As an investor you must know the difference between systematic and unsystematic risk because it will help you to take effective investment decision. If you observer the investment decision of an investor, you can see that their investment decision is highly influenced by their risk taking behavior. Although future is uncertain, people always try to assume how much risk may arise in future if an investment is made.

Risk is the portion of uncertainty which we can measure. Normally risk is considered the deviation between what an investor expects and in return what he/she gets.

In a broader sense risk can be categorized into two types; one is systematic risk which is non diversifiable risk and other is unsystematic risk or non-systematic risk or diversifiable risk. Let have a detail discussions of systematic risk and unsystematic risk with examples:

Systematic Risk

The percent of risk which we cannot minimize or reduce through diversification is considered as systematic risk. This means that this type of risk is impossible to eliminate by an individual. It is directly related with the market, that’s why systematic risk also known as market risk. From my point of view systematic risk is arisen from the macro economic factors (inflation, unemployment rate, oil price etc.) which is beyond our control. Only through proper economic planning of government can reduce this types of risk. One important thing you need to know that although implementation of effective economic policies by government would reduce this type of risk but it needs time to be visible in the market. That’s why we cannot consider it when taking our individual investment decisions.

examples of unsystematic riskBeta is the measure of systematic risk and market beta is always one. The reason behind market beta is to be 1 is that we cannot minimize or eliminate systematic risk by our own. Beta can be calculated through dividing the covariance between individual securities and market to the variance of market.

Beta = Systematic Risk

Examples of Systematic Risk

As we have already know that systematic risk arises because of change in macro-economic factors, for showing the example of systematic risk we will use macroeconomic factors (Inflation rate, unemployment rate, market interest, oil price and political condition).

  • Suppose market interest rate is increased, in this case if we want to borrow money from the market we have to pay more interest than previous because cost of funds increased. Individually we cannot change the market interest rate so this works as a systematic risk.
  • Increase in inflation rate, this means the buying power of money is decreased. For this reason we can buy less resource than previous. So increase in inflation works as a systematic risk which existed in the market. Only monetary policy of government can influence the inflation rate.

If there is increase in unemployment rate then people will have less money to purchase goods and services. And this will create negative impact on the business which is beyond the control of individuals.

Unsystematic Risk

Unsystematic risk also known as diversifiable risk or nonsystematic risk. This type of risk arises from the micro-economic factors which directly or indirectly related with business and through carefully managed you can eliminate this unsystematic risk.

A popular portfolio management concept is diversification, through investing in negatively correlated investment alternatives. That is invest in different companies from different industries which do not have any direct link among them. The better you manage your portfolio the lower will be your systematic risk.

As unsystematic risk is not directly related with economic system, we can manage it in a better way through taking effective decision individually and maximize our return on investment.

Examples of Unsystematic Risk

Individual industry or company related any kinds of risk is considered as unsystematic risk for the company. Examples of unsystematic risk can be:

  • Increased labor turnover rate due to dispute of payment related issues among employer and employee.
  • Increase in research and development cost of the company.
  • Increase in operational expenses.

systematic and unsystematic risk

Here in this graph you can see that systematic risk is fixed in nature, that’s why we work on with unsystematic risk to eliminate it or keep it at a lower level. If it is possible then total risk of the investment will be reduced.

Difference between Systematic and Unsystematic Risk

From the above clarification about systematic and unsystematic risk we can easily identify several difference between systematic risk and unsystematic risk of the business/investment. Here is the list of difference between systematic and unsystematic risk:

Systematic Risk

Unsystematic Risk

Systematic risk arises on account of the economy with uncertainties and the tendency of individual securities to move together with the change in the market.

Unsystematic risk is that part of risk which arises from the uncertainties and which are unique to individual securities and can be diversifiable.

Directly related with economic system of a country.

Directly not related with economic system, rather it is more about business or company related.

Systematic risk is known as non-diversifiable risk/ not diversifiable/ market risk/ macroeconomic risk.

Unsystematic risk is known as diversifiable risk, not systematic risk.

We cannot reduce this type of risk individually This type of risk can be reduced
Negatively correlated investment cannot eliminate the risk.

It is possible to eliminate the risk by forming portfolio of negatively correlated investment.

Beta is a measure of systematic risk.

Unsystematic risk is the function of may macroeconomic factors related with business.

Basically investors not try to work with systematic risk.

Investors always try to reduce this type of risk through better managing their investment.

Examples:

  • Change in market interest rate
  • Increase in inflation
  • Change in oil price
  • Unemployment rate
Examples:

  • Increase in business operational cost
  • Workers strike in the factory
  • Employee turnover

Although we cannot work with the systematic risk but we have many things to do with unsystematic risk because if we can manage it in a better way, then our business will be more profitable with lower risk. By choosing negatively related investment alternatives we can form an optimal portfolio but it is not easy task for the financial manager.  There is involvement of risk with every investment alternatives but we have to consider the systematic portion and then work with controllable factors which we actually can improve.

difference between systematic and unsystematic riskFinally, my suggestion is for you that take a time for risk analysis before any investment, otherwise you may have to incur loss. Risk always was there and will be there, so do not afraid to take challenge, think and then take a right choice.

If you have any confusion then please comment here. We will try to help you to understand. You can also comment to our facebook page

Quality Improvement Techniques in Apparel Industry

Quality Improvement Techniques in Apparel Industry or Garments Industry

As quality is one of the key success factors, managers always try to devote their effort for improving the quality of garments. In this article we will show you how quality improvement techniques in apparel industry can be ensured.  Not only productivity but also quality improvement getting most importance in apparel industry. Without ensuring quality you should not make shipment of your goods to the customer’s destination. We have seen that sometimes our valuable customers reject the goods or hang the payment because of low quality goods which is not in accordance with the specification. Although there is continuous efforts is given but there may have some problem which is not correctable/repairable. So it would be a right decision to take all precautionary measures to avoid unexpected fault of your garments and ensure right quality.

Quality Improvement Techniques in Apparel Industry

Garments Quality depends on these Quality Factors

If you want to ensure quality and continuous improvement then you have to avoid the following defects of the garments.

  1. Fabric defect
  2. Trims and accessories defect
  3. Cutting defect
  4. Construction and placement Defect
  5. Seam and Stitching Defect
  6. Finishing defect
  7. Packing defect

Let’s have a short discussion about these quality factors/matters

Fabric Defect

Fabric cost is at least 60% out of total garment Cost. Apparel Industry inspect fabric roll for quality matter. If your fabric roll fail in inspection you should return to fabric supplier and replace with the quality one. If your finished garment contains fabric defect, you are the one who will be responsible for that not fabric supplier.

Trims and Accessories Defect

Apparel industry should check all trims and accessories after in housed. If they found any problem, they should return to suppliers for replacement.

Cutting Defect

As per Running shade and Selvage report, marker will make for bulk cutting. Otherwise garments will contain part shading. All cut components should match with marker.

Construction and Placement Defect

You will sewing garments as per buyer’s approved sample for bulk production. All stitching of every process should same as sample. Different parts placement should accurate. Up-down is not acceptable.

Seam and Stitching Defect

All sewing machine should fit for sewing with accurate tension. Otherwise there are possibilities of skip stitches, puckering. Garments should be clear of some other stitching defects like: broken stitch, over stitch, down stitch, jam stitch, and joint stitch.

Finishing Defect

After pressing Garments there should be no crease mark, puckering. Keeping good appearance is also necessary for garments.

Packing Defect

There are zero tolerance any types of packing defect. Incorrect size, incorrect PO, incorrect quantity, folding defect include in packing defect. You should be careful about these defects.

Inspection

You should check your quality of 100% garments in finishing. If repairable of defective garments, you should repair it quickly as you can. Before final inspection, you can do pre-final or shadow inspection to see quality of your packed garments. If you found lots of defect in packed garments, you should re-check all garments and take effective measures to resolve the quality problem of garments.

Finally quality improvement is a continuous process that’s why you have to give your effort continuously and this will be possible through proper monitoring every steps of garments manufacturing. If you can ensure monitoring and take immediate action to resolve the defects then obviously you product quality will be improved.

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

Facebook: Amirul Islam Washim

E-mail: [email protected]

If you like this article please do not forget to share on facebook and put your valuable comment.

Types of Garments Defects

Types of Garments Defects

You may find several types of garments defects in a production process. First of all let have some idea of what basically defect is? Any variation from quality standard (QS) that affects appearance, durability, safety or fitness of a product is called defect.

 garments defects

Defects are classified into following three categories

  1. Critical Defects
  2. Major Defects
  3. Minor Defect

Critical Defects: It refers that the product is unsafe or hazardous for the end user or violate mandatory regulations.

Major Defects: Major defects can result in the product visual or performance failure, reducing its marketability or usability. Because of this defect product cannot be sold as a 1st quality. If it is possible to repair or eliminate this defect then it will be possible to upgrade that product as a first quality.

Minor Defect: If a product has minor defect then this type of product can be marketable and usable, but this will loss the standard quality. Because of this type of defects product fall short of defined specifications or quality standard.

types of garments defects

Different Types of Garments Defects

We can further classify garments defects into following categories

Construction Defects: This defects created in garments manufacturing, actually occur at the time of product construction.

Color defects: Shading problem in garments contain color defect. If there is wrong shade of color is applied on the product. Color defect is one kind of visual defect which can be the reason of reject of the product by the customers.

Fabric Defects: Garments are manufactured by using fabric. If there is any defect in the fabric then it will produce defected garments. That’s why fabric defect is surely will be visible in garments.

Trims Defect: Wrong trims and accessories considered as a trims defect.

Packing defect: Packing is very crucial and sensitive process for export garments. Choice of wrong packing materials may create defected package. On the other hand wrong size packaging also considered as defected packaging. As because there are lots of defects found in packing, caution need to be taken when packaging.

Fit and Measurement Defect: You can’t make 100% accurate garments in maintaining measurement as buyer expectation. But there are a certain tolerance of measurement, you can’t cross that limit.

I have made a list of every category defect. See in the below.

Check the following list to get idea of defects under different categories of garments defects

Different Types of Garments Defects

  1. Construction Defect

ALIGNMENT PLEAT POOR REPAIR
BARTACK MISSING POOR HEAT MELTING TWISTED LEG
BARTACK PLACEMENT OFF POOR SEAM SEALING MISSING BELTLOOP
BARTACK POOR PUCKERING WHITE SPOTS
BROKEN STITCHES RAVEL BACK ADHESION SEPARATION
BURNT MARK ROPING WRINKLED-FOOTWEAR
CONCAVE SCUFFS / BRUISED POOR LASTING
CONVEX SEE THROUGH / VISIBLE POOR ATTACHMENT-FOOTWEAR
CROOKED SEWN CAUGHT POOR MOULDED
CUT SPI INCORRECT POOR INJECTION
DEFECTIVE STICKER SPI UNEVEN LUMPY
DISTORTED STITCHES EXCESS / OVERRUN UNSTABLE-FOOTWEAR
DOWN LEAKAGE STITCHES EXPOSED POOR CLENCHED-FOOTWEAR
EXCESS FABRIC STITCHES LOOSE MISMATCHED-FOOTWEAR
EXPOSED STITCHES MISSING WATERPROOF LEAKAGE
FOLD BACK STITCHES SKIP NON-WICKING FAILED
FRAYING EDGE / RAW EDGE STITCHING INSECURE POOR ZIG-ZAG STITCHING
FULLNESS STITCHING UNEVEN DAMAGED
HI-LOW TIGHT TENSION POOR EDGE STAIN
HI-KING UNEVEN GATNERING CRACKING
HOLE UNEVEN LENGTH POOR HEEL SHAPE CURVE-FW
INCOMPLETE OPERATION UNTRIMMED THREADS HARD EDGE-FOOTWEAR
INCORRECT OPERATION WAVY STITCHING ENDS NOTLOCK-FW
INCORRECT STITCH MARGIN WIDTH VARIATION PU HYDROLYSIS
JOINT STITCHES YARN END NOT SECURED UNDER CURING – FOOTWEAR
MENDING MARK LAMINATION POOR NONUV OF CE/INJECT EVA-FW
MISSING OPERATION MISALIGNMENT VISIBLE/DEEP PARTING LINE
NEEDLE CUTS LOPSIDED CONTAMINATION – FOOTWEAR
NEEDLE HOLE PEELING OFF OFF SPEC-FOOTWEAR/EQUIPMT
NOT CUT APART EXCESS / LESS DOWN FILL WHITE SPOTS
OFF TRACK / RUN OFF NONFUNCTIONAL ARM CAN’TBE CLOSED COMPLE
OPEN SEAM LOOSING STUD GAPPING
OVERLAPPED SHIFTING WHEEL
PLACEMENT OFF ROCKING

2. Color Defect

DYE LOTS INFILTRATION
CLR COMBINATION COLOR BLEEDING
SHADE OFF YELLOWING
SHADING WITHIN PRODUCT POOR DYED COLOR SHADE
SUBLAMINATION CONTAMINATION ON WHITE/LT

3. Fabric Defect

BARRIE STREAK
BLEEDING THICK YARN
BOWING THIN YARN
BROKEN YARN UNEVEN DYE
COARSE YARN WAVY EDGE
COLOR MIGRATION YELLOWING
CREASE LINE CROSS STAIN
DELAMINATION SCAR / LEATHER
DROP STITCHES BELLY CUT / LEATHER
FABRIC DAMAGE HAIRY LONG/SHORT/LEATHER
FOREIGN YARN UNMATCHED GRAIN/LEATHER
HOLE INFERIOR QUALITY/LEATHER
INCORRECT FIBER CONTENT POOR HARDNESS/LEATHER
KNOTS SCRATCHED MARK/LEATHER
LOOPS CUT MARK/LEATHER
LOOSE YARN END DEFECTIVE MARK/LEATHER
MISSING YARN INSUFFICIENT OIL/LEATHER
NAPS POOR POLISH/LEATHER
NEEDLE LINE POOR ROUGH/GRIND/LEATHER
ODOR SMELL POOR SKIVED LEATHER EDGE
PULLING YARN SCRATCHED MARK/LEATHER
SHADE BAR / STOP MARK IMPURITY
SHADE OFF SCRATCHED
SKEWING DIFF. DEGREE OF TIGHTNESS
SLUBS PEEL OFF LACQUER
SNAGGING

4. Trims Defect

ATTACHMENT DEFECTIVE RIVET UP SIDE DOWN
ATTACHMENT INCORRECT SEAM TAPING DEFECTIVE
ATTACHMENT MISSING SEAM TAPING INCORRECT
ATTACHMENT OXIDIZED SEAM TAPING MISSING
ATTACHMENT PLACEMENT OFF SEAM TAPING PLACEMENT OFF
ATTACHMENT UP SIDE DOWN SEAM TAPING UP SIDE DOWN
BUCKLE DEFECTIVE SNAP DEFECTIVE
BUCKLE INCORRECT SNAP INCORRECT
BUCKLE MISSING SNAP MISSING
BUCKLE OXIDIZED SNAP OXIDIZED
BUCKLE PLACEMENT OFF SNAP PLACEMENT OFF
BUCKLE UP SIDE DOWN SNAP UP SIDE DOWN
BUTTON DEFECTIVE STRAP DEFECTIVE
BUTTON INCORRECT STRAP INCORRECT
BUTTON MISSING STRAP MISSING
BUTTON OXIDIZED STRAP PLACEMENT OFF
BUTTON PLACEMENT OFF STRAP UP SIDE DOWN
BUTTON UP SIDE DOWN TAG DEFECTIVE
DRAW CORD DEFECTIVE TAG INCORRECT
DRAW CORD INCORRECT TAG MISSING
DRAW CORD MISSING TAG PLACEMENT OFF
DRAW CORD PLACEMENT OFF TAG UP SIDE DOWN
DRAW CORD UP SIDE DOWN THREAD DEFECTIVE
ELASTIC DEFECTIVE THREAD INCORRECT
ELASTIC INCORRECT THREAD MISSING
ELASTIC MISSING THREAD PLACEMENT OFF
ELASTIC PLACEMENT OFF THREAD UP SIDE DOWN
ELASTIC UP SIDE DOWN VELCRO DEFECTIVE
EYELET DEFECTIVE VELCRO INCORRECT
EYELET INCORRECT VELCRO MISSING
EYELET MISSING VELCRO PLACEMENT OFF
EYELET OXIDIZED VELCRO UP SIDE DOWN
EYELET PLACEMENT OFF WHEEL DEFECTIVE
EYELET UP SIDE DOWN WHEEL INCORRECT
HANDLE DEFECTIVE WHEEL MISSING
HANDLE INCORRECT WHEEL OXIDIZED
HANDLE MISSING WHEEL PLACEMENT OFF
HANDLE OXIDIZED WHEEL UP SIDE DOWN
HANDLE PLACEMENT OFF ZIPPER DEFECTIVE
HANDLE UP SIDE DOWN ZIPPER INCORRECT
HOOK & EYE DEFECTIVE ZIPPER MISSING
HOOK & EYE INCORRECT ZIPPER OXIDIZED
HOOK & EYE MISSING ZIPPER PLACEMENT OFF
HOOK & EYE OXIDIZED ZIPPER UP SIDE DOWN
HOOK & EYE PLACEMENT OFF POLY BAG INCORRECT
HOOK & EYE UP SIDE DOWN POLY BAG MISSING
LABEL DEFECTIVE POLY BAG DAMAGED
LABEL INCORRECT POLY BAG LABEL INCORRECT
LABEL MISSING POLY BAG LABEL MISSING
LABEL PLACEMENT OFF POLY BAG LABEL DAMAGED
LABEL UP SIDE DOWN POLYBAG LABEL PLACE’T OFF
PATCH DEFECTIVE INFERIOR HF WELDED/PEELOF
PATCH INCORRECT LOOP/D-RING INSECURE
PATCH MISSING EYELET CRACKAGE-FOOTWEAR
PATCH PLACEMENT OFF MALFUNCTION BOA
PATCH UP SIDE DOWN BROKEN LACE TAG
POLE DEFECTIVE MISALIGNED BOA EYESTAY
POLE INCORRECT INCORRECT CABLE LENGTH-FW
POLE MISSING MALFUNCTIONING FIT AID SY
POLE OXIDIZED POORLY SECURED PLASTIC SC
POLE PLACEMENT OFF MISSING LOGO
POLE UP SIDE DOWN DEFECTIVE LOGO
RIVET DEFECTIVE INCORRECT LOGO
RIVET INCORRECT OFFPLACED LOGO
RIVET MISSING RIVET PLACEMENT OFF

5. Packing Defect

CARTON DAMAGED MISSING TAG
CARTON PROTUBERATED MIXED COLOR
CARTON QUALITY POOR MIXED PO#
CARTON SIZE INCORRECT MIXED SIZE
CASE LABEL CORRECTION OVER WEIGHT
CASE LABEL INCORRECT INCORRECT TAG
INCORRECT BARCODE INCORRECT GMT PACKED
INCORRECT COLOR INCORRECT POLYBAG PRINT
INCORRECT COUNT MISSED SELICA GEL
INCORRECT FOLDING INCORRECT INNER BOX
INCORRECT SHIPPING MARK MISMATCHED ODD PAIR-FOOTW
INCORRECT SIZE MISS SHOE TREE SUPPORT-FW
INCORRECT PO# INFERIOR POLYBAG
MISSING DETACHABLE ACCESY EMPTY INNER BOX
MISSING GARMENT TEST REPT MISSED HANGER
MISSING PLASTIC STRAP TORN/DAMAGED/WRINKLED LAB
MISSING STICKER POOR ADHESION OF LABEL
MISSED SHOES DIRT MARKS

6. Fit and Measurement Defect

After crossing certain limit garments measurement, there will be defect. There are defined measurement of all parts of garments. I have make an example how measurement up down expressing:

– 1 1/4″ – 3/8″
 – 1 1/2″  – 5/8″
 – 1 3/4″  – 7/8″
 – 2″  – 1 1/8″
 – 2 1/4″  – 1 3/8″
 – 2 1/2″  – 1 5/8″
 – 2 3/4″  – 1 7/8″
 – 3″  – 2 1/8″
 – MORE THAN 3″  – 2 3/8″
 + 1/4″  – 2 5/8″
 + 1/2″  – 2 7/8″
 + 3/4″  + 1/8″
 + 1″  + 3/8″
 + 1 1/4″  + 5/8″
 + 1 1/2″  + 7/8″
 + 1 3/4″  + 1 1/8″
 + 2″  + 1 3/8″
 + 2 1/4″  + 1 5/8″
 + 2 1/2″  + 1 7/8″
 + 2 3/4″  + 2 1/8″
 + 3″  + 2 3/8″
 + MORE THAN 3″  + 2 5/8″
 – 1/8″  + 2 7/8″

 

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

Facebook: Amirul Islam Washim

Phone: +8801929643301
E-mail: [email protected]

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Purchase Order Sheet of Garments Manufacturing

Purchase Order Sheet of Garments Manufacturing

Purchase Order sheet is simply known as PO sheet. Purchase order sheet of garments manufacturing (PO sheet) is commonly used important document for Garments Manufacturing. Basically purchase order sheet contains the information of confirmation of buyer order. To clarify some important manufacturing and technical issues buyer has to provide PO Sheet. In a PO sheet there may have information of product style, PO number, fabric cost, trims cost, garments unit cost, order quantity, shipment date, shipment destination and many others important things.

purchase order sheet of garments manufacturing

Purchase Order (PO) sheet is necessary for every department of Apparel Industry. Without PO sheet you will not be able to know about your shipment date, shipping destination, over ship or under ship tolerance, payment term. That’s why this document (PO sheet) is such an important.

Information Include in Purchase Order (PO)

Considering the importance of this document I have made a list of basic information which may include in PO Sheet.

  1. PO Number
  2. Style/Lot Number
  3. Order Quantity
  4. Shipment Date
  5. Unit Cost
  6. Total Cost of that PO
  7. Factory Name
  8. Vendor Name
  9. Shipping Address
  10. Overseas Port reach Date
  11. Sourcing Agent
  12. Shipment Terms
  13. LC Number
  14. Fabric Supplier Name and Code
  15. Fabric Content
  16. EXIT COUNTRY PORT
  17. Trims and Accessories cost
  18. Product Category
  19. Season
  20. Description
  21. Goods Description
  22. Size wise Order Quantity
  23. Transaction Policy
  24. Payment Terms
  25. Necessary Instruction
  26. Terms and Conditions
  27. Overship Tolerance
  28. Undership Tolerance

Explanation of key terms of Purchase Order

Following explanation may help you to understand the key terms of PO sheet

PO Number: PO number is unique purchase order number which is fixed by buyer.

Style: As per garments category or Color buyer separated by different style name.

Season: Buyer divide a year in 3 or 4 or more seasons as per overseas weather and their consumer demand.

Unit Cost: Unit cost mean cost of single garments. It can be FOB, Cnf or C.I.F.

Goods Description: Description about goods which can be long or short. Top or Bottom wear.

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

Facebook: Amirul Islam Washim

Phone: +8801929643301
E-mail: [email protected]

Pre Production Meeting in Apparel Industry

Pre Production Meeting in Apparel Industry

Pre production meeting is known as PP meeting in Garments/Apparel industry. In pre production meeting in apparel industry, discussion of every important issues related with bulk production is done, so that respected parties can ensure successful shipment of ordered goods. What kind of precautionary measures that need to be taken by the company is being set in PP meeting.

Pre Production Meeting in Apparel Industry

Working Procedure of Pre Production Meeting

  1. Make a plan of bulk Production
  2. Make layout
  3. Review PP sample/Size set sample/ 1st Production.
  4. Discussing all process parameter of every section.
  5. Review all checklist of PP meeting.
  6. Giving special instruction for bulk production.
  7. Find out all construction and structural defects of PP sample/Size set/1st production

Merchandiser confirm that all necessary items are already in housed for finished garments.

Some Important Documents to Present in PP Meeting

  • Purchase order sheet (PO Sheet)
  • Fabric inventory Report
  • Trims and Accessories inventory Report
  • Shade Grading Report
  • Shrinkage Report
  • Fabric Inspection Report
  • Trims and Accessories inspection Report

Attendances of Parties in Pre Production Meeting

PP meeting can be held in buying house or factory or in both. These respective person need to be present in Pre-Production Meeting:

  1. Buying QC
  2. Merchandiser
  3. Technical Team
  4. Head of Warehouse
  5. Head of cutting
  6. Head of Sewing
  7. Head of Finishing
  8. Production Representative/PM
  9. Quality Representative
  10. Industrial Engineer

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

Facebook: Amirul Islam Washim

Phone: +8801929643301
E-mail: [email protected]

What is Woven Fabric Features of Woven Fabric

What is woven Fabric Features of Woven Fabric

Many people looking for the answer what is woven fabric features of woven fabric, for this reason i tried to explain this in a easiest way so that you can understand it in a better way. Basically woven is produced by weaving process in loom. In manufacturing Structure of Woven fabric, it is made by interlacement of Warp and Weft yarn. Warp yarn is used in lengthwise and weft yarn in used in width-wise.

There are three structural design of woven fabric. These are

  1. Plain weave
  2. Twill Weave
  3. Stain Weave

Woven fabric construction

Basic Construction of Woven fabric is used as = (Ends per inch X Picks per inch)/ (Warp count X Weft Count) X Width.

As per example,

If, EPI (Ends per inch) = 128

PPI (Picks per inch) =64

Warp Count=30

Weft Count=20

Fabric width=60

So fabric construction will be = (128X60)/ (30X20) X 60

what is woven fabric features of woven fabric

Features of Woven fabric

  1. It is produced in Weaving
  2. Both Warp and Weft yarn is used in Woven fabric manufacturing
  3. It is more durable than knit and non-woven fabric
  4. Fabric width generally 59/60/61 inch
  5. Generally no stretch-ability in woven fabric
  6. Generally woven fabric in made by plain, twill or stain weave.
  7. usually smooth
  8. Iron in medium temperature

Different types of woven fabrics

  • Twill Fabric
  • Denim
  • Gabardine
  • Georgette
  • Oxford Fabric
  • Velvet
  • Khadi
  • Dobby Fabric
  • Solid Fabric
  • Grey fabric
  • Muslin
  • Organdy
  • Poplin
  • Voile
  • Bedford Cord
  • Chiffon
  • Canvas
  • Calico
  • Cambric
  • Drill
  • Jamdani
  • Gabardine
  • Linen
  • Ninon
  • Flannel
  • Y/D Fabric
  • S/D Fabric
  • T/C Fabric
  • Tappet
  • Printed Fabric
  • Brushed fabric
  • Pocketing Fabric
  • Wild silk
  • Warp Printing
  • Waxed Cotton

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

Facebook: Amirul Islam Washim

Phone: +8801929643301
E-mail: [email protected]

Top Garment Buyers of Bangladesh

List of Top Garment Buyers of Bangladesh

Now Bangladesh is one of the largest RMG exporters serving in the world. In recent time, Bangladesh is developing their apparel sector. Top garment buyers of Bangladesh; RMG (Ready Made Garments) buyers of Bangladesh are mainly from USA, UK, Canada, Australia, Switzerland, Italy, France, and from entire Europe continent and many other countries. Bangladesh apparel industry is growing so rapidly because of lower cost of production with capacity to produce quality goods. We have acquired expertise to produce according to the buyers demand around the world that’s why our market demand is increasing day by day. Because of easier communication system buyers from the European countries contact with garment product sellers and they get quick response because we have higher interest to serve the buyers according to their demand.

Top Garment Buyers of Bangladesh

I have tried to make a list of top garment buyers of Bangladesh so that you can get the idea of who are the main buyers of garments. This article will be helpful for the merchandisers or any other person is interested to engage in exporting garments. If you are a merchandiser of local or multinational company located in Bangladesh then this will definitely help you to get the buyers name and contact with them. So that you can increase your company’s total exporting.

Here is the list of top Garments buyers of Bangladesh from around the world

  1. H&M
  2. Wal-Mart
  3. Li & Fung
  4. Adidas
  5. Levis
  6. VF Asia
  7. Nike
  8. GAP
  9. Tesco
  10. C&A
  11. Target
  12. ASDA
  13. .Next
  14. Zara
  15. Old Navy
  16. PVH
  17. S. Oliver
  18. Puma
  19. K-mart
  20. M&S
  21. BHS
  22. Mother care
  23. Wool-worth
  24. Otto
  25. American Eagle
  26. US polo
  27. Tom Tailor
  28. European Eagle
  29. IC Company
  30. New look
  31. Banana
  32. Tema
  33. Terco
  34. Tally
  35. Peri Ellis
  36. Hugo boss
  37. Esprit
  38. Fashion link
  39. Reebok
  40. Armani
  41. First textile
  42. G-star
  43. NKD
  44. Decathlon
  45. Carretow
  46. Carrefour
  47. Laredoute
  48. Lindex
  49. Vertbaudet
  50. Uniquelo
  51. Best Seller
  52. Promod
  53. Black Berry
  54. Tom tailor
  55. New look
  56. Ramond
  57. Up-2-date
  58. Damart
  59. ITC
  60. Mahindra
  61. P. P.-Tex
  62. F.G
  63. Umbro
  64. Asmara
  65. Ed Ward wang
  66. Esprit
  67. Erima
  68. Spider
  69. Greenville
  70. MB Fashion
  71. Maskos
  72. Gastrok
  73. Maxim
  74. OBS
  75. Texco
  76. Multiline
  77. DR & S
  78. Katag
  79. Colince
  80. Octagon
  81. Cream Soda
  82. Trig Lobe
  83. Shobi Fashion
  84. Kiabi
  85. Brice
  86. Sumi tomo
  87. Algodon
  88. Zaogora
  89. Vood Bridge
  90. Air Soluation
  91. Evrozon
  92. Ginkana
  93. Lion star
  94. TKI
  95. Ulla popken
  96. New Yorker
  97. Terma tex
  98. Mister & Lady
  99. BTX
  100. Q. Solution
  101. Jules
  102. Delta plus
  103. EWM
  104. Hema
  105. Neck & Neck
  106. Momo prix
  107. YSL
  108. Carrera
  109. Giordano
  110. Quick Silver
  111. Inter sport
  112. Etam
  113. Shobey
  114. Women secret
  115. B. Young
  116. Matteo
  117. Liugo
  118. Pierre Cardin
  119. Francesca
  120. Mustang
  121. Silvian Heach
  122. Spring Field
  123. Gor Factory
  124. Sains Burry
  125. P&C
  126. Mexx
  127. KHOL’S
  128. JCP
  129. CK
  130. 3 Suisse’s
  131. South Pole
  132. V&D
  133. Guess
  134. Jack & Jones
  135. Mango (Turnkey)
  136. River Island
  137. Wallis
  138. Topshop
  139. Matalan
  140. Primark
  141. Debenhams
  142. Helly Hansen
  143. John Lewis
  144. Dunnes Store
  145. Heaton”s
  146. Securex
  147. Jacadi
  148. Kitaro
  149. Car Erra
  150. Catch Catch
  151. Sears
  152. Hot Source
  153. Beniton

If you know other than these buyers name then please let us know through your valuable comment. We are eagerly waiting for your response. Hope this article will enrich your knowledge about who are the top garments buyers of Bangladesh.

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

Facebook: Amirul Islam Washim

Phone: +8801929643301
E-mail: [email protected]