What is Merchandising

What is Merchandising?

Merchandising is a process of selling goods and services. The process of merchandising starts with identifying target customers, setting a price for a particular product, do negotiation and finally deliver the product to the customer. I asked the question what is merchandising to several people who are involved with apparel industry just to hear from them how they actually define merchandising. Most of them said that all the activities to sell a product is merchandising. So, the scope of merchandising is not limited to how we define merchandising is rather than all activities are related to selling is merchandising.

As a process of merchandising in the apparel industry, wholesaler/manufacturer use merchandiser to communicate with the buyer of garments or to bring new customer, negotiate with them and make them induce to place an order. So, in this case merchandising is related with wholesale of merchandise (garments).

What is Merchandising

Example of Apparel Merchandising

Suppose H & M buy different types of garments from Epyllion and those people responsible for communicating, placing the order, bargaining, receiving an order, sampling etc. are merchandiser and all together these tasks are merchandising.

So, the process by which a merchandiser sells their products to the target customer is called merchandising. Merchandising is a commonly used term, mostly applicable in the apparel industry. Every year in apparel industry many merchandisers are recruited for the purpose of merchandising.

The demand for merchandising is increasing for-profit motive organization but the question is who will deal with merchandising for the organization. A person deals with the selling of products who is known as a merchandiser. Remember one thing that it is not necessary to involve merchandising for an export purpose it also can be used for local business.

There are basically two forms of Merchandising

  1. Retail Merchandising
  2. Visual Merchandising

Recently Another two forms of Merchandising are visible from the functional characteristics of merchandising. These are

  1. Virtual Merchandising (Online Selling)
  2. Wholesale Selling (Merchandising on behalf of Wholesaler or manufacturer)

Garments Merchandising

Garments merchandising is both applicable for wholesale and retail merchandising in the apparel industry. Where merchandisers work for manufacturer, wholesaler and retail store. Garments Merchandising is one of the popular forms of merchandising because of its extensive use in the apparel industry. Merchandising process make it easier to meet the buyer’s requirement through time to time follow up and ensuring on-time delivery of garments items.

Garments Merchandiser

Garments merchandiser is the person who is responsible for merchandising of garments products and services. Merchandising is the core function of a merchandiser. A garments merchandiser need to have several qualifications to become a successful merchandising. Garments merchandiser basically contact with garments buyers, negotiate with them, take orders, manage samples and send it to the buyers, take the order and finally, ensure the delivery of the product to the buyers at the right time.

Difference Between Merchandising and Marketing

Many people become confused about whether marketing and merchandising are similar or different. There is a difference between merchandising and marketing. Marketing is a broad area of business where merchandising is a part of marketing activities, which deals with the selling of goods and services.

Finally, briefly, we can define merchandising as a set of activities we (Merchandisers) do to sell our product and services to the target customers for the purpose of generating revenue and satisfy our customer.

Merchandising is a set of activities for selling products, merchandise, service to the target customer with the help of merchandiser.


Written by

Md. Nahian Mahmud Shaikat

Sample Quality Check List for Apparel Industry

Sample Quality Check List for Apparel Industry

The sample represents bulk garments, for any type of quality check, the quality control manager chooses garments as a sample basis rather than checking of the whole amount. Sampling plays a very important role in the garments manufacturing. By approving sample, buyer approves to start bulk production of garments. Sample quality checking is mandatory functions required by the customer (buyer) for the apparel industry. Every factory has a sample section to make sample garments. Sample quality has to be the best product as much as possible because based on sample garments buyers will place an order. A checklist follows for checking sample quality of garments. For your better understanding, I made a Sample Quality Check List for Apparel Industry. Hope this will be helpful for you to do a quality check of your sample garments.

Garments Sample

You may also like: PP Meeting checklist of the apparel industry

Key Points of Sample Quality Check List of Garments

  1. PO sheet
  2. Approved trim card
  3. Approved sample
  4. Production PDM
  5. Measurement
  6. Defects
  7. Visual outlook

Sample Quality Check List for Apparel Industry

Quality Check List for Apparel Industry

Order Details/QA Style File

  1. PO Sheet
  2. Production PDM/Bulk PDM
  3. Approved Sampling
  4. Approved Trim Cards
  5. Body Fabric
  6. Trim/Contrast Fabric
  7. Pocketing Fabric
  8. Twill Tape/Drawstring

Approved Label

  1. Main Label/Heat Seal Label
  2. Size Label
  3. Care Label
  4. Cargo pocket Label

Approved Trims

  1. Fusible Interlining
  2. All Sewing Thread
  3. Button
  4. Zipper
  5. Velcro


  1. Embroidery
  2. Print
  3. Rhinestone

Approved Ticketing/Finishing Trims

  1. UPC
  2. Size Stripe
  3. Billboard
  4. Hang Tag
  5. Marketing Tag
  6. Hanger/Sizer

Wash Verification Report

  1. Approved Wash Standard/V-Code
  2. Shade band/ Leg Panel
  3. SHADE (B – base color) Light or dark
  4. A- (abrasion) Less or heavy
  5. T- (Tint) Heavy or less
  6. C- (coverage all dry process)
  7. H- (Hand feel) Hard or soft

Lab Test Report

  1. Button Pull Test Report
  2. Button Torque Test Report
  3. Garments Test Report
  4. In-house Lab Test Report

Finishing, packing, and Folding

  1. Ironing/Pressing
  2. Folding & Packing
  3. Polybag
  4. Folding Method
  5. Review Summary
  6. Top Defects

Download: Sample Quality Check List for Apparel Industry (excel)

Sample Quality Check List for Apparel Industry (pdf)

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)
Email: [email protected]

Linkedin: A.M. Amirul Islam

Garments Pattern Making Based on Fabric Shrinkage

Garments Pattern Making Based on Fabric Shrinkage

A pattern is the base of garments manufacturing. The pattern set as per garments shrinkage and sewing allowance. Single or two/three sets of the pattern can be made for same garments lot. The only objective of creating a different pattern is to keep accurate measurement as per buyer requirement. Hope this article will give you a clear idea of how garments pattern making based on fabric shrinkage is done for ensuring measurement accuracy.

Garments Pattern Making Based on Fabric Shrinkage

Pattern Making Rules

Garments pattern is very sensitive to keep accurate garments fittings and measurement. First garments maker has to find out fabric shrinkage. Based on shrinkage garments manufacturer have to make the pattern. Certain rules are followed when shrinkage difference is >2%, >3% or >4% group rolls of similar shrinkage, different patterns must be made for a lot if shrinkage difference crosses the acceptable limit. Otherwise, a single pattern is made for a lot when shrinkage difference not crossed the certain limit.

You may also like our previous article on Pattern Making in Garments

Stages of Different Pattern Making in Same Lot of Garments

Group Shrinkage

Need to do proper shrinkage and keep record accordingly. After making the record, garments maker segregate the shrinkage per group and range like -2% to 8%, maker must need to make 2%-5% one group and 6%-8% another one group.

Make Group Pattern

As per the shrinkage group, the manufacturer makes a separate pattern with the group shrinkage and will put the pattern numbering like P1, P2, etc. The pattern group will depend on how many shrinkage groups they have been found on fabric. Also, need to maintain the fabric category to make the pattern per shrinkage group.

Before Wash Measurement Spec

Before wash measurement is complete garments measurement just before washing (if wash product). When the CAD section will adjust the “0” pattern per shrinkage  %  and will be identified by the numbering P1 or P2, per the shrinkage group the CAD section will make the before wash measurement spec to verify garments measurement in before wash stage. It sends to the sewing section to check the measurement.

Measure Garments in Sewing Stage

During sewing stage garments maker need to do 100% garments measurement as per the CAD section has given before wash spec and Quality Control (QC) Manager need to verify the report.

During sewing need corrective action to prevent the measurement problems

If found out of tolerance GMTS in Sewing in-process comparing with before wash spec, need to find out the reason of out of tolerance occurrence, to be taken preventive action and will be recorded in the file with measurement sheet.

Garments Pattern Making Based on Fabric Shrinkage .pdf

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)
Email: [email protected]

Linkedin: A.M. Amirul Islam

10 Future Challenges of Apparel Industry

Future Challenges of Apparel Industry

The demand for garments is increasing day by day with the increase in world population. Bangladesh, India, China, Vietnam are contributing a huge amount to the production of garments which increase their market share to the apparel industry. Textile and garments always had challenges and now still has challenges and in future, more challenges will come. Those are involved with the apparel industry will need to carefully manage future challenges to stay in the line of success, otherwise, they will have to either bear monetary loss or decrease their business growth or decrease their market share. From my experiences right now, I can see there are 10 Future Challenges of Apparel Industry with which we have to deal with. If you are aware of these challenges, then hopefully you will be the gainer by planning for the future.

10 Future Challenges of Apparel Industry

10 Future Challenges of Apparel Industry

  1. The increase of Utility Cost
  2. Special Skilled Manpower
  3. Political Instability
  4. Higher Demand for Specialized Garments Items
  5. Adaptation of Automation
  6. An increase of Labor Cost
  7. Extreme Competitive Pressure
  8. Worker Turnover
  9. Extra Pressure from Environmental Regulatory Authority
  10. Obtain Low-Cost Leadership

Challenges of Apparel Industry

The Increase of Utility Cost

Utility cost will likely to increase by a significant amount within next few years. In a textile and garments factory, four types of utilities are commonly used; Electricity, Water, Steam, Compressed Air. Among these, electricity is the main part of utility because electricity can be used to get other three. Normally there are two types of a generator is used to generate electricity in the garments factory in Bangladesh or any other country. One is Gas Fuel and other is Furnish Oil/Diesel Generator. The cost of Electricity generated by Gas Generator is lower. But if you use diesel generator then the cost of electricity production will increase by two to three times. Here in Bangladesh, we have a very limited source of natural gas. Soon or later our natural gas will be finish then we will not get natural gas for industrial electricity generation purpose, so we have to rely on the diesel or any other renewable energy source. If we can not get a solution for lower cost electricity generation then this will increase our overall garments production cost.

The solution to this problem is the government can provide electricity to the industry with the power distribution authority. To do this first of all government need to ensure high capacity power plant across the country. The Bangladeshi government is already taken initiative for the nuclear power plant, although it has a high risk for the environment if an accident takes place.

Special Skilled Manpower

To make some innovation it is required to get some skilled manpower. Through special skills, special and specific tasks can be done effectively and efficiently. Special skills like; handling CNC machine, Design PLC, use of CAD etc. For the garments sector, most of the garments works are not well educated, it is not easy to get and manage especially skilled manpower. So, this will be a big challenge for apparel industry owners.

The solution to this problem is, adapt more skill development program, like SEIP- Skilled Employment Investment Program taken by the Bangladesh Government under Finance Ministry. This program is designed in such a way that people will get training then development and also ensure related job placement. This development is a role model that can be followed by other countries those are in the development stage of the apparel industry.

Political Instability

One of the main problems for Bangladeshi entrepreneurs is political instability. A democratic government is required where the will be political stability which is a pre-requisite for the positive growth of the industry. The country which experiences frequent strike on the transport system will face the problem of a delay in shipment. And a delay of shipment can be the reason for canceling the shipment, or monetary loss or losing the valuable customer. So, for positive garments business require a positive political condition. Near future, Bangladesh is at high risk of political instability. It is the time of thinking by the owner of the garment’s how they will deal with this challenge.

The easiest solution can be taken by the ruling government to ensure a stable political condition for their country.

Higher Demand for Specialized Garments Items

The main target market for apparel export is for USA, Europe. As their living standard is higher and becoming more higher, they were concerned about fashion and will more concerned about a special fashionable dress. So, it is a huge challenge to industrially make fashionable garments at low cost. To deal with this future challenge of the apparel industry, garments owners have to think about it and invest in research and development of fashionable clothing.

To minimize the risk of a demand for diversified fashionable garments, lots of creative fashion designer and industrial engineer will be required to make specialized garments item.

Adaptation of Automation

Advanced technology helping us with the adaptation of automation in every industry. Lots of innovation already has been done by which many garments already increased their productivity, where fewer men power is used. Men power is replaced by the advanced technology; this means the machine is replacing the human being. Although automation is not possible for every section of the textile and garments industry some of the section of garments can be automated which will not only increase the effectivity of the resources but also increase the effectiveness of overall operations. As an industrialist, you will face this challenge if you do not have enough knowledge of technology and how and from where you can adapt automation for your industry.

To deal with this challenge you must invest in developing skilled mechanical and industrial engineer who will be responsible for bringing automation to your factory. They will design and make a customized machine for the different section of your factory.

An Increase of Labor Cost

We have found that worldwide labor cost is increasing year after year. China and India are facing these challenges much compared with other countries. As garments industry is more labor-intensive industry, this industry requires more men power. So, this challenge is unavoidable challenges. This is the reason why Chinese companies are shifting around the world, they are choosing Africa, Bangladesh for their suitable investment region.

To deal with this increased labor cost challenge, garments industry should work with increasing the productivity of the workers which will reduce the per unit manpower cost. Another thing is, proper training and development plan must be adapted so that you can ensure disruption-free production.

Extreme Competitive Pressure

You know, competition is always there for you, it does not matter where you do your business. The apparel industry is a very lucrative investment opportunity for business personnel because it brings a huge profit for them. But it is not easy to gain a huge amount from this competitive industry, the first condition is you need to offer a competitive price for their product.

To deal with this challenge, all you need to do, first analyze the market, analyze the sourcing of materials and your export market and then target accordingly. If you conduct a proper analysis you will definitely find a market for your product from which you can generate enough revenue for your company.

Worker Turnover

Worker Turnover or employee turnover is one of the common problems and it is a challenging task for textile and garments owners because as long as they are unskilled they will like your job but when they become skilled, they try to switch one company to another company. The problem is, you provide training to the unskilled worker to make them skilled but after becoming skilled they are not always promised to give their valuable output to your company. It is something like you are extracting juice from lemon but cannot take the juice on your own. You are losing your skilled worker, losing your invested money and also opening scope your competitors to steal your best workers. I personally consider this problem as the biggest challenge for the apparel industry.

But the question is, how to get rid of this problem? The easiest solution is; you need to provide a competitive benefit to your workers. First, understand their needs and provide their needs, it can be a monetary or non-monetary benefit.

Extra Pressure from Environmental Regulatory Authority

In the apparel industry, the textile is producing a huge amount of waste, especially chemical is used for dyeing, printing, washing which is ultimately dumped into the river water. A huge quantity of water is used for garments washing and there is no efficient scope for reusing this water. Because of the apparel industry, our water is not only polluted by the industrial waste but also underground water level is dropping. This is the reason why environmental regulatory authority is now more concern about environmental pollution. Garments buyers are now also concerned about the environmental effect of dumping of garments waste. Now it is mandatory to have ETP-Effluent Treatment Plant in textile and garments factory so that effluent can be treated before dumping into the river. Here the challenge is to set up an effluent treatment plant and manage it according to the guidelines of respective authorities which is a costly operation.

To get rid of this challenge, as a garments owner, you need to find a solution from three different types of an effluent treatment plant and choose which is least costly for you.

Obtain Low-Cost Leadership

Nowadays, low-cost leadership is a challenging task because everyone related with apparel industry trying to get the best solution where they will get low-cost leadership. As a part of low-cost leadership, they choose decision among make or buy decision. In addition to this, they are always working for setting good supply chain management for their garments resources.

So, as an industrialist how you can ensure low-cost leadership? All you need to do recruit a good financial analyst. Let him understand your business and its process properly. After doing a proper analysis, he will help you to decide which one is the best option for you. Another thing you can do is always ensure that you are well informed about what is going on in the industry and how trends are moving forward. If you are aware enough and take the right decision, then you must be able to obtain low-cost leadership in the apparel industry.

After these discussions, hopefully, you understand what can be the future challenges for the apparel industry and how you need to move forward to stay in the right path of your business which may help you to generate enough revenue for your company.

10 Future Challenges of Apparel Industry

Garments Washing Defects

Garments Washing Defects

Garments washing is the process to improve hand feel, appearance and better outlook of garments. That’s why washing plays a vital role in garments manufacturing. Because of various washing defect, rejection of garments increases. We need to reduce the rate of washing defects/faults at a minimum level. Rejection increases the cost of overall manufacturing. For this reason, reducing washing faults is the major concern for all apparel manufacturing industry. One major KPI points are to reduce washing rejection in the apparel industry. I made a list of all types of garments washing defects so that you may have a better idea of garments defects.

Garments Washing Defects

List of Garments Washing Defects

  1. Garments Discoloration
  2. Poor Hand Sanding
  3. Care Label Fading/Damage
  4. Off Shade
  5. Shade Variation
  6. Over Washing
  7. Washing Damage
  8. Washing Spot
  9. High pH Level
  10. Poor Grinding
  11. Lycra Out
  12. Poor Sand Blasting
  13. High Abrasion Effect
  14. Color Bleeding at Pocket Bag and Label
  15. Washing Mark
  16. Poor Hand Feel

Washed Garments

Washing Defect Description

Garments Discoloration

If garments or any parts of garments discolored in washing it’s called discoloration. It is one of the common defect problems.

Garments Discoloration

Poor Hand Sanding

Because of improper hand sanding, more or less hand sanding than the actual requirement.

Hand Sanding


Care Label Fading or Damage

Care label is an important part of garments. Sometimes label fades or damage in washing.

Off shade

All garments have an original buyer required shade/color standard. If washing fails to meet shade standard then it is considered as off shade defect.

Off Shade Washing Defects

Shade Variation

Various types of shade in a lot, when fabrication and washing are the same for a whole lot.

Shade Variation Defects

Over Washing

There a certain limit of garments washing time and temperature. Crossing washing limit is considered as over washing and defects have arisen for this is known washing defects of over washing.

Washing Damage

Garments damage in washing is called washing damage.

Washing Damage

Washing Spot

Creating a spot in washing is called washing spot defect.

High pH Level

pH level crossed the level of higher pH limit. pH level is the most important factor in garments washing. For higher level, pH quality of garments may reduce.

Poor Grinding

Because of improper grinding, more or less grinding than the requirement.

Lycra Out

Damage Lycra or Lycra coming out in the washing of spandex fabric.

Poor Sand Blasting

Improper sandblasting, more or less sandblasting than the requirement.

High Abrasion Effect

Much abrasion effect than the requirement.

Color Bleeding at Pocket Bag and Label

Generally, different fabric uses for a pocket bag and labels in any garments. Due to garments body, fabric and pocket bag fabric is different, color bleeding occurred frequently in pocket bag and label.

Washing Mark

Garments marked in different washing stages, by the different washing machine, dryer. Long spot mark created in any process of washing is called washing mark defects.

Washing MarkPoor hand Feel

If you find Rough hand feels after washing of garments then that considered as a poor hand feel defects of garments washing.

Garments Washing Defects pdf

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)
Email: [email protected]

Linkedin: A.M. Amirul Islam

Effluent Treatment in Textile Industry

Effluent Treatment in Textile Industry (ETP)

As a human being, we must wear clothing to hide our body, especially private parts of our body. There are no other alternatives to textile to make garments products. Every year the textile industry is producing a huge amount of effluent which is ultimately dumping into river, canal. This effluent creates extensive environmental pollution. It’s polluting our water, air, and soil. As we are responsible for creating effluent in textile, we must take effective measure to minimize this problem. Environmental expert and regulatory agencies suggest that we must do effluent treatment in the textile industry to get rid of environmental hazards. It is the time to think of effluent treatment in textile industry otherwise our water environment will be a curse for us.

Effluent Treatment in Textile Industry

In a textile industry effluent is produced because we use a different chemical which is not environmentally friendly and also because of using different chemical components at a time, it creates effluent. Basically, the effluent is produced especially in the dyeing section, washing section and printing section of textile. Environmental regulatory authority and garments buyers are now more concern about management of effluent created by textile. That’s why the textile owner is now investing a huge amount of money to make effluent treatment plant.

Scientists have developed many processes of effluent treatment of textile. Normally we find there are three broad categories of a treatment process.

Methods of Effluent Treatment in Textile Industry

  1. Filtration Using Membrane
  2. Chemical Treatment and
  3. Biological Treatment

Filtration Using Membrane

Reverse Osmosis: Reverse osmosis is one of the costly treatment procedure where effluent is pressed and passes across a semipermeable membrane. After that, a relatively clean effluent and concentrate of toxins are formed which need to dispose of separately.  The permeate will still contain a small amount (about 20%) effluent is to be there as untreated. And cleaning of the membrane is required to done time to time.

Nanofiltration: Nano Filtration uses membrane as a filter of effluent. In this process of filtration, it retains any materials contains a molecular mass of more than 200. But permeate may still contain a high level of inorganic salt and for this reason, it cannot be used for recycling. The concentrate will contain organic impurities and many organic impurities may require further treatment. If you require more than one filtration process, then it will add more cost which is not expected.

Microfiltration: Microfiltration is used to reduce suspended solids and organic materials. The size of the materials is .02mm or more. By this process, you will get solid sludge which is needed to be carefully disposed of. Microfiltration is suitable for minimizing chemical oxygen demand and suspended solids.

Chemical Treatment

Chemical treatment is popular for its effectiveness and economic beneficial perspective. In this process, sedimentation is used for separating effluent. Normally chemical is used to form a precipitate and it will absorb the color and other unwanted materials in the effluent.

Biological Treatment

For biological treatment, effluent should contain nitrogen and phosphorous so that it can populate good microorganism. In a biological treatment plant bacteria and microorganisms convert effluent into bacteria which is environment-friendly and is not bad for the water. Although the biological treatment plant is more environmental friendly for this type of plant, the initial investment is more.

Effluent Treatment in Textile Industry

Button Pull Test SOP

Button Pull Test SOP for Apparel Industry

Introduction of Button Pull Test: Button pulls test is used to determine the pulling strength of any type of button and snaps used in garments. It is also used to determine the holding or breaking strength of prong ring attached snap fasteners onto garments to ensure button fixed on the garments product properly. In this article, you will have an idea of button pull test SOP (Standard Operating Procedure) used in the apparel industry.

Consists of an Upper Snap Clamp, a Lower Fabric Clamp, and Force Gauge mounted on a Stand. The snap component is gripped by the Upper Snap Clamp and the garment is fixed to the lower Fabric Clamp and by turning the Top Flywheel an operator can apply a specific force and the holding force. The breaking strength can be recorded. Pull test is mandatory for any types of garments product use button.

Types of Button Used in Garments

Generally, four types of button use in most of the Garments, and pull test is needed for all types of button

  1. Plastic
  2. Shank
  3. Snap
  4. Rivet

You can also read

Button Pull Test Machine Calibration

Need to calibrate machine at least once in a week by supplier m/c calibrating tools. A specific template uses to calibrate machine to find out the accuracy of a machine by pulling that into a machine of known weight.

Button Pull Test Procedure

For the pull test, you will always need to follow the buyer requirement pulling strength. If a buyer does not give any requirement, then you can follow your company’s own procedure.

The Standard procedure is continued pulling 15 (second) in 93.4 /no. weight for all attaching components like button, rivet, eyelet, snap etc. If any item fails, then that should be removed from production and separated as a reject.

Pull test should be done five pieces from each style 2 time every day and keep record and documents for every test.

Button Pull Test SOP

Pull Testing Requirement

Name of Button Weight

Time (Seconds)

Collar button




10 (Seconds)

Placket button

93.4   NEWTON

9.52 k.gs 21   L.B.S
Down button
Pocket button
Cuff button

Waist Band Button

93.4   NEWTON

9.52 k.gs

21   L.B.S

10 (Seconds)

Button Pull Test SOP for Apparel Industry

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)
Email: [email protected]

Linkedin: A.M. Amirul Islam

Determinants of Required Rates of Return

Required Rates of return is one of the key factors which influence an investment decision. Actually, Determinants of Required Rates of Return helps to calculate the required rates of return on an investment. Sometimes the required rates of return are considered as the cost of capital/expected rates of return which basically used as a discounting or compounding factor. By using this factor, we actually calculate the present and future value of cash flows.

Determinants of Required Rates of Return

Here, determining factors are getting more important because this help to find out what should be our minimum required rates of return on investment. But the question is what are the determinants of required rates of return?

Determinants of Required Rates of Return

There are three broad determinants of Required Rates of Return and these are as follows:

  1. Time Value of Money
  2. Expected Rate of Inflation for a particular economy
  3. Involvement of Risk on Investment

Time Value of Money

  • The present value of money
  • Future value of money

Expected Rate of Inflation (Decline in Purchasing Power of Money)

Every economy may have inflation which is alright up to a considerable percent but exceeding inflation is not good for the economy. At the time of calculating expected rates of return, we must consider inflation. Higher the inflation, higher the required rates of return. It is a central bank and government responsibility to adopt an effective economic policy by which an accepted rate of inflation can be there for an economy. Investment selection process is influenced by the required rate of inflation.

Involvement of Risk with Investment

You know, there is nothing where risk is not involved. And it is money we talk about is more sensitive towards risk. Risk can vary from industry to industry, company to company, person to person. But the common thing is higher the risk higher the rates of return person expect from an investment. Although you may find there is a variation of risk-taking behavior among the individuals which is influenced by the personal trait of an individual. Risk can be broadly categorized into two head; one is systematic and other is an unsystematic risk.

  • Systematic Risk: Directly involved with the system which arises from the macroeconomic factors and it is not possible to minimize this type of risk through diversification of investment.
  • Unsystematic Risk: Unsystematic is a type of risk which is possible to minimize through diversification of investment. With this risk, there is a correlation between risk and diversification.

The determination process is involved with complicated work because the process is depending on how market change over time and how investors behave with it.

Market change because of the following reasons

  • A wide range of available investment alternatives
  • Return on specific assets change dramatically
  • Change in interest rate over the time period

It does not necessarily need to be the same required rates of return for all the people. The rate will vary according to the economic factors and the personal risk-taking behavior of an individual. So it will be better for you if you identify the influencing factors and then calculate your required rates of return on investment.

PP Meeting Checklist in Garments

PP Meeting: PP meeting refers to Pre-Production meeting before starting of bulk production. There are various types of garments order, types of styling and buyer requirement. So, PP meeting is very important for garments manufacturing to discuss and do all experiment for production. All department head of apparel industry present in PP meeting so that everyone can be concerned about the requirement of production. In this article, you will get an overall idea of PP Meeting Checklist in Garments. Earlier we have an article “PP meeting in apparel industry” you can read this for better understanding.

PP Meeting Checklist in Garments

Major Works of PP Meeting

Major Works of PP Meeting

  1. PP sample evaluation with approved sample
  2. Measurement evaluation
  3. Garments construction checking with approved sample
  4. Checking washing effect as per requirement
  5. Pattern correction
  6. Giving instruction to every department for their specific responsibility

PP Meeting Checklist of Apparel Industry

  1. Approved sample
  2. Approved Trim-card
  3. SHADE (with base color) Light or dark
  4. A – (abrasion) Less or Heavy
  5. T – (Tint) Heavy or less
  6. C – (coverage all dry process)
  7. H – (Hand feel) Hard or soft
  8. Styling Check with Updated PDM & seal sample
  9. Trims check with approved trims card
  10. Trims Placement check with updated PDM
  11. Match Number UPC and care label each piece
  12. All types button check
  13. Security Tack each piece
  14. Check Zipper slider open & close
  15. All hardware
  16. Attached button, Elastic Pull & check both side
  17. Belt tack stitch both end &weaving quality & belt size
  18. Belt tracking number should be same all the pieces
  19. Check inside pocket; remove stone, dust, long thread
  20. Every Snap button Open and Check, including a sharp edge
  21. Workmanship inside garments
  22. Workmanship outside.
  23. Fusing Shrinkage test report
  24. Before Wash GMTS
  25. Fabric test report and PI Sheet from the supplier
  26. Measurement within a tolerance limit
  27. Check Belt measurement
  28. Hanger, sizer check with size label After attached
  29. Pull test report for Button/Snap/ATF button
  30. Check spec with updated PDM
  31. Check with before wash spec (by CAD)
  32. Fabric shrinkage report
  33. Pattern

PP Meeting Checklist in Garments

PP Meeting Checklist in Garments .pdf

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)
Email: [email protected]

Linkedin: A.M. Amirul Islam

Snap Button Pinch Setting

Snap Button

A snap button is a pair of interlock discs made mainly by metal which is used as an alternative of a button. The main objectives of using a snap button in our cloth are given stylish look and fasten the wearing of cloth. Various types of snap button use in Garments. Snap machine pinch settings following snap manufacturer technical data sheet (recommendations), garments manufacturer check daily. Snap button pinch setting is very important for every apparel manufacturing industry because of setting snap button into cloth in a right process. Pinch setting is very sensitive and included in technical requirement checklist for every garments buyer. It is one of the safety issues of garments.

Snap Button Pinch Setting

Pinch setting is checked by Digital Vernier Caliper Machine. Basic pinch is what two components of snap button measure when they come together without fabric between them. Compressed Foundation Thickness (CFT) is the minimum and maximum compressed fabric thickness where the snap will be located. These limits vary according to snap size and type. Setting pinch is the total height of attached snap fasteners on fabric as measured on the specified locations. (CFT) Compressed Foundation thickness can be measured by Torque Micro Meter. Snap button supplier data sheet can be collected by sending a mockup to the supplier, they will send data sheet after an experiment.

Snap Button Pinch Setting

Pinch Setting Formula

For setting Pinch following formula is used. It is a simple formula to use. Hope example of pinch setting will help you to understand easily.

Setting Pinch = Basic Pinch+ Compressed Foundation thickness (CFT)

Example of Calculation of Pinch Setting

Basic Pinch (INCHES) CFT (INCHES) Setting Pinch (INCHES)
0.023 0.185 0.208
0.023 0.15 0.173

Calculation of Pinch Setting

Pull Test of Snap Button

Pull test of a snap button is required to check the setting pinch for two or three times daily as per customer required strength. For garments item, you need to use supplier dies and machines for ensuring perfect attachment.

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)
Email: [email protected]

Linkedin: A.M. Amirul Islam