KPI Factors of Garments

KPI stands for Key Performance Indicator or Key Points Indicator. This is the era of competition and we have to survive with global challenge in apparel industry. If you carefully work with Key points that is KPI Factors of Garments then surely Garments business will flourish. Management team should focus on KPI for their industry. KPI report will help you to look into the actual condition of your garments.

KPI Factors of Garments

There are many KPI factors which are directly and indirectly related with garments, specially in factory operations.

KPI Factors of Garments

KPI for Garments Cutting

Cutting efficiency: Cutting efficiency one of the most important factor. If efficiency increase in cutting section, then production will increase by using minimum number of manpower.

Month Wise Cutting EfficiencyCutting Production: Cutting production is another important factor as like Cutting efficiency. Cutting production is related with Spreading, cutting, numbering and bundling.

Month Wise Cutting ProductionDHU (Defect per Hundred Units) in cutting: In cutting, there is no way to repair defect, must replace panel as per marker with shade matching. So if DHU is high, you will be needed to rework.

Cutting delay/Input delay in sewing line: Sometime cutting and sewing not start as per plan. Only two reason behind this. If PP/Size Set or pilot run sample fail to buyer QC to meet quality standard, apparel manufacturers have remake sample and submit again to buyer QC to pass sample and get cutting approval. Sewing can be delayed for Trims and accessories delay receive from supplier.

Month Wise Input Delay Status

KPI for Sewing

Line wise Sewing efficiency: Sewing make the whole garments, so sewing efficiency is an important factor for garments industry.

Efficiency calculation: An operator was doing an operation of SAM (Standard Allowed Minute) 0.60 minutes. In 10 hours day he produces 600 pieces. So according to the efficiency calculating formula, that operator’s overall efficiency is as follows:

Efficiency (%) = [Total minute produced by an operator/Total minute attended by him *100]

Efficiency (%) = [(Total piece made X SAM of the operation)/ (Total working hour X 60) * 100]
= [(400 x 0.60) / (10 X 60)*100%]
= 240/600*100%
= 40.00%

Last Month Sewing Efficiency


The ratio among production/hour/manpower/machine is to be optimal. Every factory has self study to reduce manpower, keeping less helper with best possible production outcome.

Month Wise Production Plan of Actual Sewing

Machine Trouble/Machine downtime: Because of Machine trouble production is stopped. Machine maintenance department have to do their best effort to reduce machine downtime. Electrical problem also can be cause of Machine trouble/machine downtime.

DHU in Sewing: Defects rate also key point in garments manufacturing. Factory has to rework for repairing defects. Defect generation reduces operator’s efficiency. Factory wants to keep defects as low as possible for per hundred units.

Absenteeism: Operator absenteeism hamper sewing production, create bottleneck. Every factory target employee absenteeism rate is zero % but sometimes it may not possible to keep this percent.

No. Style change: Style change effect on productivity, efficiency, and quality. So garments manufacturer wants big lot order more rather than small quantity order for any lot.

Plan vs Actual Production Ratio: All factories have planning department to make plan for cutting, sewing, finishing and shipment to meet buyer required shipment date. Gap between plan and actual production is the reason of not meeting on time delivery.

Idle Time/Machine: Idle time is also known as loss time. For any type of reason operators are not working is considered as loss time. Common reasons for idle time are; using new layout, machine trouble, no work etc.

Operator Wise Efficiency: The best way of efficiency calculation is to calculate individual operator efficiency every day, show report weekly and train up lower efficient operator for improvement which ultimately increase the operator efficiency.

Process improvement: Industrial engineering (IE) department do time study, motion study and work study to find out SMV (Standard Minute Value), to minimize unnecessary motion for sewing operations. By this way factory save SMV time for garments manufacturing.

Operator Turnover Rate: Since sewing is the key process of apparel, sewing operator turnover percentage is important. Turnover means the number of employees got fired or left from the job and replaced in work place by new operator. If turnover rate is lower in factory then it will be better for the company.

Monthly turnover % = (Employees separated/Average number of employees during the month) *100

Example, If Employees separated = 21, Average number of employees during the month= 950

So, Monthly Turnover % = (21/950) × 100 = 2.21%

KPI for Trims and Fabrics

Claim Amount vs. Recovery Amount: According to the buyer quality standard, garments manufacture has to reject fabrics, trim if there is any quality issue. So, maker must claim for compensation by replacing or giving back their money.

Claim and Recovery Amount

KPI for Finishing, Final Audit and Shipment

Cut to Ship Quantity: As PO wise buyer order quantity cutting department try to cut extra as much as possible. It could be from 2% to 5%. GMTS reject due to different quality issue. Below data will give idea about GMTS (Garments) production flow.

Cut to Ship Quantity

Month Wise Cut to Ship Percent

Reject percentage: For some critical quality problems like wash damage, measurement out of tolerance, work hole and unrepeatable problems GMTS rejected by finishing quality team.

DHU in Finishing: Defects rate also key point in garments manufacturing. Factory has to rework for to repair defects. Finishing team have to repair whatever defect come from sewing or finishing they found. Factory wants to keep defects per hundred units as low as possible. If too many products are defected then to rework the garments may add extra cost to the product which to totally unexpected.

Final Audit Pass rate: Final Audit pass rate is the number 1 KPI factor for Garments Quality. For some buyer final audit, if fail once any PO in final Audit, Factory has to give penalty for that. Any PO fail in final audit, factory has rechecked full quantity goods again. Could imagine how much cost need to recheck, and it also does hamper running production as well.

Month Wise Final Inspection Pass Rate

Finishing Production: Finishing is the last step of apparel manufacturing. On time delivery, sea or air shipment mainly depends on finishing of production.

Finishing Efficiency: Finishing efficiency is also very important key factory. If efficiency increases, production will increase with minimum manpower and ultimately it will increase profit for the company.

Last Month Floor Wise Average Finishing Efficiency Plan

Order and Ship Ratio: Order and ship ratio should be equal at least or ship quantity could be more than order quantity since cutting quantity is more than 2% or 3% of order quantity by reducing reject %.

Last Month Shipment Analysis

Year Wise Excess Shipment Quantity

Month Wise Order to Shipment Percent

Air Ship Quantity: Two reasons are cause for air shipment. One, If Garments maker cannot meet on time delivery date then maker have to ship goods by air at his own cost. GMTS suffer huge financial loss for air shipment because the rate is more for air shipment. Number two would be merchandising reason for not sourcing raw material on time.

Month Wise Air Shipment

Templates and KPI Dashboard Presentation

You may need to present your factory KPI data with Top management or may need to report them. Here I am sharing you a complete presentation and Excel database for your convenience for free. I hope these would help you to work with KPI smoothly.

  1. KPI Presentaion-Apparel and Garments (PowerPoint) (1mb)
  2. Summary of KPI report (Excel) (1.3mb)

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

Facebook: Amirul Islam Washim

E-mail: [email protected]

Flow Chart of Apparel Dyeing

Apparel Dyeing is a process by which color is applied on apparel. Basically through the dyeing process color is applied on fabric. Dyeing is used for giving fashionable look on fabric, and using these fabric, garments manufacture denim, t-shirt, sweater, Shirt, jackets etc.

Objectives of Dyeing

  • To produce fashionable garments by changing the outlook.
  • Comparatively low cost
  • Different shade can be accepted in same batch

Basic Dyeing Process of Garments

Process Flow Garments Dyeing

Mainly dyeing process is applied on grey fabric and after completing the whole process we get colored fabric. But remember one thing that after Dyeing you have to wash your fabrics.

Flow Chart of Apparel Dyeing

Flow Chart of Apparel Dyeing

If closely see the flow process of complete Dyeing of fabric, then you may identify the following procedure. Earlier I said that Dyeing process starts with grey fabrics/garments then loading into Dyeing machine, after that pre-treatment and bleaching garments, then Dyeing, fixing (after treatment) and finally we will get finished dyed fabrics.

Flow Chart of Apparel Dyeing

Written by

Md. Mashud Rana Opurbo

Industrial Engineer.

Email: [email protected]

Cell: 01928-186429

Inventory control in Apparel and Textile Warehouse

Inventory control is crucial part of every industry.  Inventory control of Apparel, textile and fashion industry must keep inventory in their warehouse/store. Inventory control is called stock management which save cost, time and increase work efficiency of your warehouse.

Goods in warehouse in Garments

Inventory control can be defined as list of in housed, unsold and unshipped goods in organized way at the same time; balance quantity, booking quantity, shipping quantity everything I mean real status of stock/selling/shipping/moving goods.

Inventory control in Apparel and Textile Warehouse

Inventory control in Apparel and Textile Warehouse

Proper inventory control in apparel and textile warehouse will ensure market competitiveness in international market.

Goods in warehouse can be placed in three ways

  1. Raw material, to be inputted for production bought from another company
  2. Work in progress, production is running
  3. Finished goods, waiting for delivery to buyer’s destination

 Inventory of Raw materials

Inventory in Garments Industry

Maintaining Database for Inventory in Textile and Garments Industry

For controlling your inventory, you have to maintain proper database and recording system so that you can monitor the inventory status continuously. Two common practices of maintaining inventory report you may find in apparel industry:

  • Excel data base
  • ERP (Enterprise resource planning) software.

For small organization buying ERP software is sometimes creates extra burden so my suggestion for them is to use excel template which is totally from and available to download. We have developed excel (inventory management) template for your convenience. Here is some free excel template ready to download.

Benefits of Inventory

  1. Information transparency
  2. Save cost
  3. Increase efficiency
  4. Save time
  5. Data Management
  6. Beneficiary for all others departments
  7. Minimize Goods receive and delivery time
  8. Increase supply chain performance
  9. Knowing stock information in any time
  10. Organize store/warehouse

Factors of inventory report for Garments and Textile store/Warehouse

  1. Mention buyer name
  2. PO and style name
  3. Production name
  4. Product description
  5. Proforma invoice (PI) number of received goods
  6. Challan No
  7. Booking quantity
  8. Received quantity
  9. Balance quantity
  10. Delivery quantity
  11. Quality inspection status
  12. Due product
  13. Product moving log
  14. Shipment date
  15. Rejected quantity
  16. Store rack number

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

Facebook: Amirul Islam Washim

E-mail: [email protected]

Sewing Quality Control SOP

Sewing Quality Control SOP

Sewing is the key process of apparel industry. Sewing produce full garments. Cutting section just cut garments as per marker. Finishing section mainly does decorative work, add ticketing items and ironing. As Garments construct through Sewing; sewing quality control is most important factor in Apparel industry. Sewing quality team controls all the necessary quality criteria. There are some rules for controlling quality of sewing. These standard rules are well known as sewing quality standard operating procedure (SOP). Let see, what are the basic things a sewing quality controlling SOP includes:

Standard Operating Procedure of Sewing Quality Control, Sewing Quality Control SOP

Sewing Quality Controlling Standard Operating Procedure

Here is the standard operating procedure of sewing quality control

  1. Quality inspectors check sample and trim card of his process at the very beginning of a style. Inspector also checks SPI, thread, label and First Bundle specially and will have to take over his work from Quality controller for new style.
  2. Inspectors know his all measurement of his check point and will have to explain clearly if anybody ask.
  3. No defect allowed passing from QI check point and defect will be limited in one bundle in any process.
  4. Bundle cut have to maintain as per cutting report, short and mistake bundle not to pass by QC check point.
  5. Measurement tape hanging on every QI neck
  6. Every in-process report to be updated, to be signed by QC and line supervisor in every hour.
  7. Any process mistake and size mistake body go back to operation making correction.
  8. Every running style Sample and Trim card showing operation clearly displayed on each line.
  9. Every quality inspector following up machine cleaning before breaking up factory every day and 100% machine having oil card.
  10. Washed Garments not allowed keeping sewing line. If there any GMTS in sewing line, Output QI and Line QC have to handover in finishing.
  11. Every Line QC is responsible for all types of buyer requirement of his line.

You can download a common form of SOP both in Bengali and English

Sewing Quality SOP (English)

Sewing Quality SOP (Bangla)

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

Facebook: Amirul Islam Washim

E-mail: [email protected]

Sand Blasting Washing

Sand blasting is mechanical dry washing process by which AL2O3 is passing through a nozzle with the help of high speed compress air. Doll can be used for this type of washing.  Basically sand blasting is used in heavy garments like; denim, twill, Canvas, corduroy etc.

Sand Blasting Washing (SiO2)

Sand blasting is performed combine with the wash like; Bleach wash, Normal / Rinse wash, Stone enzyme wash, tinting/ dyeing, Stone wash etc.

Sand BlastingWashing

Objective of Sand Blasting

  • The main objective of sand blasting washing is to color fading from the specific surface area on the garments.
  • For making fashionable apparel.

Objective of SandBlasting

Principles of Sand Blasting

Al203 is passed through a nozzle with the help of compress air. So rubbing is occurred and color is fade from the specific area on the apparel surface.

Precaution of Sand Blasting

Proper protection is needed for operator so that any threat can be avoided

  1. Protection eye glass,
  2. Using mask,
  3. Ear plug,
  4. Should use helmet, Cap.
  5. Using apron

Procedure of Sand Blasting

A standard process flow of sand blasting washing is as flows: Close Chamber => Table => Place Apparel => Sand Blasting => Color Fading => Apparel Washing.

Sand Blasting Washing Process Flow chart

Demerits/Disadvantage of Sand Blasting

  • Not Environment friendly.
  • Health hazardous, harmful for operator.
  • There is chance of fabric damage.

Now a days Sand Blasting Washing process is isolate due to health hazardous, it may be causes cancer. On the other hand, buyers do not prefer this type of washing because of health issue.

Md. Mashud Rana Opurbo

Industrial Engineer.

Email: [email protected]

Cell: 01928-186429

Calculation of Earnings and Loss for Garments Industry

Calculation of Earnings and Loss for Garments Industry

Calculation of earnings and loss for garments industry is required to monitor whether factory operation is generation expected revenue or not. Based on your calculation of earnings and loss you can set production target to meet your expected level of profit for your business.

Calculation of Earnings and Loss Template

As sewing is one of the main operation of garments, you can take sewing as a factor and calculate earnings accordingly. You can use same formula for calculating profit or loss of your industry after shipment of your final product.

Calculation of Earnings and Loss for Garments Industry

Let’s see the calculation at a glance.

Suppose, Your Factory’s last 3 Month Expenditure= 1466400$

So, Per month Expenditure = (1466400$/3) = 488800$

So, Daily Expenditure = (488800$/26) = 18800$ [if fty run 26 days per month]

Your fty produced = 8800 Units per day

Per GMTS CM= 2.20$ (It’s vary style to style, you need to calculate style wise from buyer given CM)

Then, Daily Earnings = (8800 X2.20$) $ = 19360$

So, Your Daily Earnings = (19360$-18800$) = 560$

Production Report

Template for Calculating Earnings and Loss for Garments Industry

I have developed an excel template to calculate earnings and loss for your convenience. You can use this template for any industry; specially for your daily garments production. I hope this will give you well understanding.  You can download this template for free, just click on daily production & CM earnings report.

Daily Production & CM Earning Report

This template includes:

  1. Production report
  2. Production chart
  3. Earning calculation and report
  4. Per unit CM (Style wise)

This template can be very helpful for any Garments professional. Based on the output of this template you can prepare your report maintaining professionalism.

You will get not only earnings and loss report but also production report. In this way it will be helpful for everybody to see actual status of a factory. If you face any problem of understanding then please do not hesitate to contact with me.

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

Facebook: Amirul Islam Washim

E-mail: [email protected]

Cutting Section SOP in Garments Industry

Cutting Section Standard Operating Procedure in Garments Industry

Cutting Section Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) is develop to provide guidelines for the workers so that they have proper knowledge of working. SOP is written in a simplest way to ensure better understanding for all people who are involved directly or indirectly with that particular activities. In a garments industry you may find different form of SOP and it can vary company to company and also department to department. Each and every garments company always try make best adaptable standard operating procedure. You know that cutting section is very crucial part of garments manufacturing, keep in mind the importance of this section I made a simple Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for cutting section of garments so that can make SOP for your company. Now a day’s it is mandatory to make SOP and hang it to the working place of each section in apparel industry for better understanding of the procedure and to minimize operational error.

Cutting Section SOP in Garments Industry

Cutting Section SOP

Sample form of Cutting Section Standard Operating Procedure is as flows:

Fabrics Relaxation Procedure

  • Spandex fabrics will be relaxed minimum 24 hour making unroll in cutting section.
  • Relaxation date and time must be recorded. After spreading, will relax 2 hours before cut.

Before Cutting Procedure

  • Receive marker and quality check by cutting QC.
  • Fabric Spreading will be done based on Shade chart/Shade grouping provided by fabrics warehouse.
  • Spreading report will be made after spreading with related all necessary data.
  • Spreading Quality check point: -Table marking -Ends -Leaning –Tension -Narrow Goods -Remnants -Counts -Ply High -Marker Placing -Fabric Flaws
  • Highest lay for woven fabrics is length 14 meter and height 3 inch.
  • Lay chart should be maintaining roll wise.
  • Quality inspector will control quality inspection during fabrics lay.
  • Cutting spreader man will spread marker after finishing lay.
  • For stripe and check fabrics, alignment to be correct by using hook, thread.
  • Before cutting cutter man will attach clamp, Gum tap on the layer.
  • Shade chart will be hanged during lay.
  • Cutting Quality check points: -Miss cut –Rugged Cutting –Notches-Matching Plies and pattern check.

After Cutting Procedure

  • Quality will check every bundle using hard pattern three different position of the bundle.
  • Numbering and bundling separation done by following spreading report and identify each bundle by style, Cutting number, Bundle number, size, Serial number, Shade number and Parts name.
  • 100% cut panel will be inspected
  • If any defective panel found, will be replaced from lay chart wise remnants by following shade and pattern grain line.
  • Light color bundle will bind with light color string; deep color bundle will bind with deep color string
  • Light color Fabrics will be covered by poly in rack or pallet.
  • Then all cut panels will be ready to delivery in sewing.

You can download cutting section SOP in Garment Industry from here.

Cutting Standard Operating Procedure SOP English

Cutting Standard Operating Procedure SOP Bangla

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

Facebook: Amirul Islam Washim

E-mail: [email protected]

Statistical and Pareto Analytical Excel Template for Textile and Garments

Statistical and Pareto Analytical Excel Template for Textile and Garments

We are living in the era of 4th industrial revolution where we have to work with big data, that’s why we prefer to work with data analytic. Now a days Statistical and Pareto Analysis is used in every industry to reduce defect. It is one of the most popular tools of 7 QC. Statistical and Pareto Analytical Excel Template will give you easiest solution for your textile and garments. For your convenience we developed a Microsoft Excel data sheet where you can analysis your data in a way that will help you through sorting your data year to year, month to month, and week to week. In addition to these excel will arrange Pareto Chart automatically.

Pareto Chart of Fabric DefectsTwo templates are given here for your experience.

  1. Fabric Defect statistical and Pareto analysis

  2. Sewing Quality statistical and Pareto analysis

Sewing Quantity and RejectsStatistical and Pareto Analytical Excel Template for Textile and GarmentsThese templates can be used for any industry. You can get this template for free. All you need to do is to download and use accordingly.

Stitch Control ChartThese excel templates includes:

  • Statistical Analysis
  • Pareto Analysis
  • Pareto Chart
  • Data Sorting

Hope these will be helpful for you to bring work efficiency. If you have any confusion or want to develop these types of data sheet for your company then please do not hesitate to contact with me.

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

Facebook: Amirul Islam Washim

Phone: +8801929643301
E-mail: [email protected]

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Quality Control in Garment Manufacturing

Quality Control in Garment Manufacturing

Quality is of prime significance in any part of the business. Clients request and expect an incentive for cash. Quality is characterized by the level of acknowledgment of a decent or administration. It is an extremely fundamental necessity for any item. Each item ought to keep up the standard quality level. In this 21st century of globalization showcase is ending up increasingly intricate, that is the reason each industry is confronting an abnormal state of rivalry for their business. As makers of clothing, there must be a consistent quality control in garment manufacturing to create work of good quality.

Quality Control Framework

The frameworks required for programming and planning the endeavors of the different gatherings in an association to keep up the imperative quality.” Quality Control is the implementation and monitoring of Quality Assurance or Total Quality Control operations. The Testing technique comprises different significant method to ensure that manufacturing procedure is following all the essential principles and the materials used in piece of clothing creation are of great quality. It is likewise critical to test the hardware for attempting to their most extreme limits and for not harming the texture and different materials itself. Diverse sorts of testings are being done consistently to screen the procedure and the result of the assembling. Those testings differ amongst concoction and physical ones. Physical testings incorporate the checking of catches, dimensional soundness of the texture et cetera. Concoction testings are identified with reviews of shading speed to washing, warmth, lighting and different conditions. Furthermore, by and large, every one of them has one motivation behind guaranteeing a quality item toward the end.

Garment Manufacturing Testing

Testing can be led either in the lab of the creating industrial facility itself or in other testing research centers that are had practical experience in the quality control and affirmation of the article of clothing generation. For the most part, an outsider directed testing be best because of the better fixation and fair-minded checking process. It is likewise vital to believe the quality confirmation testing method to particular experts to guarantee the most extreme quality and productivity, by testing all materials and apparatus utilized amid assembling. The tests equipment which can be utilized for the quality inspection garments includes Hydrostatic Head Tester& Air Permeability Tester.

Hydrostatic Head Tester

Hydrostatic Head Tester

Hydrostatic Head Tester

Hydrostatic Head Tester, utilized for deciding the protection of textures and movies to water infiltration underweight while immovably cinched in the test apparatus of the standard region, by methods for dynamic test technique and static test strategy. The bank is connected to a test go to which the example is cinched rapidly and steadily by methods for a programmed brace.

Air Permeability Tester 

Quality Control in Garment Manufacturing

Air Permeability Tester

Air Permeability Tester is stacked to the test zone of the instrument effectively by methods for a programme holder by pushing down the holder to begin the test. So essentially, review method incorporates all phases of the piece of clothing generation beginning from crude materials and parts, trailed by the real assembling and observing of the work, and consummation the procedure with the investigation and examination of the completed item.

Following parameter are checked thoroughly at this stage:

  • Texture development
  • Shading quickness
  • Completed article of clothing

These days’ purchasers are particularly quality cognizant. If it is conceivable to keep up a fantastic arrangement of investigation strategy, the purchasers should be spurred, and greater quality items can be made. Learn more.

Garments Washing

Garments Washing:

Normally we use the word ‘washing’ to mean cleaning. But in case of garments, washing is not limited to this function. For garments, washing is not only required for cleaning but also required for improving fabric quality, increase softness of fabric, reduce shrinkage, removing of dirt and for creating color effects. In other sense washing is a technique which used to remove impurities dirt, dust, oil etc. from the surface of garments, softness feeling of cloths, outlook fashion of the apparel and increasing color fastness.

Garments Washing Process

Garments Washing

Classification of Garments Washing

According to the process of washing, garments washing is basically of two types; one is wet process and other is dry process.

Objectives of Garments Washing

Though garments washing is done to meet several objectives, but among those followings are the most common.

  • To remove size materials
  • Impurities remove
  • To increase color fastness
  • For color fading
  • For soft hand feel
  • Fashion Garments.

Chemicals use for Garments Washing

Several chemicals are used for garments washing. Here is the list of chemicals use in garments washing.

  • Detergent
  • Bleaching agent ( H2O2, KMNO4)
  • Acid ( Acetic acid, phosphoric acid)
  • Desizing agent
  • Softener
  • Enzime ( Bio- Chemicals)
  • Anti-staining agent
  • Soda
  • Salts Etc.

Washing plant of Garments

Washing plant can be automated, semi-automated. An engineer is responsible for all process to control such as Garments, m/c, H2O, Chemicals, PH etc.

Washing Condition of Garments

  • Temperature up to 60̊ C
  • Time Up to 60 min
  • PH
  • Concentration of chemicals Up to 15 g/L

Process Flow of Garments Washing

Batch selection => Loading into washing m/c => M: L (add water) => M/c running => Add chemical at adjust temp. and set time => Drain out => Hot wash/ cold wash => Softening => Unload => Hydro extracting => Drying => Quality check => Finishing

Flow Chart of Garments Washing

Flow Chart of Garments Washing

Written By: Mashud Rana Opurbo

Bsc in Textile Engineering (DIU) “24th Batch”

Industrial Engineer at Radisson Garments Ltd.


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