Productivity Improvement Techniques in Apparel Manufacturing Industry

Productivity Improvement Techniques in Apparel Manufacturing Industry

In this article, a study was conducted in the sewing section under a garment manufacturing company. We have mentioned many techniques where you can focus and start working on improving productivity. Most of the techniques mentioned in this article are mainly on

Productivity Improvement Techniques in Apparel Manufacturing Industry

Productivity Improvement Techniques

To get excellent result you may need external recommendation and support but without the external help you can surely get measurable improvement once you start implementing the above mentioned techniques.


The processes used to transform material inputs (raw materials, semi finished goods, sub-assemblies) and immaterial inputs (plans, ideas, information, knowledge) into goods or services. Basically resources are used in this transformation process is to create a goods or services which has value and contributes to the utility of individuals or groups.

Productin process in apparel manufacturing industry


Productivity is a measure of the efficiency and effectiveness to which organizational resources (inputs) are utilized for the creation of products and/or services (outputs). Productivity measurement is both a measure of input utilization and an assessment as to whether or not input utilization is growing faster than output.

Productivity Improvement Techniques

  1. Conducting Work Study

There is a saying “Even best can be improved”. Prepare a check list for good methods and movements. At time of motion study observe operator’s movement and compare with you checklist. If you found wrong movements or unnecessarily extra movement is present in the operation cycle correct it. By doing this you can reduce operation cycle time and can improve labor productivity up to 100%* in individual operations. Also it will help to reduce operator fatigue.

  1. Hourly Operator Performance Check

There must be a system which will responsible to check the operators performance hourly basis so that, effective corrective measure can be taken to ensure the efficient operation and production. If it can be ensured that there must have an improvement in the technology.

  1. Research& Development for Improving Productivity

A non-value added (NVA) process but having a strong Research and Development (R&D) team in the factory brings lot of benefits.

  1. Following Systems such as 5S and Kaizen

  • 5S

5S is also a known method of reducing waste, increasing productivity and clear visibility of

Nonconformance at workplace.

  • Kaizen

Kaizen Chinese and Japanese for “continuous improvement” when used in the business sense and applied to the workplace, kaizen refers to activities that continually improve all functions and involve all employees from the CEO to the assembly line workers.

  1. Select suitable line layout

Line layout means placing of machines and center table (trolley with wheel) as per style requirement. The main purpose of choosing a better layout is to reduce transportation time in the line as much as possible.

  1. Reduce Line Setting Time

Reason – lot of time is lost during setting of the line for a new style. This reduces overall machine productivity and line efficiency. There may have several production line in a production process. And it is engineers responsibility to use that type of line structure which not only ensure the less duration in the setting process but also increase the productivity through reducing the time used to assign task to each and every parts of production line.

  1. Improve Line Balancing

Purpose of balancing a line is to reduce operator’s idle time or maximize operator utilization. In a balanced line work will flow smoothly and no time will be lost in waiting for work. Always select operators for the operation matching operator skill history and skill required. Following this method you will select highly skilled operators for higher work content operations. Once line is set conduct capacity study at a regular interval then find bottlenecks inside the line. You have to think how you will reduce the WIP (Work in Progress) at bottleneck operation.

  1. Use Work Aids

Work aids are Additional devices that can be added to basic sewing machines such as folders, guides and pressure foots. If work aids are used effectively operation cycle time can be reduced many fold than existing cycle time.

  1. Continuous Feeding to the Sewing Line

It is not a fault of production department if they did not get cuttings to sew. All plans and efforts towards productivity will fail. Once operators get the rhythm, they should be given non-stop feeding until style changeover to keep up the productivity.

  1. Feed Fault Free Garment Components to Line

Inspect each and every garment components and accessories before starting production. It will help to prevent the defective garments.

  1. Leadership Training for Line Supervisors

Line supervisor play a vital role in production. Their main job is providing instruction, transferring information.

  1. Skill Training to Sewing Operators

Operators are main resources in the apparel manufacturing. They are most valuable resource to the company. So, factory must work on developing operator skill where required. “Training is not cost but an investment” said by many experts. Production from an operator depends on his skill level to the task. A low skilled operator will consume higher resources (time) and give less output. You will find quality related issues with low skilled and untrained operators. As the skill level of the operators is increased through training lines output will improve. Training does mean lot of time and money.

  1. Fixing Individual Operator Target

Instead of giving equal target to all operators working in a line, give individual target as per operator’s skill level and capacity. Set an achievable target for each operator so that they would try to reach the target. This will help improving operator’s individual efficiency.

  1. Eliminate Idle Time

Utilize operator’s time as much as you can. If there is idle time in a production process then this idle time will delay the overall operation of the process. And delay in operation reduce the production of the production. So to ensure the effective use of the time you must work for the elimination the idle time.

  1. Using UBT Sewing Machine (Under Bed Trimmer)  

Just think how many pieces an operator is producing in a day? Each time an operator trims thread using a trimmer or scissors consume time minimum 10% of cycle time (approx). Even machine without auto trimmer consumes more sewing thread.

  1. Inline Quality Inspection at Regular Interval

Effective inspection will help to reduce defect generation at source. Less number of defective seam is made less the time will be lost in repairing it. Inline checking system will alert operators in concentrating their job. It helps to find quality issues earlier and prevent that.

  1. Give Pleasant Working Environment

It may sound unlikely, but some research shows outfitting an office with aesthetically pleasing elements–like plants–can increase productivity by up to 15 percent. Jazz up your office space with pictures, candles, flowers, or anything else that puts a smile on your face.

  1. Operator Motivation

Employee motivation generally depends on various factors like work culture, HR policies, incentives, bonus on extra effort or achieving target. In case of garments employee motivations there may have monetary and non monetary benefit, but monetary benefit is more preferable because its visible benefit.

  1. Plan for Operator’s Incentive Scheme

Based on the efficiency of the operator incentives should be allotted to the operator.


  • Operator efficiency 70% – 10 INR
  • Operator efficiency 80% – 20 INR
  • Operator efficiency 85% – 30 INR
  • Operator efficiency 90% – 40 INR
  • Operator efficiency 95% – 50 INR
  1. Take Regular Breaks

It sounds counter intuitive, but taking scheduled breaks can actually help improve concentration. Some research has shown that taking short breaks during long tasks helps you to maintain a constant level of performance. While working at a task without breaks lead to a steady decline in performance.

  1. Use ERP Software’s

It will help to reduce the communication time, easy monitoring of production details and can able to easily find out bottle necks and balance that.


The suggestive techniques developed in this article cover a comprehensive series of aspects in minimizing reworks in the sewing section of apparel industries by ensuring quality Production also helps to improve the productivity. Productivity help to reduce the cost of product and Quality is ultimately gives customer satisfaction. Good Quality increases the value of a product or service, establishes brand name, and builds up good reputation for the garment exporter, which in turn results into consumer satisfaction, high sales. The study clearly indicates that by eliminating non-productive activities will improve the productivity of apparel manufacturing industry.

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The author is currently an undergraduate student at the Department of Fashion Technology, Angel college of Engineering and Technology, Tirupur. His area of interests is production, product development.

Email: [email protected]



P. Sivakumar

The author is currently an undergraduate student at the Department of Fashion

Technology, Angel college of Engineering and Technology, Tirupur. His area of interests includes standardization, Lean Manufacturing.

Email:[email protected]

You can download this article here Productivity Improvement Techniques in Apparel Manufacturing Industry

List of Project Management Acronyms

The success of a project is depends on the management of project. Managing a project is not an easy task, most of the time its challenging job for the related parties. At the time of working with project of government/ public or private you may find acronyms and abbreviations of different key points those are very much confusing in nature. To reduce you confusion I have tried to combine commonly used and make a list of project management acronyms. Hope this will be helpful for the students of finance have interest on project management and any other parties related with project (public or private).

List of Abbreviations in Project Management

List of Project Management AcronymsList of Project Management Acronyms

  • ADB- Asian Development Bank
  • AM- Aide Memoire (A document after review of a Project at any stage)
  • BB- Bangladesh Bank
  • BOO- Build Own Operate
  • BOT- Build Own Transfer
  • BOOT- Build Own Operate and Transfer
  • CFS- Combined Financial Statement
  • CONTASA- Convertible Taka Special Account
  • CSR- Combined Status Report
  • CD VAT- Customs Duty and Value Added Tax
  • CPM- Critical Point Method
  • CPA- Critical Path Analysis
  • CFS- Cash Flow Statement
  • CDR- Combined Delivery Report (For UN Project)
  • CAO- Chief Accounts Officer
  • DFID- Department for International Development
  • DP- Development Partner
  • DCA- Development Credit Agreement
  • DOSA- Dollar Special Account
  • DPA- Direct Project Aid
  • DPP- Development Project Proposal
  • ERD- Economic Relations Division
  • ECNEC- Executive Council for National Economic Council
  • FO- Field Office
  • FS- Financial Statement
  • FD- Finance Division
  • FP- Functions Point
  • GOB- Government of Bangladesh
  • GO- Government Order
  • GDR- Government Delivery Report (For UN Project)
  • HPNSDP- Health Population Nutrition Sector Development Project
  • IMED- Implementation, Monitoring and Evaluation Division
  • IRR- Internal Rate of Return
  • IT- Income Tax
  • IDB- Islamic Development Bank
  • IDA- International Development Agency
  • IDA- International Development Association
  • IIFC- Infrastructure Investment Facilitation Center
  • IMF- International Monetary Fund
  • IPFF- Investment Promotion and Financing Facility
  • JICA- Japan International Cooperation Agency
  • JVCA- Joint Venture Consortia Alliance
  • MB- Management Book
  • NPV- Net Present Value
  • NBR- National Board of Revenue
  • NEC- National Economic Council
  • PP- Project Proposal
  • PT- Project Termination
  • PCR- Project Completion Report
  • PA- Project Aid
  • PPA- Pre-financed Project Aid
  • PPR- Public Procurement Rule
  • PPP- Public Private Partnership
  • PC- Planning Commission
  • PBP- Pay Back Period
  • PEC- Project Evaluation Committee
  • PPT- Project Planning Tool
  • PERT- Programme Evaluation and Review Technique
  • PHQ- Project Head Quarters
  • PLC- Project Life Cycle
  • PPR- Public Procurement Rule
  • PPA- Public Procurement Act
  • PSC- Project Steering Committee
  • PD- Project Director
  • PM- Project Manager
  • PM- Project Management
  • PMO- Project Management Office
  • Pro Doc- Project Document (For UN supported projects)
  • PER- Project Evaluation Report
  • PPM- Project Portfolio Management
  • PSIG- Private Sector Infrastructure Guidelines
  • PAO- Principal Accounting Officer
  • PRDP- Participatory Rural Development Project
  • RPA- Reimbursable Project Aid
  • SAFE- Special Account in Foreign Exchange
  • SEIP- Skills for Employment Investment Program
  • SOP- Standard Operating Process
  • SOE- Statement of Expenditure
  • SPV- Special Purpose Vehicles
  • TPP- Technical Assistance Project Proposal
  • USAID- United States Agency for International Development
  • WA- Withdrawal Application
  • WB- World Bank

project management acronyms

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Standardization of Apparel Manufacturing Industry

Standardization of Apparel Manufacturing Industry Focusing on “Cutting Section”

In this paper, a study was conducted in the cutting and CAD section under a garment manufacturing company. The implementation of standards in industry became highly important with the onset of the industrial revolution. Maximum garment industries are facing different problems like low productivity, longer production lead time, high rework and rejection, low flexibility, lower quality product, high non-value added work etc. In this study these different problems were identified by using numerous effective production control tool like work standardization. The encouraging results after implementing the tool give the way to go forward and thrust to reach at the end point. Some key benefits of this implementation are decrease in sample rejection level by 60%, reduction of work level for repairing works by 70% eliminating bottleneck process results in reduction of excess motion and non-value added works by 50%. As a result, total processing time for final output is decreased. After the implementation of standard operation procedure effectively, the result shows a significant improvement of the production than before.


A SOP (Standard operation procedure) is a process that describes in details in detail the way that an operator should perform a given operation. SOPs include the purpose of the operation, the equipment and materials required how to perform the setup and operations required for the process, how to perform the maintenance and shutdown operations carried out by the worker, a description of safety issues and checklist. This SOP is one of several process documents required for consistent operation of a given process, with other documents including process flow chart. For example, Taylor (1998/1911) believed that workers were incapable of designing efficient processes, hence the need of management to design standard operating procedures. The objective of SOP is ‘optimal’ way to perform a given process. It helps to improve the process performance. SOPs are updated and workers are trained to the new procedures. Standardization is the process of developing and implementing technical standards.

standardization of apparel manufacturing industry focusing on cutting section

A study was conducted in the cutting and CAD section under a garment manufacturing company. Cutting section plays a vital role for apparel industries. Cutting section involve different types of critical process like pattern preparation, spreading, cutting, snickering, bundling, etc.

Pattern preparation: Preparing the template for garments

Spreading: Spreading of the fabric to form a lay.

Cutting: Cutting of the fabric.

Labeling: It is the process of stick the stickers on garment component for identification and tracking purpose.

Bundling: Here the garment components are bundled according to the requirement.

This study introduces standard operation procedures in cutting department of the garment industry. Standardization is the process of developing and implementing technical standards. Standardization can help to maximize productivity, safety and quality.

Steps for Developing Standard Operation Procedure

First of all we have to study the particular place where we are framing standard operation procedure. Find out the problems present in the cutting department. Also get some ideas from the workers for standardization then frame the standard operation procedure for the cutting department. While framing the SOP we have to consider the quality parameters, it should not affect the quality of the product. Then consider the safety, it should not affect the safety of the labor and try to simplify the operation. Frame the SOP according to the 5S and kaizen system. It will help to improve the productivity, quality of the product, safety, effective utilization of machines and equipment.

5S to Transform the Working Condition towards Excellence

5S is also a known method of reducing waste, increasing productivity and clear visibility of non conformance at workplace. Evolved in Japan, 5S has been adopted worldwide to transform the working condition towards excellence. The methodology has 5 major steps each of the step starting with a Japanese word which gives a sound of “S” therefore known as 5S. Those steps are:

  • SEISO means SHINE

The above system needs to be implemented in-order to get the desired results.

 Additional S’s

Other phases are sometimes included e.g., safety, security, and satisfaction. These however do not form a traditional set of “phases” as the additions of these extra steps are simply to clarify the benefits of 5S and not a different or more inclusive methodology.


Kaizen Chinese and Japanese for “continuous improvement” when used in the business sense and applied to the workplace, kaizen refers to activities that continually improve all functions and involve all employees from the CEO to the assembly line workers. It also applies to processes, such as purchasing and logistics that cross organizational boundaries into the supply chain. It has been applied in healthcare, psychotherapy, life-coaching, government, banking, and other industries.

By improving standardized activities and processes, kaizen aims to eliminate. Kaizen was first implemented in several Japanese businesses after the Second World War, influenced in part by American business and quality management teachers who visited the country. It has since spread throughout the world and is now being implemented in environments outside of business and productivity.

Standard Operation Procedure for Pattern Making Process

standard operation procedure for pattern making

Figure: 1 Standard operation procedure (SOP) for the pattern making process is shown in the figure:1

After receiving the order first of all the pattern master should study the sample and technical package of the style. Then note down the requirements of the buyer. Prepare the pattern according to the measurement and also check the pattern shape, measurements. Cut the fabric and sew the garment. Inspect the garment according to the specification sheet. If there is any changes required means alter the pattern and finally implement the requirements to the final pattern. After that start the bulk production by using he final patterns.

Before Standardization

  • Quality issues on the pattern shape, measurement.
  • It may affect the quality of the garment.

After standardization

  • Quality issues on the pattern size, shape, measurement will be altered before mass production.
  • Eliminating the non value added activities.

Standard Operation Procedure for Machine Spreading Process

standard operation procedure for machine spreading processFigure: 2

Standard operation procedure for machine spreading process is shown in the figure: 2. First of all preset the machine like cleaning, sharpen knife, marker length, no of lays, speed of the spreader) spreader clean the spreader and sharp the blade. Then verify the marker width and fabric width. Set the marker length and numbers of lays in the control panel of the spreader. Set the end catcher of the spreader. Starts the spreading process also measure the length of the lay by using the measuring tape for verification. Spread the fabric without any wrinkles. Maintain the end bit of the roll document. It is shown in the table: 1. then spread the marker on the lay. Pull the lay to the cutting area and start the cutting process.

Fabric Maintenance Document

fabric Maintenance document

Before standardization

  • Quality issues in the lay like wrinkles and shrinkages.
  • Improper maintenance of the fabric

After standardization

  • Quality issues are rectified by SOP
  • Improving the safety of the operator
  • Productivity improved

Standard Operation Procedure for Cutting by Using Straight Knife Cutting Machine

standard operation procedure of cutting by using straight knife cutting machine

Figure: 3

Standard operation procedure (SOP) for the straight knife cutting process is shown in the figure: 3. before staring the cutting process check the placement of the marker in the lay. Mention the required details on the lay also fix clip around the lay. To get the machine ready for chine should be cutting-To check if the cutting blade is sharpened evenly. The oiled &ensure there is no oil leakage. Wear mask and metal gloves for safety purpose of the operator. Start the cutting process and check the notches and symmetry of the pattern.

Before Standardization

  • Improper safety of the operator
  • Quality issues in the garment components like serrated edge and shape

After standardization

  • Safety of the operator improved
  • Quality improved
  • Production improved

Standard Operation Procedure for Stickering Process

standard operation procedure for stickering process

Figure: 4

Standard operation procedure for stickering process is shown in the figure: 4.Before starting the process the operator should wear the mask and clean the stickering machine. Select the color of the sticker and gum level of the sticker. There are many more color stickers are available like red, green, Yellow etc..,, Select the gum level depends upon the fabric type (heavy, medium, light).

Example: Table: 2

standardization of apparelCheck the gum level before staring the mass production. Stickering at right place of the garment component, it should not disturb the sewing process. Finally verify the numbers to the bundle sheet.

Before standardization

  • Quality issues in the garment component like stain

After standardization

  • Quality issues are rectified by the SOP
  • Productivity improved

Before Standardization Percentage of Quality

quality percentage before standardizationAfter Standardization Percentage of Quality

quality percentage after standardizationBy the standardization here the quality issues are rectified and the production improved in the cutting department of apparel industry likewise the safety of the operator improved.


The suggestive SOP developed in this article cover a comprehensive series of aspects in minimizing reworks in the cutting section of apparel industries by ensuring quality production. Standardization depends upon the type of industry. So manufacturing the quality product is mandatory to sustain in this global competitive market. Cutting is the heart of the apparel industry also the perfect pattern and garment components only can make the quality product like good fit and size. Quality is ultimately a question of customer satisfaction. Good Quality increases the value of a product or service, establishes brand name, and builds up good reputation for the garment exporter, which in turn results into consumer satisfaction, high sales. The study clearly indicates that by eliminating non-productive activities like reworks in the apparel industries time as well as cost is saved by SOP (Standard operation procedure).


[1] JUKI corporation sewing research institute. Production Control Tools for Garment Industry 1st Edition.

[2] Heizer, J., and Render, B. (2000), Principles of Operations Management 4th Edition. Pearson College Div.ISBN-10: 0130271470.

[3] L. C. PIGAGE, J. L. TUCKER. Motion and Time Study, Institute of Labor and Industrial Relation, UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS BULLETIN

[4] Roy, R. N. (2005). Modern Approach to Operations Management. Daryaganj, Delhi, India: New Age International.

[5] Bheda, R., Narag, A.S. And Singla, M.L. Apparel Manufacturing a Strategy for Productivity

Improvement, Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, Volume7

[6] Adnan Maroof Khan and Md. Mazedul Islam, Application of 5S System in the Sample Section of an Apparel Industry for Smooth Sample Dispatch, Research Journal of Management Sciences, Vol. 2(7)

Standardization of Apparel Manufacturing Industry Focusing on “Cutting Section”

This journal is written by

P. Sivakumar

P. Sivakumar

The author is currently an undergraduate student at the Department of Fashion Technology of Angel college of Engineering and Technology, Tirupur. His area of interests includes standardization, Lean Manufacturing.

Tamil Nadu.

Email: [email protected]

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Issues of Preparation and Implementation of ADP

Issues of Preparation and Implementation of ADP

As per the poverty reduction strategy of government of Bangladesh the main issues of preparation and implementation of ADP (Annual Development Program) are accelerating economic growth, lowering inflation, generating employment and reduction of poverty. Do you agree with this statement? Justify your opinion.

Yes I agree with this statement, because Bangladesh is a developing country where most of the people living below the poverty line. Government is planning to establish Bangladesh as a middle income country but the problem is poverty which must be resolved first to get the status of middle income. Another problem is imbalance income, here in Bangladesh 90% money is on the hand of 10% people and rest of the 10% money holding by 90% people, this ratio should be adjusted through economic distribution of income and wealth to ensure balance.

Issues of Preparation and Implementation of ADP

To ensure accelerating economic growth, creating employment and reduction of poverty line government took many strategic decisions like Annual Development Program. Every year huge amount of money is allocating for the purpose of annual development program and if requires then government revise the ADP year to year.

ADP is under the development budget approved by the parliament; basically the planning commission formulates the ADP of the Government of Bangladesh for period of more or less than five years to meet several goals and objectives. For financing of ADP both local sources (government or other financial institutions) and foreign (foreign aid, loan) are used.

Over the year allocation from the budget for ADP is increasing by a considerable amount, in 1972-73 ADP was 501 crore taka, 1979-80 it was 2123 crore taka, 1987-88 it was 5046 crore taka, 1995-1996 it was 12100 crore taka and for 2015-16 it is now 97000 crore taka.

Look at these above figures of ADP allocation over the year; you see huge amount of money is used for the purpose of annual development and for this reason our economy is now expanding, more local and foreign investment creating employment for the people of Bangladesh which is working as a driving force for the increase of income, consequently it is reducing the poverty of our country.

Another great challenge for the government of Bangladesh is to keep the inflation rate at a minimum level. Although we have seen that the inflation level was increased up to 9.09 percent in May 2014 and 5.86 percent is the lowest ever in December 2014. The rate of inflation of our country is normally on an average 6 to 7 percent. So in this perspective we can say that government of Bangladesh is quite successfully managing our inflation level which is one of the prerequisite to ensure a proper economic growth.

Now come to the point how economic growth is done through ADP over the years, economic growth is the increase in the value of all goods and services produced in a country for a period of time. GDP- Gross Domestic Product is the determinant by which we can say what going on with the economy; it is growing positively or negatively. Here for Bangladesh you can see that although there was economic recession in many countries but we had maintained our positive economic growth which is one of the main indicators that we are doing well.

Under the annual development program several sectors are getting priorities like infrastructural development, ensuring quality education for the people, adequate health service, developing information technology to ensure digital Bangladesh, agricultural development and supporting women to become entrepreneur. An economic growth can be possible through properly using natural resource, capital, human resource and information technology. In addition to these there should also capacity to meet demand and efficiency in operation of business.

Through these annual development programs our economy is moving positively, more new local and international companies are showing their interest to invest here and it is government responsibilities to ensure a positive environment for investment. More investment will create more employment opportunities, as people are getting employed our employment rate will be high. Because of employment we will have more earnings to spend, hope this will help us to reduce our poverty.

The important thing is to keep the inflation rate at a lower level, although it is very much challenging job for the government to lower the inflation rate but it has to. Government should implement monetary policy to control the money supply and fiscal policy to minimize or maximize the government expenditures and revenues. Also it is required to monitor and control the exchange rate of our country as our country’s economy is highly dependent on the remittance and the import and export.

Example: As a vision of digital Bangladesh government spending lots of money from the ADB for Information Technological development. Now we are seeing that there is a positive impact of this IT development. Many people are getting employed, they are earning trough outsourcing and working here in Bangladesh for local firm. It is helping to generate the employment and earnings of the people which moving our economy positively.

If everything happens in a right way then we hope that the annual develop program of the government will create positive impact to ensure Bangladesh as a middle income country.

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Factors are Important for Efficient Decision Making

Why the economics analysis and in depth understanding of economic factors are important for efficient decision making in capital market?

Investors always try to formulate best possible portfolio by investing in the capital market for the purpose of getting capital gain and dividend (cash or stock). It is not an easy task to choose best investment alternatives because proper analysis is required. Only a specialized person would be able to analyze the market and identify the potentials. Many people think that only financial analysis is enough to make investment but in real sense not only financial analysis but also economic analysis is required.

In case of financial analysis we only consider company and industrial outcome by fundamental and technical analysis. But whenever we go for analysis by considering economics we have to analyze the macroeconomic factors that may have impact on the capital market. An economist or any other professionals those have knowledge of economics can do this analysis on behalf of investors. But investors also have to have basic ideas of how economics factors can influence the price of the investment securities.

Factors are Important for Efficient Decision MakingFor efficient decision making in the capital market following economic factors should be considered

  • Inflation
  • Market Interest Rate
  • Economic Recession
  • Employment Rate

Effect of Inflation in the Capital Market

In an inflationary economy investors have less money to invest because investors have to spend more money for their consumption. As because there is a less demand of the stock in the capital market, the price should be lower; we know that lower the demand lower the price. In the other sense in case of company, for inflation the production cost of the company is higher than the previous. So company’s income will be lower that stimulate the price of the stock. We know that the stock which provides more dividends to the stock holders, that stock should price higher than the other company which provide lower dividends.

Effect of Market Interest Rate in the Capital Market

If the market interest rate increases then investor will prefer fixed income securities rather lower earning risky securities. Suppose government bond providing 10% of interest then this bond will get more preference compared with risky investment. On the other hand if the interest rate is lower in the market then investor will borrow the money at lower interest and invest in the capital market.

Economic Recession

Because of economic recession there may have positive impact on the capital market. Normally at the beginning of recession investor loose but there is always an expectation that in near future there will be positive movement in the stock price in the market, so investor prefer invest when there is recession. This will happened only if there is strong form of efficiency exists in the market.

On the other hand if there is an economic boom situation exists then there may have a possibility of declining market price movement.

Employment Rate

With the increase of number of employment of a country per capital income will also increase. For this people will have extra money after consumption. If people capital market is performing well then investor will interested to invest their surplus amount of money. So higher the employment higher the earning and it does increase the investment in the capital market.

Political Condition of a Country

Political condition is one of the main factors which have a huge impact on the overall economy and the capital market. People believe that a positive economic condition is required to maintain a stable capital market. Several financial decisions taken by the government over time to time, so it is also important know how much preference a capital market gets from the government.

In a capital market investors basically invest in a long term securities so investor must consider all probable aspects and economic factors before making investment. A choice of investment in capital market can lead to a huge capital loss, so proper analysis has to done by the professional and select best opportunities.

Finally one thing is that an investor should consider economic factors which have impact on the capital market and proper financial and economic analysis must be done before investing in the capital market.

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Factors that Decrease the Garments Production

Factors that Decrease the Garments Production

Based on the demand of garments, production process continues small scale to large scale. Many production managers get the notification that their factory production of garments are decreasing and it is a one of the common problem managers have to think about. By taking effective measures it can be possible to minimize the problem of the factors those actually responsible for decreasing the garments production.

Factors that Decrease the Garments ProductionThis article is written based on the problem summery which has a considerable influence on reduction of garments production. After reading the full article hope you will have a complete idea of problematic factors.

The main key factors that decrease the garments production are

Machine Problem

Machine Problem (m/c) is one of the common problems of garment manufacturing factory where frequently m/c break down occurs. Due to needle break or destroy needle head production process stopped and any other process directly related with core process like sewing process may hamper. So because of machine break down or there is any problem in the machine may decrease the garments production.

Sewing problem

Another problematic factor which is responsible for garments production is sewing problem. Some time it is seen that garment piece make gathering under Q.C table is responsible for production hamper which is known as “Alter”.

Shad Variation

Shad variation problem is one of the big problems in garment manufacturing factory. When different type of fabric lot is mixed with each other in the cutting section then it may create deviation in the production floor and which ultimately decrease garments production.

Late Come

If operators and helpers come late to the work place or become absent then the starting of the production is to be delayed and for this consequence the production of garments also decrease for that day.

Accessories Problem

When trims and accessories are not available or respective parties failed to supply in proper time in the production floor that may delay in operations. Sometimes invalid trims and accessories make bottle neck in production process and for this problematic factor production of garments reduced.

Cutting Problem

If there is a deviation of cutting of fabric asking by the production department from the cutting department then there will a problem of mismatch which will decrease the production. Cutting problem such as improper cutting is one of the main problems we normally found in factory and this problem arises because of unskilled workers.

Size Mistake

In a factory you may find garments of different size (XS, S, M, L, XL, and XXL). If mixed with each other than it will decrease the garments production.

Delay in Input

When input supervisor doesn’t bring the required input timely then it creates ultimate production loss.

Power Failure

Inadequate power supply or failure of power is one of the considerable problematic factors which are responsible for decrease in garments production. Although you have enough man power but you do not sufficient power to run your production process, so ultimately your production will reduce.

In addition to the above mentioned factors there are some other important factors which are also responsible for decrease the garments production:

  • QC problems
  • Change over time schedule
  • New layout
  • Air compressor problem
  • Embroidery problem
  • Printing problem
  • Problem of planning and proper coordination etc.

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Written by

MD.Mukter hossain

Employee at Tejgaon Textile Mills Ltd.

As An Executive officer (IE)

Phone: 01736530666

Woven Fabric Costing and Structure Factors

Woven Fabric Costing and Structure Factors

In garments you may find different types of fabric is used and fabric is depends on what type of garments you want to produce. Based on the requirement different forms of manufacturing process are followed in the factory. A merchandiser has to consider lots of things to calculate costing because based on this costing he/she will make contract with buyers. So if you are a merchandiser or wanted to be a merchandiser then you have to have knowledge of woven fabric costing and structure factors.

From my own experience I am going to share about fabric costing and structure factors for your better understanding.

woven fabric costing and structure factorsFactors of Woven Fabric Costing and Structure

  • Fiber content
  • Spinning type
  • Yarn count
  • Twist per inch(TPI) of yarn
  • Number of picks per inch
  • Number of ends per inch
  • GSM
  • Fabric width
  • Dyeing/Printing type
  • Finishing type
  • Fabric Weave type
  • Shade Quality
  • Fabric Quality
  • Shrinkage percentage

Fabric Specification: Very commonly use following formula to know about fabric = (Warp yarn count X weft yarn count) / (Ends/inch X Picks/inch) X Fabric width.

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

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List of Trimmings and Accessories use in Garments

The main material of garments making is fabric. In addition to fabric, there are lots of auxiliary material used in garments manufacturing, these materials are called trims and accessories.

List of Trimmings and Accessories use in Garments

list of trimmings and accessories use in garments

Trims are used to complete a garment, where as accessories are used to decorate garments. Trims attached with fabric by sewing, where as accessories make cloth more attractive.

List of All Trimmings in Garments


List of all Trimmings in Garments

1. Sewing Thread

-Monofilament Thread

-Multifilament Thread

-Textured Thread

-Core spun Thread

11. Zipper

-Nylon Zipper

-Metal Zipper

-Plastic Zipper


2. Button 12. Motif
3. Rivet 13. Shoulder pad
4. Lining 14. Hook & Loop
5. Interlining 15. Twill tape
6. Stopper 16. Velcro tape
7. Lace 17. Pon pom
8. Braid 18. Wadding
9. Elastic 19. Ribbon
10. Label -Main label -Size label -Care label


List of Accessories Used in Garments

List of Accessories Used in Garments

1. Hanger 14. Scotch tape
2. Hangtag 15. P.P Band
3. Tissue paper 16. Inner Carton
4. Backboard 17. Outer carton
5. Neck board 18. Iron seal
6. Paper Band 19. Tarpaulin paper
7. Pin/Clip 20. Carton Sticker
8. Tag pin 21. Safety sticker
9. Poly bag 22. Arrow sticker
10. Elastic bag 23. Butterfly
11. Mini poly bag 24. Both side tape
12. Collar stand 25. Plastic staple
13. Gum tape 26. Barcode, UPC

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

Facebook: Amirul Islam Washim
E-mail: [email protected]

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Yarn Manufacturing Abbreviations

There are lots of processes involved in different types of spinning. It is required to go through different critical processes to convert fiber into yarn and in these processes different abbreviations are used by the people working there. Whereas yarn manufacturing is continuing fiber to cone winding. If you are working in yarn manufacturing section then you definitely need to know some important abbreviation used in yarn manufacturing process, because it will help you to understand these abbreviations and use accordingly.

Considering the importance I have tried my best to accumulate all the abbreviation used in different stage of yarn manufacturing.

yarn manufacturing abbreviations

Yarn Manufacturing Abbreviations

  • BCIRA-British Cotton Industries Research Association
  • BJSA-Bangladesh Jute Spinners Association
  • CCI-Cotton Council International
  • CDS-Count Data System
  • CSP-Count Strength Product
  • CBC-Carpet Batching Cloth
  • CH-Card Hosiery
  • CW-Card Weaving
  • CCP-Continuous Count Plus
  • CCM-Continuous Count Minus
  • CV- Coefficient of Variation
  • CN-Centi Newton
  • CRL-Constant Rate of Loading
  • CRE-Constant Rate of Elongation/Extension
  • CIS-Commonwealth Independent State
  • CSIRO-Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization
  • DC-Draft Constant
  • DCCP-Draft Constant Change Pinion
  • DCP-Draft Change Pinion
  • FMT-Fines Maturity Test
  • FFP-Floating Fiber Percentage
  • FQI-Fiber Quality Index
  • FQI-Fiber Quality Index
  • HSC-Highest Standard Count
  • HVI-High Volume Instrument
  • IFC-Immature Fiber Content
  • IPI-Imperfection Index
  • ISO-International Organization for Standardization
  • IIC-International Institute for Cotton
  • LINRA-Linen Industry Research Association
  • LCP-Lifter Change Pinion
  • MMF-Manmade Fiber
  • MIC-Micronaire Value
  • MR-Moisture Ratio
  • MR-Moisture Regain
  • MC-Moisture Content
  • MD-Mechanical Draft
  • NRE-Neps Removal Efficiency
  • PI-Pressley Index
  • PMD-Percentage of Mean Deviation
  • PCW-Production Change Wheel
  • RW-Ratchet Wheel
  • RH-Relative Humidity
  • RPM-Revolution Per Minute
  • SCP-Spindle Change Pinion
  • SCI-Spinning Consistence Index
  • SFI-Short Fiber Index
  • SCN-Seed Boat Neps
  • TM-Twist Multiplier
  • TF-Twist Factor
  • TW-Tapper Wheel
  • TPI-Twist Per Inch
  • TPM-Twist Per Meter
  • TCS-Trash Count on Surface
  • TCP-Twist Change Pinion
  • UHML-Upper Half Mean Length
  • UI-Uniformity Index
  • UQL-Upper Quarter Length
  • VFM-Visible Foreign Matter
  • WIRA-Woolen Industries Research Association
  • WI-Wear Index

If you know any other abbreviations related with yarn manufacturing then you can write it to the comment box so that we can have idea about this.

Yarn Manufacturing Abbreviations

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

Facebook: Amirul Islam Washim
E-mail: [email protected]

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Minimize the Risk from Your Investments

How can you Minimize the Risk from Your Investments

Most of the people in this world are risk averser this means that normal people are not interested to take high risk for their investment. Although higher risk taking behavior also can be identified among the highly ambitious people. Actually they believed in higher the risk higher the rates of return, this type of people want to have abnormal rates of return which is much more than average rate of return.

Minimize the risk from your investments is very tough job if you are doing business of single product for a particular group of people. But investment in multi product business for different group of people actually has the potentiality to have lower or minimum amount of risk. The reason behind this is diversification of investment which actually helps to lower the investment risk.

minimize the risk from your investments

Now come to the point of risk minimization of your investments and how it works

There is a widely accepted concept of risk minimization introduced by the Markowitz which is known as Markowitz portfolio theory. This theory says that through forming portfolio (combinations of different set of investment securities) by using negatively correlated securities from the available investment alternatives investor can minimize nonsystematic (risk which is not generated from macro economic variables)proportion of risk. Here unsystematic risk can be close to zero if investor is able to form optimum portfolio. Remember that although nonsystematic/ unsystematic risk is minimized but there is still has systematic risk (arises from macro economic variables) which cannot be minimized.

Let’s consider an example of risk minimization

Example 1: Suppose you are doing retail business of potato supply. You predicted that this year there will be higher demand of potato, so you stored potato a larger quantity.

But you did not think what will happen if there is less demand for potato because of higher production and huge import by other suppliers.

So there may have huge risk of losing your business and incurring financial loss and you do not have any other alternative to recover this loss.

What if you conscious about the consequence that may arise and you invest your money in different products like Banana, Tomato, sugarcane, coconut supply etc. rather than investing whole money for only one business of Potato supply.

Here in this case if you lose some money from the potato business, you will still have chance to recover it from the other business you are engaged in. So your risk is minimized by diversification.

Let’s consider another example of risk minimization

Example 2: Suppose you want to invest in the capital market to earn capital gain and yearend dividend. You have many options to choose company from different industry, rather doing this you select a company which is doing well in capital market and invest all of your money. Guess what can be happened with you?

Either you can get a considerable amount of profit or you may incur huge amount of loss. The problem is you invest all of your money to a particular company, if this company fails then you will lose. So you should your investment decision carefully to form a portfolio by investing in different company in different industry. So that if any company unable to satisfy then other can recover your loss and you always become gainer from the portfolio.

From these two examples you can see that only proper diversification can help you to minimize the risk of your business/ investment. So think strategically and be a successful business person.

Points must keep in mind when you try to minimize your investment risk in the financial market

  • Choose as much as negatively correlated (one investment return is not related with other chosen investment) investment alternative.
  • Do not invest in the market without knowing what’s really going on. Is the market is over price or under price and what factors and forces changing the current market demand.
  • Do not invest in the market if you are found that the price of securities is manipulated by the syndicate.

My suggestion is always consider investment alternatives and try to diversify as much as you can so that your risk can be minimized and you get a reasonable profit from your investment.

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