Pilot Run Process in Garments Industry

Pilot Run Process in Garments Industry

A pilot run is a precautionary manufacturing process of Garments manufacturing after PP meeting and before starting bulk production. Pilot run is also called as Trial run in Garments manufacturing, generally done in bigger lot (3000+ quantity), manufacturer cut 200-250 pcs for pilot run. Pilot run done in bigger quantity than size set. Main purpose of pilot run is to fix garments measurement within tolerance limit .After passing PP sample, Garments manufactures go for pilot run to ensure Measurement and Garments construction correction is okay, most of times pilot run sample also have measurement deviation, so pattern adjustment is applied for bulk. If Pilot run cannot be passing to buyer, bulk cutting cannot start, buyer procedure doing pilot before bulk.

Pilot Run Process in Garments Industry

Why Need to do Pilot Run Before Bulk Production

  1. To avoid mistake risk of bigger Garments lot
  2. To check measurement after correction on PP sample pattern to ensure bulk garments accurate measurement
  3. To check Garments sewing quality, ensure successful removal of size set sample defects
  4. To set sewing line and smooth production for bulk
  5. Starting production in small portion to minimize error.

Pilot Run Meeting Activities

  • Checking pattern, adjustment history and review
  • Pilot run meeting generally coordinate by concern buyer QC or Factory quality head
  • Review Pilot Run sample and compare quality with approved sample
  • Checking measurement and compare improvement with PP sample
  • Taking all precautions for bulk production
  • Risk Analysis of all critical operations
  • Checking washing appearances, shade with approved standard, hand feel

Pilot Run Meeting Checklist

  1. Approved Sample
  2. QA Style File
  3. PO Sheet
  4. Production PDM/Bulk PDM, Styling Check with Updated PDM & seal sample, Check the specification
  5. Before Wash Spec by CAD
  6. Approved sample Comments
  7. Approved Trim Cards, Trims Placement check with updated PDM
  8. All Sewing Trims Approval
  9. Body Fabric (Approved Dye Lot)
  10. Embellishment Approval(EMB/Print/Rhinestone)
  11. Approved Wash Standard/V-Code
  12. Shade band- Leg Panel
  13. Shade Blanket
  14. Shade Card
  15. Shrinkage Test Report
  16. Distortion Test Report
  17. Tube Test/ Cross Stain Checking Blanket
  18. Button/ Rivet Pull Test Report & mock up
  19. Home Laundry for Heat Seal LBL/Button/Care LBL/Leather Patch/Rhinestone
  20. TNA
  21. Fabric & Trims Inventory Report
  22. Fabric & Trims Inspection Report
  23. Vendor’s Internal PP Meeting & Evaluation Report
  24. Pattern checking, Change Log
  25. Washing T- (Tint) Heavy or less, (abrasion) Less or heavy (coverage all dry process), H- (Hand feel) Hard or soft
  26. Match Number UPC and care label each pieces
  27. Waist Closer buttons check
  28. Security Tack each pieces
  29. Check Zipper slider open & close
  30. All hardware
  31. ATF button & Elastic Pull & check both side.
  32. Belt tack stitch both end & weaving quality & belt size.
  33. Belt tracking number should be same all the pieces
  34. Check inside pocket, remove stone, dust, long thread.
  35. Hanger, sizer check with size label After attached

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)
Email: [email protected]

Linkedin: A.M. Amirul Islam

Neckties: Types, Names, Uses and Fabric

What is Neckties

The neckties, therefore, are strips of silk, cotton or other fabric that fall on the chest. It is an aesthetic accessory that is worn on the shirt to camouflage the respective buttons.

The types, characteristics and uses of the neckties were varying throughout history. Nowadays, they are mostly used by men when wearing a shirt and a suit. Neckties are used in formal contexts: At work level, in a marriage, in a judicial hearing, etc.

Neckties: Types, Names, Uses and Fabric

Neckties Types, Names, Uses and Fabric of Neckties

For the tie to be hung from the chest, it should be adjusted to the neck with a knot, after making a loop in which to “stick” the head. The knot is made in the neck area and allows to adjust and unadjusted the loop, making the tie longer or shorter.

When the person wants your tie to stay straight and don’t move, you can use a tie pin. This accessory allows you to fasten your tie to your shirt.

Types of Neckties

  1. Standard neckties
  2. Slim neckties
  3. Butterfly neckties
  4. Straight Tip neckties

Standard Neckties

As the name says, the standard tie model is the traditional/standard. It is wider and originally made of silk, ideal for a classic look and for all occasions. Guys of different ages and physical types can use the standard without fear, it is very versatile and easy to match.

Where to use? In traditional events: weddings, ceremonies, graduation, among other similar.

Slim Neckties

Slim necktie models are trendy and have fallen into the taste of young people. The name also says everything about this type: It has cutting thinner, modern and stripped. Suitable for lean guys, as the chubby and bullies get the unbalanced look with the slim tie, looking like a risk in the middle of the chest – many stylists do not indicate.

Where to use? In relaxed situations and not necessarily with shirt or suit. It can be combined with plaid shirt, chino pants or jeans, among other alternate and daring looks.

Butterfly Neckties

Bow tie is also classic and very well known, ideal for Gala attire and special occasions. It is versatile and democratic, and as everything in fashion reinvents, many young people go beyond and use this type in casual look. Some are very original, others with questionable taste, but it all depends on the combination.

Straight Tip Neckties

A lot of strange people with a straight-tipped tie. In fact, she’s not popular, so she spent a lot of time missing from the market. Currently, however, some stylists have brought this accessory back to the fore. Among its characteristics are the knitting fabric and the thin shape, similar to that of the slim.

It combines with flat shirts, plaid shirts and a look that eliminates the use of the suit. For the fat ones, there are models of a wider straight tie, which combine better with the biotype.

Where to use? Working meeting, informal occasions.

How to Use and Combine Different Necktie

The color is considered the main point of a necktie, which most draws attention – quite obvious, isn’t it? Therefore, it is essential to have common sense when choosing the ideal necktie tone for each occasion.

Another gold tip is about texture, pattern and shape. The exaggeration is never good, as much as you love daring looks. In the case of necktie models, it gets even more evident and takes you more to the error than I hit.

More Tips for Using and Combining Necktie Models

  • The shirt should always be in a lighter tone than the tie. You have a face that doesn’t care about it and makes your own style, but then it’s going to break you or not the pattern making your look beautiful.
  • Try to leave the proportional combination considering color, texture and pattern, both in a casual and alternative look and a formal.
  • White and blue flat shirt are key pieces that fall well with virtually all models of necktie! In doubt, choose these types.

Now, see tips for every occasion:

Tips to Wear Tie in Different Occasions

  • Wedding: Prefer classic neckties and discreet colors. Watch out for the invitation and, in doubt, talk to the bride and groom.
  • Gala Costume: The bowtie is always the alternative in these events. Do not try to dare and draw attention with types of modernists.
  • Alternative and casual Look: bow tie in different textures, slim tie and even the straight end, depending on the occasion.
  • Day to day and work: discrete tie models. Dark and traditional colors have no error.
  • Dinners: If it’s a business dinner, prefer something conservative and classic. With friends or romantic, vary in medium tones and even warm colors.

Guide to the Most Common Types of Necktie Fabrics

Nowadays you can wear a tie with almost all sorts of clothes, the accessory that was once a symbol of the dour and old-fashioned man ended up migrating to other combinations that do not necessarily need a suit or blazer to justify the use of it and ended up gaining Stylish man’s piece status. However, knowing the types of fabrics for neckties is important to achieve the desired visual effect, because small differences in texture and brightness of each material can change the face of your look.

Types of Fabrics for Neckties

  1. Jacquard Neckties
  2. Cotton Neckties
  3. Wool Neckties
  4. Crochet Neckties
  5. Denim Necktie/Chambray
  6. Linen Necktie

From the classic jacquard to the unglued crochet there are neckties for all tastes, some more formal, others totally detached. Meet the types of fabrics for neckties and know which fit best in your style:

Jacquard Neckties

can be silk (more expensive and noble) or synthetic fabric (such as polyester, cheaper), the look is classic and extremely suitable for those who will go for a more casual look but do not want to get too relaxed or for those who do not open the suit or custom, especially at work and in formal events.

Suitable for: who enjoys a classic and elegant look, complemented with tailoring pieces, even if not the full social clothing?

Cotton Neckties

The skinny ones are very current and they look great with jeans and shirt, the prints are the most diverse, but it is worth paying attention to the Poi, small floral and Vichy type chess. Can you wear it with a suit? It does, but it will roll a downgrade in the seriousness of the costume, so avoid on very formal occasions.

Suitable for: those who like clothes lined up, but not afraid to mix styles and get something new. It’s not as classy as the Jacquard tie, but it also maintains elegance.

Wool Neckties

They give a more European and wintry touch the combination, thanks to its versatility can accompany a formal or casual look, but are not indicated for a wedding, for example, because they are not as very classy as the jacquard. Tartan or Prince of Wales chess prints are the most successful in this case, in addition to the fishbone pattern.

Suitable for: Winter looks of anyone who enjoys more full-bodied and heavy clothing. It goes well with a cardigan, a pea coat or a tweed blazer.

Crochet Neckties

They are the most casual in my opinion, adding a good texture to the look and completing even the stripped combos with an elegant twist. It is usually smooth or striped, but can also be found with poi (whites with dark background). Looks great with a cardigan and plaid shirt, for example. In the social attire works well as long as you are not in an environment with very conservative dress code.

Suitable for: who likes casual and relaxed looks and wants something different in everyday life. It was already considered a tie of a puppy, today is regarded as modern and used by detached people.

Denim Necktie/Chambray

Rarer, can be made with jeans or make a mistake with Chambray, which, visually practically gives the same. It is very detached and relax, needing careful not to leave the combination relaxed beyond the account on certain occasions. Some count, even, with clearer washes, working well in casual summer looks.

suitable for: Those who want a professional look, but maintains a certain irreverence in the way of dressing, without, however, seem exaggerated or childish. It blends well with plaid shirts and denim trousers in another shade and twill coats.

Linen Necktie

As you can imagine, its fabric is rustic and can combine very well with a casual look, with jeans and a cooler shirt, but not so it stays out of the combinations for the colder days, especially the ties that mix flax with other fibers, preventing the piece from crumpled easily.

suitable for: build a totally casual combo, including other pieces in linen, or for those who fancy the look aligned, but like to put a contrasting accessory to give style.


I am Bernard M. Miller, a professional post-Blogger. I am very ambitious to contribute Content with different ideas to various blogs to improve my writing portfolio. I am working with a Custom Leather Jackets brand and the name is The Leather Makers which is a premium brand which provides Custom Leather Jackets at the reasonable price of the market.

Principles of Lock and Chain Stitch Formation and Its Differences

Principles of Lock and Chain Stitch Formation

Here in this article you will learn Principles of Lock and Chain Stitch Formation and Its Differences with phase wise details.

The Principles of Lock Stitch Formation

  • Lock stitch m/c requires two group of threads to form a stitch.
  • A needle thread that feeds from the top & a lower thread that from a bobbin.
  • A rotary hook catches the needle thread loop as it passes around the bobbin &
    interlocks the two threads.
  • The lock stitch m/c can be distinguished by the winding device provided for the bottom
Principles of Lock and Chain Stitch Formation and Its Differences

Phases of Lock Stitch Formation

Phase-1: The needle is inserted into the material

Principles of Lock Stitch Formation Phase 1

Phase-2: As the needle moves up-wards from its lowest position the needle thread forms a loop which is caught by the point of hook.

Principles of Lock Stitch Formation Phase 2

Phase-3: The hook enlarges the needle thread loop.

Principles of Lock Stitch Formation phase 3

Phase-4:  In this phase the thread loop is guided around the bottom thread of the spool.

Principles of Lock Stitch Formation phase 4

Phase-5: The beginnings of interlacing will be done in this phase.

Principles of Lock Stitch Formation phase 5

Principles of Chain Stitch Formation


  • Needle is entered through the fabric with the thread & reaches to its lowest position.
  • Needle contain old loop around its blade.
  • When needle moves on upward there will be formation of new loop.
Principles of Chain Stitch Formation Phase 1


  • The new loop is caught by the looper (above the needle eye below the old loop)
  • The needle moves upward.
  • The old loop is cast off from the needle blade and slides on the base of the new loop, which is still held by the looper.
  • Between the new and old loop, an interlacement is to be formed under the fabric
  • In that time fabric is also moved one stitch forward due to the feed dog mechanism.
Principles of Chain Stitch Formation Phase 2


  • The looper enlarge the new loop, so that when needle again entered through the fabric it passes through the loop.
  • Then the looper leaves the loop, which held on the needle blade.
  • This loop now becomes the old loop.
Principles of Chain Stitch Formation Phase 3

Difference Between Chain Stitch and Lock Stitch

Chain Stitch Lock Stitch
Stitches are formed by two or m re groups of threads, needle thread & looper thread.There will be at least two types of threads, one is needle thread and other is bobbin thread.
The Threads are bound together by interlacing and interloping.The Threads are only bound by interlacing.
Looks like lock stitch at top side and double chain at under.The visibility look of lock stitch is same in both sides of the fabric.
Strength is higher than look stitch. Lower strength than chain stitch.
Possibilities of seam pucker formation is less compare to lock stitch. Possibilities of seam pucker is more than chain stitch.
Extensibilities is 30%Same, sometimes less than chain stitch.
No need of back tacking at finishing end , but secured by one (cm) thread at finishing end.Stitches are secured by back tacking at starting and finishing end.
m/c speed 8000 spm (stitch per min)m/c speed 6000 spm.
Thread consumption is high. Thread consumption is less.
Difference Between Chain Stitch and Lock Stitch

Amarta Sarkar
B.Sc. in Textile Engineering (Major in Apparel Manufacturing Technology) (BUBT)
EMBA (Studying) (JnU)
Email: [email protected]

Heat Transfer Operation and Guidelines of Garments Manufacturing

Heat Transfer Operation and Guidelines of Garments Manufacturing

Heat Seal Label: In garments manufacturing it’s called heat seal or heat transfer label which shows the company’s brand logo or other important messages. Heat seal label is very attractive to a customer so its quality should be first class and label attaching process is very sensitive. Label attach by pressure and heat that’s why it’s called heat transfer Label. In this article we will have detail discussion of Heat Transfer Operation and Guidelines of Garments Manufacturing.

Parameters Influence the Fastness of Heat Transfers

  1. Temperature
  2. Pressure
  3. Time
  4. Design / placement of artwork
  5. Quality of glue
  6. Work requirement before and after heat transfer operation

Guidelines for Heat Transfers

Storage of Heat Transfer Label

  • Heat Transfer must be stored in a cool and dry place, away from direct sunlight below 24 C (75 F) and humidity below 70 %.
  • As all heat transfers have a shelf life, it is recommended to use heat seal transfer within 12 months from the date of production.

Requirements of the Application Equipment / Heat Transfer Presses

Only automatic pneumatic machines which are able to apply transfers piece by piece must be used.

Roller transfer press machines and manual presses are not accepted, as they cannot guarantee correct and consistent application.

Heat Transfer Presses must have the following features:

  • Pneumatically operated with adjustable time, temperature and pressure.
  • Digital microprocessor controller for time and temperature accuracy.
  • Fingertip controlled operation and programmable print settings.
  • Digital timer, adjustable which shows time countdown on readout, beeps after elapsed time, and resets when handle is raised.
  • Consistent, fully adjustable pneumatically pressure control, with pressure range of at least 0 – 7 bar (0 – 100 psi / 0 – 7 kg / cm2)
  • Working temperature range of at least 70 – 230 C (160 – 455 F)
  • Display Time Range of at least 0 – 180 seconds
  • Head plate should be made of metal and Teflon coated to prevent soiling which could contaminate the garments.
  • Base plate must be made of silicon rubber or can be a fleece platform with sufficient resilience to ensure close alignment with the upper heat press platen. A fleece platform is recommended to use for the application of 3 dimensional heat transfer.
  • Platen size should be at least 38 x 38 cm (15” x 15 “)
  • Plate should be bigger than artwork.

Machine Height

Heat transfer presses must be adjusted in a way that the operator has an unobstructed view of the application area and is able to quickly identify any problems.

Heat Transfer Operation and Guidelines of Garments Manufacturing

Calibration of the Heat Transfer Presses

H/T machine should be calibrated daily to obtain a reliable and consistent result.

Required Tools Calibration of the Heat Transfer Presses

  • Thermocouple or Thermo-labels
  • A Stop watch, Cleaning cloth, Machine Calibration Check Log
Tools Required for Calibration of the Heat Transfer Presses

Machine Inspection

  • Head and base plates of the heat transfer presses must be inspected for damage & contamination. The plates must be clean and smooth without any adhesive residue.
Heat Transfer Machine Inspection
  • The rubber base plates must be replaced, if it becomes distorted or hard.
Rubber Base Plate

Heat Sealing Machine Calibration Check

  • Temperature, Pressure and Time must be controlled and documented at a style level.
Heat Sealing Machine Calibration Check

Temperature Check

To ensure that the heat is allocated evenly across the platen and the temperature meter (input temperature) matches the actual output temperature.

  • Start the machine and set the Temperature at 160 C, time 30 seconds and Pressure at 3 bar (45 PSI).
  • Place 5 Thermo-label set onto the base plate at the upper right, upper left, center, lower left and lower right position.
  • Swing the machine onto the position and run a press cycle with time of 30 seconds.
  • Remove the thermos-labels and review the darkened labels. Each darkened label represents a temperature that the equipment successfully reached.
  • Record the highest temperature reached for each location in the Heat Transfer Machine Calibration Check Log.
  • Instead of Thermo-labels, also a Thermocouple can be used to check the temperature.
  • A temperature tolerance of +/- 3 C is acceptable.
  • Contact the manufacturer for service if the equipment failed.
Temperature Check

The use of a digital temperature control is recommended to have an accurate temperature information.                       

Pressure Balance Check

Test the pressure between the upper and lower plate of the machine

  • Place 4 paper strips in same size on top of the base plate.
  • Activate the machine to press the strips in between
  • Pull the strips sideward with equivalent strength to feel the pressure.
  • In case the pressure is uneven and strip pulled out, replace the whole silicon or fleece platform or contact the manufacturer for checking.
Pressure Balance Check

The use of pneumatic pressure is recommended to give a stable pressure.

Pneumatic Pressure Check

Time Check

  • Set the time of the machine to 30 seconds.
  • Put the machine into position and press the start buttons & at the same time start the stopwatch.
  • Measure the time for the machine to carry out its cycle.
  • Record the time in the calibration log and repeat until 5 cycles are completed.
  • Calculate the average and compare log and compare the value to 30 seconds.
  • The result should be +/- 0.5 seconds
  • If outside this, contact the press manufacturer to reset the timer.
  • Record the result in the Heat Transfer Calibration Check Log.
Time Check

Time should be calculated from the moment of contact between application head and heat transfer.

Heat Seal Transfer Application Procedure and Maintenance Operation Check

Before any operation refer to the heat transfer specifications from the supplier for detailed application directions i.e. Time & Peel Instruction.

  • Make sure that the machine has been calibrated before operation start.
  • Make sure that the press platens are clean and free of any residue.
  • Start the machine and set the temperature, pressure and time which are given by the Heat Seal Transfer supplier application instructions. Allow correct time to heat for newly start machine (morning and after breaks) before bulk production.
  • Put the fabric panel over the base plate and place the heat transfer on the desired location of the panel.
  • Make sure that the fabric is smooth but not stretched tight.
  • Cover a release paper on top of the fabric to avoid direct contact of the heat platen with the fabric.
  • Activate the press for one application cycle.
  • Some special heat transfer qualities require a second heat pressing process on the reverse side of the fabric. It is crucial to follow exactly the Heat Transfer application instructions.
  • Remove the fabric panel from the press and peel off the transparent backing paper as per the application instructions either immediately while the transfer is still hot or after cooling down.
  • Do not stack panels until they have fully cooled.

Heat Transfer machines must be checked every 2 hours during print application for correct temperature, pressure and time.

Different positions of the application platform, middle and outer edges should be checked. Result must be documented at the Heat Transfer Application Check Log and displayed at the machine.

Heat Transfer Quality Tests Prior to Production

Development Stage

All heat transfer must be applied and tested on the intended bulk quality. This is to ensure that the die migration, strength of attachment, color change/staining, damage/defects and elasticity can be correctly assessing.

Sample Wash Test

Heat transfer prints on samples must be applied according to the given application instruction. Garment supplier must wash one sample at 40 C (Tumble Dry) to determine problems at early stage. In case the heat transfer on the washed garments shows ay negative appearance regarding color change or peel off, garment supplier must inform heat transfer supplier and immediately discuss further actions. The washed sample and wash test report must be archived by the garment maker and keep for two seasons.

Heat Transfer Supplier Quality Test on Bulk Fabric

As soon as the bulk fabric is available in the factory, garment supplier must send one yard in darkest fabric color to the Heat Seal Transfer supplier for testing.

In case fabrics are delayed, it is the responsibility of the garment maker to inform the Heat Transfer supplier about the fabric code. In that case, the Heat Transfer supplier can arrange the fabric directly from the fabric supplier.

The heat transfer supplier must test on the bulk fabric to identify and confirm the correct application process. Once the washing tests, colour fastness, and migration tests are PASSED, the heat transfer supplier must inform the garment maker supplier about the recommended application instruction.

Garment Supplier Quality test on Bulk Fabric

As soon as the garment supplier receives the confirmed application instruction from the Heat Transfer supplier, garment supplier must apply for the transfer on the bulk fabric in all colorways and arrange the following quality checks.

  • 10 times washing cycle at 40 C tumble dry
  • Color migration test (applied on polyester fabrics)
  • Hand Stretch Test to check the peeling off, cracking problems, removing of application.

The tests must be done on all heat transfer machines which are intended to be used for production. All quality tests must be done after samples are cooled down for at least 24 hours after application. The washing test can be done by the garment supplier if accredited by Buyer. Test can be done by a laboratory which is accredited by Buyer.

In case one of the above test fails, garment supplier must notify immediately the respective heat transfer supplier for further action to solve the problem. The original pass test reports and print swatches (before and after   washing) must be available as reference sample at the respective machine print production.

Heat Transfer Quality Check on Printed Panels

100% quality check of the printed panels.

  • Before quality check, allow printed panels to cool down.
  • Check all edges and corners for solid bond
  • Check melting of glue
  • Check for color staining / bleeding on the test samples.
  • Report any print defects like cracking or peeling-off problems.
  • Check bulk output every 2 hours

If you have any confusion then please let us know, we will discuss further.

Major Social, Technological and Environmental Contributions of RMG Sector in Bangladesh

Major Social, Technological and Environmental Contributions of RMG Sector in Bangladesh

RMG sector is one of the important sector which has so many contributions in social, technological & environmental development of Bangladesh. In this article, some major social, technological & environmental contributions of RMG sector is described. It will be helpful to know the condition, impact, ways of development, future scopes of RMG sector in our country for various development.

Major Social Contributions of RMG Sector in Bangladesh

Women Empowerment

Once upon a time woman were likely to spend inhouse activities like child upbringing, cooking, taking care of relatives etc. No-a-days from educated to uneducated women, this thinking has been changes a lot. This contribution mostly goes to RMG sector. According to a survey of Center for Policy Dialogue(CPD), released on Mar’18, among garment worker 60.8% are female & 39.20% are male. The survey was conducted on 2270workeers in 193 factories in Dhaka, Gazipur, Narayanganj & Chottogram. These large portions of women are mostly less or uneducated. Rather than this, they are likely to contribute family income. Women earn to make better their livelihood, pay children educational expenses, make savings and overall, they are not anymore, a burden for their family. In apparel sector there is a lot of work scope for women. They work in quality section, sewing section & finishing section mostly.

RMG sector provides adequate safety, payments, rest breaks, medical facility, insurance facility, motherhood vacation, children scholarship programs etc. for women workers. According to a report published in The Daily Star in Jul’18, 2018, many female workers leading trade unions in various factories. Some female worker is divorced of single parent & still managing their families very well. In many cases it has seen that their children upbringing is so well that they become highly educated.  Some women then pursuing their career in their own tailor shop, they become entrepreneur!

Not only less educated or uneducated women, but educated women are also most likely to work in this sector. There are so many Industrial Engineer & Textile Engineer in recent & there is a significant number of women in them. They are giving their best for the development of the RMG sector. They are working in Industrial engineering department, Planning department, research & development department, merchandising department, technical department, human resource department, Training & co-ordination sections etc. In some case they are best choices for employer as they have good analytical abilities, manpower handling capabilities, dealing capabilities, representation capabilities etc. Some of them are work in production sector equally with man & flourishes this sector with their knowledge & capabilities. Working women are blessing both for their family & organization. Many of them are indirectly involved in RMG sector with their research work, social work and so on.

In some cases, female worker is most preferred for their cool-headed decision rather than male. For example, in garments quality section it needs smooth observation, in sewing it needs immense accuracy or in costing or merchandising it needs precision or dealing capabilities. These types of qualification are born nature of women hence they are major choice for these section now-a-days. There is considerable presence of foreign professionals in different section including merchandising (20.30%), Production planning (37.30%), sewing, knitting, washing, quality, industrial engineering, research & innovation, supply chain. Along with continuous development of RMG sector hopefully very soon these places will be taken by local expertise & there will be remarkable number of women also.

Women empowerment in RMG become an example for foreign country like India, China, Myanmar, Vietnam, Ethiopia, Jordan etc. These country apparel experts are interested to hire women worker as well as professionals. Women from RMG sector sometimes leads a community or group to achieve their demands. They are twinkling example of how to start from zero & how to be valuable star in their own life. Women struggles beside man to earn livelihood & supporting husbands also. Educated women entering garments sector in different fields & they are not likely interested in bank job or teaching professions as previous. They started thinking out of box. For example, Swapna Bhowmik, country manager of M&S, was the first Bangladeshi to become country manager of the British retailer. Women are equally a great part of management system in garments industry.

Child Labor Rationalize

The Harkin Bill placed at the US Senate entitled “The Child Labor Deterrence Act of 1993” which called for the elimination of child labor in the export-oriented manufacturing and mining industries. After that in our country so many garment industries stop hiring child labor & arrange a better life for them some of the organizations provide monetary help, some set up training schools, some got help from the government. International Labor Organization, BGMEA, UNICEF started so many projects to stop child labor. According to the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics report, in 2003 there were 42.40 million children of age group 5-17 was working directly or indirectly involved in this sector. Out of those 35.10 million were age group of 5-14 & 7.30 million were 15-17 age group. Out of the total estimated child population aged 5-17 years, about 22.70 million were boys & 19.70 million girls. There were so many reasons like poverty, a family force for income, avoiding early marriage, not interested in study etc. In 1995, a project was initiated by BGMEA along with ILO and UNICEF based on a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU). The key elements were a fact-finding survey to determine the extent of child labor in the garment industry, education programme establishment, monitoring, and verification system establishment, stipend income compensation (300 Taka at that time). BGMEA spent mostly 600,000 $ for the project. There was positive impact on child labor & gradually its number decreased. Now there are so many national & international organizations who are working in this sector to eliminate child labor. Apparel sector is now aware of this section & strictly avoid child labor force. So many social & audit organizations are working for the proper implementation of labor laws in Bangladesh.

Population Control

Population problem is the major problem for a developing country like Bangladesh. Employment opportunities for women is creating positive impact on the family planning and population control of a country. Working women are interested to family planning & keeping small family. They feel the necessity of proper upbringing for their children hence they plan for one or two children. Early age marriage also reduces because of women empowerment. Average age at marriage for girls working in RMG factories tend to be higher than the national average. In this regard government takes so many family planning programs, builds hospitals & clinics, free supply of family planning facilities & products and some of private organizations also working several projects.

Social Welfare Programs

There are several projects to keep worker rights as per ILO rules or local rules. Some of those activities are:

  • BGMEA Healthcare Activities for Workers: Establishing healthcare & medical facilities. Most prominent was 150-bed modern hospital at Mirpur, Dhaka, which is equipped with burn and emergency units. Approximately 10.96 core spent for the project.
  • BGMEA-UNFPA-GOB Project: In 1998 & 2003-2005 there were two mixed projects of United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) & BGMEA, for family welfare & reproductive health education among garments worker. In last project BGMEA provided 430000$ & UNFPA provided 290000$ for this project to be successful.
  • Workers’ Health Check-up Project: BGMEA & BRAC provide health check-up facility based on charged premium health care facility. Up to 9000 workers were provided this facility.
  • Non-formal educational programme: Under this component of the Child Labor Elimination Project, 8200 students were enrolled in 336 schools, run by two local NGOs, Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC) and Gono Shahajya Sangstha (GSS). There are so many programs currently running, in Dhaka there is 92 schools.
  • Earn and Learn Programme: There are so many programs under this banner. BGMEA, BKMEA, BRAC, WORLD BANK, Bangladesh Finance ministry runs so many programmes. Skills for Employment Investment Program(SEIP) is one most popular training program for youth that can is very helpful to create skillful employee.
  • Organizational & self-safety program: There is mutual program of Bangladesh Fire Service and Civil Defense Department along with BGMEA & BKMEA to train garment sector employee & worker to train about fire &firefighting equipment, awareness building on fire prevention, first aid, proper electric wiring and evacuation facilities.
  • Village garment project: Along with the project of Government of people’s republic of Bangladesh to convert village in city, BGMEA wants to set up garments & apparel infrastructure in those area.

Major Technological & Environmental Contributions of RMG Sector in Bangladesh

Major Technological & Environmental Contributions of RMG Sector in Bangladesh

Introducing New Technologies

With the improvements & developments of modern technology, our RMG sector also developing. People are focusing on adopt new technologies, machines, methods, materials etc. From yarn making to logistics services people are using modern methods & technologies to make it quicker, accurate & user friendly as well as quality full. Now we can produce various types & parameters of fabric, digital & rotary printing, weaving more complex fabrics, producing in house trims & accessories, finish fabrics as per buyer requirements, sewing fancy items, wrinkle free items etc.

In modern industrial revolution of methods & technology we are planning for every minute capacity, doing forecasting, inventory controlling, material requirement planning, managing supply chain flow, follow total productive maintenance (TPM), total quality management (TQM), brainstorming session, automation, standardization, innovation etc. This trend is running in other manufacturing sections also.

Changing Fashion Trend

Fashion trend also change with continuous improvement of this sector. People are more likely to wear fusion dresses. Women want dresses, saris, salwar kameez, tops with a mix trend of desi & western. Now-a-days fashion designers are in a fix to make custom made products. Many national & international fashion houses established in Bangladesh to satisfy customer demand. Men & women want classy styles like renowned international brands. There is so many first-class grade replica shops also found for this demand. People following foreign models & hence trying to copy their outfits. It’s a positive cultural change in one sense. But we should not let go our own culture & try to modify them in a dignified way so that our culture doesn’t get harm.

Educational Improvement

With growing textile sector, there are educational changes also. People are interested to higher education in Textile technology or Textile engineering, Industrial & production engineering, fashion designing etc. Along with public universities there are so many private universities which make resourceful graduates. After completing graduation, they also take so many professional trainings, PGD degrees etc. So RMG sector has a great impact on educational development of our country.

Cultural Change

Though small, but there is cultural change also. Some foreigners come to our country, marry here & get children. People also like to have international foods. In Bangladesh so many Srilankans, Pakistani, Indian, Vietnami, philipinos, Japanese, Americans lives because of their job sector in RMG. In some cases, their food habits also influencing us, their cultural beliefs influencing us & fusion occurs here also in a small extent.

Written by

Sharmin Akther Diba

Industrial & Production Engineer

Rajshahi University of Engineering & Technology

Email: [email protected]

LinkedIn: Sharmin Akther Diba

Types of Stitch Used in Garments Sewing (Part-1)

What is Stitch

Loops or loops of one or more threads when bound with each other, either by interlacing, interloping or intralooping or combination of those when sewing fabric and each unit of such configuration is considered as stitch.

Some Terminology Related with Stitch


During stitching when one loop of one thread passes over another loop of another tread is called interlacing.



During stitching when loop of one thread passes through the loop of another thread is called interloping.



When a loop one thread passes through the loop of same tread during sewing is called intralooping.


Types of Stitch Used in Garments Sewing

There are about 70 types of stitches are available and among them, 18-20 types of stitches are widely used in garments industries, also,2 to 3 types of stitches are used in making of garments for lailoring and domestic purpose.

British standard 3870: part1:1991 have been classified according to ISO 4915:1991 into six basic types of stitch.

  1. Stitch class 100: Chain stitch
  2. Stitch class 200: Hand stitch
  3. Stitch class 300: Lock stitch
  4. Stitch class 500: Over edge stitch
  5. Stitch class 600: Covering chain stitch

Stitch Class 100: Chain Stitch

  • Stitches are formed by intralooping.
  • Each loop is inter connected with same thread.
  • There is no lower thread.
  • The needle carries the thread through the fabric and looper holds the thread to enter as it descends for the next stitch.
  • Security of stitch is very poor, in case of breakage of one stitch, it unravels very easily.
  • One or more needle thread is used for stitch formation.
  • From opposite sides it looks different.
Stitch Type 101

Application of Chain Stitch

  • Temporary stitching (e.g. basting) or for blind stitching.
  • Uses for button holing, button attaching, hemming.

Stitch Class 200: Hand Stitch

  • Originally made by hand, now can be formed by machine.
  • Looks like domestic hand stitch.
  • It is produced from single thread passed from one side of the material to the other side with each successive penetration of the needle.
  • This type of stitch is formed by special type of needle and sewing machine.
  • Needle is double pointed with Centre eyed.
Stitch Class 209 (Hand Stitch)

Uses Hand Stitch

  • Lapel of jacket, coat and expensive clothes.


A stripe of cloth is part of the front of the jacket or coat.


Disadvantages Hand Stitch

  • Time consuming process.
  • Higher cost.
  • Speed of sewing m\c is very slow.
  • Rare in use.

Stitch Class 300: Lock Stitch

  • Lock stitch requires at least two threads to form a stitch, a needle threads that feeds from the top & a lower thread that feeds from the bobbin.
  • Needle threads are passed through the fabric & are interlaced by the bobbin threads.
  • A rotary hook catches the needle threads loop as it passes around the bobbin & interlocks the two threads.
  • Appearance of the lock stitch is similar in both sides of the fabric; it is a special feature.
  • Fine yarn is preferable for this type of stitching.
  • Stitches are secured and security of stitches can be increased by back tacking at starting and finishing ends.
  • Abrasion resistance of lock stitch is better because the stitches are embedded in the fabric.
Stitch Class 301

Uses of Lock Stitch

  • Joining of facing, collar, pocket & other parts.
  • Specially for top stitching.
  • Both for domestic and industrial purposes.

Stitch Class 400: Multi Thread Chain Stitch

  • Multi-thread chain stitch requires one or more needle that form loops as they pass through the fabric and interloop with the looper thread on the underside.
  • Threads are bound tighter by interlacing & interlooping.
  • It looks lock stitch at the top side & double chain at the underside.
  • Looper thread is supplied from cone.
  • Need not back tacking at the starting & finishing ends.
Stitch Class 401

Uses Multi Thread Chain Stitch

  • Used for long length sewing, heavy fabric sewing such as denim, attaching lace, elastic.

Stitch Class 500: Over Edge Stitch

Stitch Type 504
  • Stitches are formed by two or more group of threads.
  • Formed from one or two needle threads with looper thread.
  • At least one group of threads pass around the edge of the material.
  • Width of the fabric may vary from 3-5 mm.
  • Prevents the fabric from fraying.
  • They have high elasticity.
  • They cannot be unraveled easily.
Stitch Class 504

Uses of Over Edge Stitch

  • Widely used for knit fabric.
  • Used for decorative purpose.
  • Joining of side seam, armhole of a shirt.
  • Inseam, out-seam of a pant.

Stitch Class 600: Covering Chain Stitch

  • Stitches are generally formed with three groups of threads.
  • One thread is needle thread, other is the looper thread & another is the top cover threads.
  • Stitches of this class are the most complex of type it may need upto 9 threads.
  • Covering chain stitches are often called flat lock or flat seam stitches.
Stitch Class 602 and Stitch Class 606

Uses of Covering Chain Stitch

  • Mainly used for knitted apparels.
  • Attaching lace, elastic etc.
  • Decorative purpose in apparels.

Overall Stitches of a Basic Shirt

Types of Stitch Used in Garments Sewing

Written by

Amarta Sarkar

B.Sc. in Textile Engineering (Major in Apparel Manufacturing Technology) (BUBT)

EMBA (studying) (JnU).

Email: [email protected]

Conventional Layout Vs Rail Line Layout System of Garments Finishing Unit

‘Layout’ is simply the orientation of product or process flow. From our day to day life it has so many significant impacts. In the RMG sector, every section has a specific kind of layout system as per work standard. Garments finishing is the last stage among top three stages (Cutting>Sewing>Finishing). Whether it is knit, denim, woven, sweater or lingerie, finishing unit has some style of line layout as per company or space or product. This is called conventional way of Finishing layout, which is widely used. But this conventional system reduces finishing efficiency. As finishing efficiency has direct impact on CMT cost (Cut, Make & Trim), now it’s time to reshape our layout from conventional to ‘Rail-line layout’ system. In this article, it will be discussed about rail-line layout system, how to implement it & its advantages for garments finishing unit. Though we are going to discuss about finishing layout system, you can implement this kind of layout system in your sewing floor also.

What is Conventional Layout System and Rail-Line Layout System?

Conventional layout system is the layout system which we mostly use in our finishing floor. We have fixed finishing lines of fixed length & width with aisles among them. We put Trimmer (Manual or auto), specification checker, visual checker, iron man, keep operator for trims & accessories adding, Final checkup, folding (Manual or auto), wrapping & packing etc.

On contrary, rail-line layout system contains all the process from above, same manpower, same space, just need a rail line system with hanger. This rail-line may be a hollow steel or plastic pipe hanging up little bit arch where hanger can be moved easily. Or it may be a moving conveyor with hanging garments attachment. A Conveyor system is used for sewing line mainly.

Conventional Layout Vs Rail Line Layout System of Garments Finishing Unit

Conventional Layout Vs Rail Line Layout System of Garments Finishing Unit
Top view of Rail-line layout system for garments finishing (Considering Woven pant finishing layout)

Structure of RailLine Layout System

  1. Layout starts at the point of hanger box keeping table, yellow marked. On same side, there is input rack or trolley. From there Garments loader will bring & hang garments in hanger to start the flow. You can see turning we mention 0.5 manpower. That means if you make the rail-line layout system in your floor such a way that two parallel lines share side by side input point; then one person can be used for two lines for garments turning. We keep this turning in finishing line to do manpower optimization. But in conventional way we use turning helper in sewing & most of the case use one person.
  2. Another best use of this layout is adding accessories in finishing line. Here button attach shown in finishing line. By this way hook & bar, buckle, snap button can be attached in finishing to avoid destruction or breakage while transportation or washing. Garments loader will flow the hanger to the assistant operator for button positioning (It may be avoided as per garments type or requirement); after that button attach operator will do his/her work while keeping the garments in hanger. Then next operation of loop cutting followed by tack & wrapping operation of care label, as per product requirement.
  3. Followed by tread trimming operation, there were some space for garments hanging as input for thread trimmer helper. Then comes inside quality check. It may be subdivided into front or back part or left or right side inside QC. There will be defect trolley keeping them segregated with different types of defective product. This types of layout system strongly avoids backward flow. It need to keep defective product stored, after a fixed time interval it will be collected & fixed by line supervisor, QC supervisor or line manager with necessary remedies.
  4. If it needs dust cleaning then full garments will be open from hanger, clean, turn & hang it to the line. In this section side stand can be kept to keep defective garments if found. Then pass it through rail-line to topside thread trimmer. Number of topside thread trimmer is less than inside thread trimmer. After that workstation of topside thread trimmer with defect stand or trolley. After that garments pocket cleaning.
  5. It comes ironing operation now. There will be waist side press, side press, crease press etc. as per product requirements. It is better to keep one or two defect stand. There will be iron quality checker with segregated defect rack or trolley followed by measurement QC.
  6. It’s time to add necessary trims, stickers etc. as per requirements. After that audit table to check final product.
  7. Then comes folding, wrapping or packing table as per product requirements. In this section, manpower can be shared with another line. By following this layout system, there will be much open space to keep line wise finishing rack, trims & accessories keeping rack etc.

Follow ‘Visual Management: A tool of Lean Management for Finishing Unit’ article for more information

Advantages of Rail-Line Layout of Garments Finishing Unit

  1. Optimal manpower
  2. Disciplined workplace
  3. No crease in garments
  4. Proper utilization of space
  5. No dust from excessive hand touch
  6. Lean Management in Finishing line

Limitations of Rail-Line Layout of Garments Finishing Unit

  1. Cannot be useful for short length product like tank top or lingerie
  2. Improper line layout may cause improper process management
  3. Bad quality hanger or mishandling can cause defective products

We need improvement in every section of garments unit. For achieving this, it is necessary to start now with slow but continuous improvement. Though there are some limitations of this layout system, why not try a proto-type of one line in your finishing unit? With proper plan & set-up system it is easy to implement. In the long run you will get the advantages. There are so many renown buyers who want this kind of layout system for sewing & finishing unit. For example, Walmart, Levis, hagger etc. buyer have some pre-condition before order placement to have this kind of layout system for their quality products. Hopefully very soon we will adopt this layout orientation for our sewing & finishing product not only for quality product but also for following lean management.

Written by

Sharmin Akther Diba

Industrial & Production Engineer

Rajshahi University of Engineering & Technology

Email: [email protected]

LinkedIn: Sharmin Akther Diba

Visual Management: A Tool of Lean Management for Garments Finishing Unit

‘Visual Management’ is an important part of lean manufacturing. It can carry up to 90% information in production floor. Visual management can convey message more effectively & easily understandable by all. Though It has positive impact, we sometimes overlooked this tool because of our ignorance or lack of knowledge. Visual management is a tangible way of communication to express rules, SOP, performance, standard, warning etc. It requires prior or less training to implement & follow. In this article it will be discussed how visual management is important for garments finishing unit. Garments finishing is one of the important step of completion of product life cycle. Finishing unit consist of garments checking, measurement follow-up, standard follow-up, trimming uncut threads, ironing, adding trims & accessories, wrapping, packing, weighting etc.

Steps of Visual Management

Visual Management: A Tool of Lean Management for Garments Finishing Unit

1. To Hang a Layout Diagram/Picture

It is good practice to use same layout for all lines in finishing unit. Here A layout showing every steps of garments finishing along with workstation orientation. There must include all physical variables, structures, length & width, substations, pathway etc. It is easy to make layout diagram in excel or AutoCAD by keeping measurement. Whenever a new employee or worker will see the layout, can easily understand the workflow. Language used in layout can be Bengali or English as per wish. It is helpful for any kind of technical or compliance audit also. A layout of your production or finishing floor can easily make first impression better when a new buyer visits your floor. It is an easy lean tool to make anyone understand about work activities & discipline.

Garments Finishing Layout picture

2. To Do Demarcation

Demarcation is the second step of visual management. Demarcation is fixing or identifying area for specific work. Do divide your finishing line is substations. Then fix the area by measuring & considering ergonomically standard work stations. You can take operators or workers view while dividing the area. It will add positive value & they will abide by the rules later. The question may be why this is necessary? It is necessary to fix work area to make sustainable discipline in finishing floor. No machine, table, man or accessories will move beyond your demarcation area. It is another way to eliminate process flow time by irregular flow. Demarcation can be done using color or different color tiles as per wish.

Zone alignment demarcation in garments factory

3. To Attach Identifier Board and KPI Board

After subdividing your work stations, the third step is to make visual boards or stickers for every workstation. Workstation identifier boards must be attached to every workstation. When you will follow it for every line in your finishing floor, it will look like an organized finishing floor. Anyone can understand process flow very easily. During any kind of buyer visit or audit, you will not have to follow them and show them the workstation by telling operation name. Well organized factories follow this visual management to reduce these kinds of micromanaging activities. Don’t think about the monetary value of identifier boards, implement them first & gradually you would see the result. KPI board need to be attached in front of the finishing line. You can add KPI list as per your factory standard. Finishing garments operation breakdown, DHU percentage, daily production & efficiency, attendance & leave status can be added in KPI board. It is good practice to include several departments activities in KPI board like HR, Quality, IE & top management. A well-organized KPI board can save minimum 1hour time. You want to know, how? At morning IE will fill up KPI board with efficiency or bottleneck status, QC will fill defect rate or top defect areas, HR will fill leave or attendance status, the production team will fill plan vs target status etc. These kinds of visual management will help top management to identify any line status at a glance. So why not you are applying it on your floor!

4. To Make Rules, Instructions, and Standardization for Sustain

It is necessary to make visual management sustainable. For this purpose, some rules & instruction can be visualized for standardization. It also helps to maintain discipline & in some cases have direct impact on productivity improvement & defect reduction. A proper set up of visual management is the first pre-requisite of lean manufacturing process. It helps to make audit successful, reduce defect label, maintain HR rules & regulations, workplace standardization & calm environment.

Visual Management A Tool of Lean Management for Garments Finishing Unit

Visual management helps to identify mistakes, improper orientation, mismanagement & irregularities. Not only for garments finishing unit, visual management is mandatory for all units like cutting, printing, sewing, washing, dyeing, warehouse etc. Office workstation can be properly visualized & it will make your organization a wonder land of lean based organization. Then why not approaching towards this small & continuous improvement? You can easily follow mentioned four steps for any kind of factory or organization from shop floor to workstation.

Written by

Sharmin Akther Diba

Industrial & Production Engineer

Rajshahi University of Engineering & Technology

Email: [email protected]

Linkedin: Sharmin Akther Diba

Necessary IE Terms of Apparel Industry

Industrial Engineering – IE is one of the popular term used in the apparel industry, where this work for optimization of complex process within the industry. Optimization is applicable to men, machine, materials, methods, and monetary resources. Here in this article you will have details of necessary IE terms of apparel industry with examples.

Necessary IE Terms of Apparel Industry

Necessary IE Terms of Apparel Industry

Needed Industrial Engineering (IE) Terms Mostly Used in Apparel Industry

Very basic apparel industrial engineering terms discussed with example for clear understanding. List of terms are:

  1. Standard minute value (SMV)
  2. Efficiency
  3. Line target
  4. CPM & CM
  5. CM/COM/MC
  6. Broad calculation of garments cm
  7. Conventional vs modern profit theory
  8. Cost of making (CM) rule
  9. Work study
  10. Time & motion study
  11. Line balancing

1. Standard Minute Value (SMV)

  • SMV defined as the term Standard Minute Value, is mostly used in the garments industry and it is a common measurement calculated by the Industrial Engineer. Generally, SMV indicates the time taken to make garments by the workers using the right types of machinery.
  • Suppose to complete an operation, a standard operator takes 1 minute.
  • We put 15% allowance (Men, M/c & Time)
  • SMV=1+(1×.15) Min
    =(1+.15) Min
    =1.15 Min
  • GMT SMV is the sum of SMV for all M/c & Manual operation to complete an item

Related Terms of SMV

  • Standard Operator: For a specific item & style, the potential operator who can give maximum output with the best quality & can improve productivity.
  • Let’s see an Example for better understanding,
  • Batsman faces 10 balls to score 5 Runs
  • Batsman faces 10 balls to score 12 runs
  • Batsman faces 10 balls to score 10 runs.
  • Obviously 2nd one is the potential batsman who uses his
  • Inputs (balls) to get maximum output (Runs)
Related Terms of SMV Standard Operator
  • Pre-defined Conditions: On time input arrival, single piece flow, running m/c conditions, defined quality status, etc. are called pre-defined conditions.
  • Basic Time: Actual time to complete an operation. In another word, basic time is the pick & drop time including an operation for quality output.

                        Basic Time= Pick time + Operation + Drop time;

                        Result , Input=Output with required quality

  • In a broad sense , a GMT SMV=Sum of all operation SMV, not SMV of GMT + allowance.

2. Efficiency

  • Efficiency defined as ’The comparison of what is actually produced or performed with what can be achieved with the same consumption of resources (Men, M/c, Material, etc. )’’
  • Efficiency = Earned Minute/Available Minute
  • Earned Minute = Production (Pcs) x SMV
  • Available Minute = Manpower (Helper + Operator) x Working Time (Minute)

Calculation of Efficiency Percent

  • Suppose any GMT item SMV is 5.5 (For any fixed style SMV always fixed)
  • We use 22 Manpower(Operator & Helper) to achieve 1500 Pcs for 10 hours working shift
  • Earned Minute = 1500× 5.5 or 8250 Min
  • Available Minute = 22× (10×60) or 13200 Min
  • Efficiency = 8250 Min/13200 Minute or 0.625
  • Efficiency is expressed as % ,Then Efficiency =(0.625 ×100)% or 62.50%
  • Efficiency is a ratio, not a number.
  • Efficiency varies with Lead Time and Quantity. More Lead time & Quantity Increase Efficiency, on the other hand, less lead time tends us to use more MP or time to get the required output, so efficiency reduces.

3. Line Target

  • Target= (total MP X WH X 60)/SMV
  • Suppose We have 22 MP for 10 hr .GMT SMV is 5.5
  • Target =(22 X10 X60)/5.5 =2400 PCs/Hr (That is 100% TGT)
  • For expected efficiency this 100% Target is multiplied by efficiency to fix Line Target
  • Line Target =(2400X.625) ; (Lets , we have expected efficiency of 62.5%)
    =1500 PCs or 150PCs/Hr

4. CPM and CM                   

CPM Stands for Cost Per Minute which means Cost of every minute of garments sewing operations. To offer the best competitive price to the buyer and make maximum profit on garments selling CPM cost need to be kept at a minimum level.

For Calculating of CPM you need to sum all direct labor cost and any other operational cost for a particular order or for a particular period.


  • Cost of Making (CM/COM)/Manufacturing cost(MC) have to calculate after calculating factory CPM.
  • CM = (SMV × CPM)/ Expected Efficiency%
  • Suppose , any GMT item SMV is 4.7, Expected efficiency = 65.8 % , CPM[let] = $0.0267
  • CM = (4.7 × .0267)/ .658
    = $0.19/PCs
    = ($0.19 ×12)/Dzn
    =$2.28 /Dzn

6. Broad Calculation of Garments CM

To calculate the Cost of Making of a garment you have to collect the following information:

  • First of all, you need to get the monthly information of factory rental expense, commercial expense, utility expenses (Electricity, Steam, Compressed Air, Water), transportation cost, repair & maintenance expenses, salary, and wages expense, etc. suppose for all these expenses the total cost is 70000 USD.
  • Secondly, the number of functioning machine for a particular month. Suppose the number of machines is 120. Cost associate in the first section is for this 120 machine.
  • You also need the number of machinery to do the layout for the particular item for which we are calculating the cost of making. Suppose the number of machines is 30.
  • By using the existing layout, the amount of target production per hour (excluding the alteration and rejection of garments). Suppose 250 pcs per hour production will be there.
  • The total number of working days for a particular month. This can be 26 days (30 days a month, 4 days of holiday in a month)

Cost of Making (CM) Rule

= {(Monthly total expenditure of the garments factory/ 26 days) / (Number of Functioning Machine of your factory for a particular month) X (Number of machine to complete the layout)} / [{(Production capacity per hour by using existing layout, excluding alteration and rejected quantity) X 8 working hours a day}] X 12 piece

= [{($70,000 / 26) / (120) X (30)} / {(250) X 8}] X 12

= [{2692.30 / (120) X (30)} / 2000] X 12

= (673.08 /2000) X 12

= .33654 X 12

= $4.04/dozen

7. Conventional VS Modern Profit Theory

  • Conventional : COST + PROFIT = PRICE
  • Modern : PRICE – COST = PROFIT
  • Price should be moderate to get maximum order!
  • Cost should be minimized to get maximum profit!

 9. Work Study                                   

  • A systematic study of methods of work to improve effectiveness & set standards
  • 2 stages:

1. Method study: study of current method & find out to implement the improved method

2. Work measurement: determine the standard time required to complete improved method

Benefits of Work Study

  • Productivity improvement
  • Efficiency increase
  • Improved workflow
  • Improved work layout
  • Improved standards

10. Time and Motion Study

  • Time study: a work measuring technique to calculate basic time by finding cycle time & adding allowance
  • Motion study: a technique to analyze operators motion & set a standard by eliminating unnecessary motion
  • Two different theory but need parallel running to improve system known as ‘method engineering’
  • Time & motion study is a conjugal technique to process control, improve dissimilar work performance & set standard goals
  • IE is a combined package to improve by time study, work study & motion study

11. Line Balancing

  • Line balancing is a manufacturing engineering function in which the whole collection of production-line tasks are divided into equal portions.
  • Well balanced lines avoid labor idleness & improve productivity
  • Line balancing is for keeping workload (theoretical mp/actual mp) as 1 or less than 1 by balancing work as per capacity & target
Line Balancing in Apparel Industry

Steps for Line Balancing

Steps of Line Balancing in Apparel Industry
  • Bottleneck’ (constraint m/c or mp or operation that reduces productivity) have to find out
  • Find same m/c / m/c condition such as gauge/pressure feet/device/thread etc.
  • Find same m/c / m/c condition such as gauge/pressure feet/device/thread etc.
  • Find same m/c / m/c condition such as gauge/pressure feet/device/thread etc.
  • Find same m/c / m/c condition such as gauge/pressure feet/device/thread etc.
  • Find same m/c / m/c condition such as gauge/pressure feet/device/thread etc.
  • Find same m/c / m/c condition such as gauge/pressure feet/device/thread etc.
Example of Line Balancing of T-Shirt

Written by

Sharmin Akther Diba

Industrial & Production Engineer

Rajshahi University of Engineering & Technology

Email: [email protected]

LinkedIn: Sharmin Akther Diba

Job Responsibilities of Production AGM in Apparel Industry

A production general manager (GM) is a person, who is Head of manufacturing, ultimate responsible person for productivity, operation and operational staff management. Most respected person in garments factory because of having control on whole factory manufacturing process. He is reporting boss of all production managers and staff. GM, DGM, AGM or head of production whatever designation he has (based on experience) works as general manger to handle whole production department to control store, cutting, sewing and finishing. Most of the times he is highest paid employee of his factory such an important person production GM is. He is the person who can communicate with top management (factory owner) for production and production related employee’s appointment and promotion issue. This is the toughest and most important post for garments factory, ultimate responsible person for company’s profit and loss. This article is all about job responsibilities of a Garments Production general manager (GM).

Job Responsibilities of Production AGM in Apparel Industry

Operation/Production AGM/DGM/GM in Apparel Industry

Job Titles of Garments Production Head

Though different designations (vary factory wise) have seen in apparel industry, their job responsibilities are same. 

  1. Production/operation AGM
  2. Production/operation DGM
  3. Production/operation GM
  4. Head of manufacturing
  5. Head of production/operation

Reporting Authority

They report to Top management like CEO (Chief executive officer), COO (Chief operating officer), MD, DMD, Chairman, and Vice-chairman

Skills and Qualities of Garments Production Head

  1. Good leadership from mid-level to lower level
  2. Taking calculate risk
  3. Quick decision making skill in any situation. 
  4. Should be technically sound
  5. Able to understand any fancy and critical product producing
  6. Good judgment and compromise willing person
  7. Well-disciplined and productivity focused.
  8. Problem solver of all technical issue
  9. Represents the whole factory well

Production GM/DGM/AGM Job Responsibilities of Garments Manufacturing

  1. Responsible for daily production and work to achieve daily production target with buyer required quality standard
  2. Responsible for operation and operational staff control and management.
  3. Work for 100% capacity utilization and waste reduction
  4. Manage all task for smooth production , smooth final inspection pass and on time shipment
  5. Coordinate all department for smooth Garments manufacturing
  6. Closely monitor sewing and finishing getting best possible output and giving direction in floor.
  7. Setup sewing line, check consumption, costing and inventory.
  8. Strictly follow up hourly production and work for increasing
  9. Lead all production staff from the front and having good command on them.
  10. Ensure complete task to make finished goods from raw materials.
  11. Communicate always with merchandising team and solve every production related issues involved merchandising.
  12. Achieve maximum production by lowest cost
  13. Appointing and interviewing all production staff and their salary fixation.
  14. Guide IE team for increasing production
  15. Giving feedback to garments Buyer and Buyer QC
  16. Communicate with top management directly when need in any issues of his garments factory.

If you any more job list than above list, please don’t hesitate to write in the comment box. 

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)
Email: [email protected]

Linkedin: A.M. Amirul Islam