Calculate Garments Cost of Making

One of the highest manufacturing industry is garments manufacturing industry where different types of garments are manufactured. Calculate Garments cost of making time to time is the right decision because the main motive of garments manufacturer is to make a profit where they manufacture garments and then sell it. But the problem is, what should be the required price of that item and how to calculate garments cost of making. To solve this problem first, you have to know the cost of garments making then add your markup price to set the selling price. Here cost of making means cost of manufacturing garments. Monitoring garments making cost is necessary so that trends of the cost of making can be identified and you can actually know whether your garments making cost is increasing or decreasing. Based on your change in garments cost of making you may take decision accordingly.

Calculate Garments Cost of Making

How to Calculate Garments Cost of Making

Pre Requirement of Calculation of  Garments Cost of Making

Before you start your costing you need to know the followings:

  1. Total Cost (TC) = Fixed Cost (FC) + Variable Cost (VC)
  2. Production Capacity of Your Machine (Hourly)
  3. Total Effective Working Hours Per Day
  4. Number of Days Operation in a Month

Fixed Cost of Garments Making

Fixed Cost are those cost of garments manufacturing which are fixed in nature. With the increase of a number of unit of production, your per unit fixed cost will be reduced. Some example of fixed cost is; salaries and wages, interest expense of bank loan, a rental expense of your factory building, depreciation expense of your fixed assets etc.

Variable Cost of Garments Making

Variable cost is the cost which is change over an additional number of unit of production. But per unit variable cost is fixed. The variable expense of garments making is; Utility (Electricity cost, Water cost, steam cost, Air cost) Expenditures, transportation cost, repair, and maintenance expense etc. Here the most crucial variable cost is utility cost. We need to carefully handle utility section to minimize utility cost.

Hourly Total Production Capacity of  Garments Machinery

To identify hourly total production capacity, you need to identify the total number of machine and capacity of each machine. After that, you need to multiply the hourly capacity with machine number.

Daily Production Capacity of  Garments

For calculating daily production of your garments, you need to multiply your hourly effective production capacity into working hours each day.

Monthly Production Capacity of Garments

To calculate monthly production capacity you have to multiply your daily production capacity with the number of working days in a month.

Costing of Utility of Garments

  • Electricity: To get electricity cost you need to identify total kW consumption of your factory and then multiply total KW with Price of per Kw electricity. Remember the cost of electricity is much higher in case of fuel generator and local REB compared with Gus Generator.
  • Water: Water cost is the cost of collecting water and the filtering cost. Normally in textile and garments, De-Mineralized (DM) water is used.
  • Steam: First identify total consumption of steam per machine each hour and then multiply with the number of machines.
  • Compressed Air: In case of air you have to identify the compressed air cost for per cubic meter then multiplies with the total consumption.

The formula of Calculating Garments Cost of Making

Monthly Garments Cost of Making (GCM) = (Monthly Total Cost of Garments Operation)/Monthly Total Output Produced by the Factory.

  • Here Total Cost include both fixed and variable Cost of your garments factory for one month
  • Monthly total Production is the output produced by the factory.

Example: Suppose Your Factory Costing Related Information are;

  • Salary & Wages Expense Tk. 20,000,000
  • Monthly Interest on Bank Loan Tk. 100,000
  • Depreciation Expense is Tk. 50,000
  • Rental Expense of Building is Tk. 200,000
  • Transportation Cost is Tk. 150,000
  • Repair & Maintenance Expense is Tk. 50,000
  • Utility Expense is Tk 100,000, where Electricity Cost is Tk 500,000, Steam Tk. 200,000, Water Cost is Tk. 100,000, Chiller Cost Tk. 100,000, Compressed Air Cost is Tk. 100,000.
  • Total Number of Machine is 150
  • Hourly Production Capacity of Each Machine 30
  • The total Working hour is 8 hours per day
  • The number of working days in a month is 26 Days.

Total Cost = 20,000,000 + 100,000 + 50,000 + 200,000 + 150,000 + 50,000 +1,000,000 = 21,550,000

Total Production = 150 * 30 * 8 * 26 = 936,000

Cost of Garments Making Per Piece of Garments = (21,550,000/936,000) = Tk. 23.02 (Piece)

After reading this hopefully you understand how to calculate garments cost of making. If you have any confusion then please let me know, I will try to clarify further.

Note: All these costing information is arbitrarily taken, so these values are not actual costing value.

Finishing Quality Control SOP of Apparel Industry

Finishing is the last step of the apparel industry. Quality Control is necessary for every stage of garments production for the purpose of making a quality product, finishing the garments, prepare for shipment and finally deliver to the garments buyer. So, finishing is a very important process in garments. To ensure finishing quality control by the garments manufacturer a finishing quality control SOP of Apparel Industry is to prepared and followed accordingly. Here SOP means Standard Operating Procedure. Ultimate quality control, garments decoration, and ticketing are done in the finishing process of the apparel industry.

Finishing Quality Control SOP of Apparel Industry

Finishing Quality Control SOP of Apparel Industry

For finishing quality control following standard operating procedure can be followed for the apparel industry.

  • All Sewn Garments is to receive into finishing section after washing (if GMTS need finishing as per buyer’s requirement).
  • Washed garments to be checked for shade acceptance in a standard lightbox as per buyer approved all shade standard. If a lot fails in AQL to meet shade acceptance, then GMTS will send back to washing for rewash.
  • After passing shade of Garments and thread trimming, quality checking starts as per style wise process sequence but must maintain size wise bundle.
  • Excessive WIP (Work in Process) and dumping more than one bundle stacking in one layer is not allowed in any operation of finishing.
  • Any defective garments will not pass from any operation without alteration and QC pass.

Finishing Quality Control Standard of Garments

  1. Pull test as per customer requirement
  2. 100% Garments quality inspection and thread trimming
  3. 100% Garments key point measurement
  4. 100% pressing as per customer requirement
  5. Quality audit is to be done before moving garments to pack
  6. Specific written instruction for every operation with garments form mockup as visual instruction for ironing, attaching the sticker, measurement, quality inspection, folding and packing.
  7. Approve trim card for every style with all finishing trims and accessories.
  8. 100 % garments metal detection is to follow to ensure garments free from a needle, sharp tools and any types of metal as ensured product quality.
  9. Packing of garments as per customer Stock Keeping Unit (SKU) and assortment requirement.

Ironing (Pressing) Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) in Garments Finishing

  1. Garments come in iron table size wise by the bundle.
  2. Only one size is allowed in a bundle.
  3. Iron table marking before every style starting.
  4. A carton in every iron table to keep defects and marking with arrow sticker to detect defects.
  5. Out of tolerance Garments not be passed from measurement section, the Iron show having every measurement table.
  6. Every Gate up Quality inspector having measurement tape and style wise measurement sheet.
  7. Approved sample hanging with written instruction in Iron, Quality Inspection, and packing area.
  8. From Iron garments moving bundle wise up to packing.
  9. Garments not are gathered by more than one style or color in every iron and quality inspection table.

Finishing Quality Audit

Finishing AQL Auditors audit GMTS before moving GMTS to packing area from every bundle using AQL 2.5. If audit pass, GMTS will move forward for packing. If Audit fails, an auditor will give back GMTS to Quality checkpoint area to recheck. After completing recheck, AQL Auditor will re-audit. An auditor audit full PO lot as per buyer final audit sampling policy when that PO is already 80% packed to check packed GMTS quality before a final audit. If Pre-final audit fails, then full PO will be rechecked.

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)
Email: [email protected]

Linkedin

Garments Defects Identification

Garments Defects Identification:

Garments defect is one of the curtail factors of apparel manufacturing industry because it creates a negative effect on actual productivity. If you have no idea of garments defects identification then it will be a tough job for you, but if you know it properly then it is an easy task to identify defects. So must know all types of Garments defects if you are involved with apparel industry. It is the responsibility of the garments manufacturers to maintain a required Garments quality standard for each and every product they are offering or delivering to the buyers. After reading this article you will have the idea of all types of garments sewing defects and finishing defects. For your better understanding, I also add pictures of each type of defects. All commonly visual garments defects are included here. Quality management team will be required to train quality inspectors and quality controller by making a presentation so that they can visualize easily. I am hopeful that, this article would be helpful for any person who works in the quality department in the apparel industry.

Garments Defects Identification

How you can Identify Garments Defects

For visualizing and identifying any garments defects you need to learn about all defects with its visual characteristics first then you can simply see the product and identify defects accordingly.

List of Garments Defects Which You Can Visualize

  1. Brand Logo Mistake
  2. Broken Stitch
  3. Button Half Stitch
  4. Bartack Missing
  5. Damage
  6. Down Stitch
  7. Eyelet Hole Missing
  8. Fabric Fault
  9. Foreign Yarn
  10. Incomplete Stitch
  11. Incorrect SPI
  12. Joint Stitch
  13. Needle Cut
  14. Needle Mark
  15. Non-Functional Zipper
  16. Number Mistake
  17. Pleat Bottom Hem
  18. Puckering
  19. Raw Edge
  20. Reject
  21. Sewn Caught
  22. Shading Parts
  23. Short Stitch
  24. Skip Stitch
  25. Spot
  26. Tension Loose
  27. Un-Cut Thread
  28. Up Down Parts
  29. Velcro Missing

Here is the picture of all garments defects which we can identify visually. You may find the name of each defect in the bottom of each picture.

Bartack Missing

Bartack Missing

Brand Logo Mistake

Brand Logo Mistake

Broken Stitch

Broken Stitch

Button Half Stitch

Button Half Stitch

Damage

Defect by Damage

Eyelet Hole Missing

Eyelet Hole Missing

Down Stitch Defects of Garments

Down Stitch Defects of Garments

Fabric Fault

Fabric Fault

Foreign Yarn

Foreign Yarn

Incomplete Stitch

Incomplete Stitch

Incorrect SPI

Incorrect SPI

Joint Stitch

Joint Stitch

Needle Cut

Needle Cut

Needle Mark

Needle Mark

Non-Functional Zipper

Non-Functional Zipper

Number Mistake

Number Mistake

Pleat Bottom Hem

Pleat Bottom Hem

Puckering

Puckering

Raw Edge

Raw Edge

Reject

Reject

Sewn Caught

Sewn Caught

Shading Parts

Shading Parts

Short Stitch

Short Stitch

Skip Stitch

Skip Stitch

SPOT

SPOT

Tension Loose

Tension Loose

Un-Cut Thread

Un-Cut Thread

Up Down Parts

Up Down Parts

Velcro Missing

Velcro Missing

You also can see this article:

  1. Quality Improvement Techniques in Apparel Industry
  2. Garments quality standard
  3. Types of Garments defect

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

Facebook: Amirul Islam Washim
E-mail: [email protected]

Opportunity Cost of an Investment

Opportunity Cost of an Investment

Every investment decision should take care because the opportunity cost of an investment is involved in every financial decision. Here the first question may arise, what is an opportunity cost? Opportunity cost is the cost of selecting best from the available alternatives. Opportunity cost starts generating when we decide to invest our valuable money for a particular thing by sacrifice our other opportunities.

Opportunity Cost of an Investment

Do you think, the opportunity cost is calculated for organizational investment decision making purpose only? No, the opportunity cost is calculated and evaluated or must be calculated both for individuals and organizations/ corporations. Question may arise why? The reason is investment decision is taken to make a profit from the investment by ensuring optimal use of the financial resources. Every financial decision is cost worthy and our intention is to always become gainer. So, investment is to be in a right platform, with a right amount that may provide us maximum return with minimum opportunity cost. Although investment decision also depends on the investment behavior of the investor.

Things you need to Do Before Calculating Opportunity Cost of an Investment

  1. Identifying all the investment alternatives
  2. Collect each and every information those are related with these investment alternatives
  3. What will be the investment cost of all these opportunities?
  4. Acquire knowledge of time value of money and its implications on valuation
  5. Identify potentiality of each and every investment alternatives

Importance of Evaluation of Opportunity Cost of an Investment

Evaluation of opportunity will help to through:

  1. Identifying and selecting best investment opportunity
  2. Calculate Opportunity cost of an investment and any other related opportunities
  3. The result of evaluation will guide you to pick an investment alternative where opportunity cost is minimum.

Example of Opportunity Cost of an Investment

Suppose you have two investment opportunities. Either you can deposit your money into a bank or you can invest for your own business to become an entrepreneur. Both will give you benefit, but you need to choose only one from these two.  If you choose bank deposit option, then your opportunity cost of this investment is to be the rate of earnings from another investment opportunity that is invested in your business. On the other hand, if you choose your business investment opportunity then your opportunity cost will be the earnings opportunity of bank interest rate.

You have 1 million Tk in your hand. Either you can invest this money into a bank by depositing into a fixed deposit at 10% interest rate, or you can invest the same amount to start your own coffee shop, where you will earn more than 15% annually. But you know, the return from business always uncertain where higher the risk, higher the expected rate of return. That’s why you expect more return from business. On the other hand, if you can avoid the investment opportunity in business and accept the opportunity of bank deposit, where there is nearly zero percent risk is involved.

So, in these examples, the expected rate of earnings from business is the rate of opportunity cost for depositing money into a bank.

For your day to day business operation, you always need to take a decision of whether you want to make or buy. In case of small garments sometimes, you outsourced your work. Instead of making, if you buy from the third party then, you are losing an investment opportunity of making. So, in this case, the opportunity cost of an investment will be the benefit you are losing because of buying rather than making.

Finally, you need to understand that, whatever decision you take, you just need to sacrifice an opportunity. So, the opportunity cost is always there. But the most challenging task is to take investment decision where opportunity cost is lower.

Needle and Sharp Tools Control Procedure in Apparel

Needle, Broken Needle and Sharp Tools Control Procedure in Apparel Industry applies to all types of Machine needles, Hand Sewing needles, Label Applicator Gun needles, staples, and sharps (defined as knives, scissors, cutters, etc.). This article has two parts of controlling sharp items in garments industry. One is needle and broken needle control, the 2nd part is all others sharp tools control. All these items are sharp but there at least one needle in every sewing machine so we are giving needle control separately. Actually, every garments industry has to control needle and other sharp tools separately. The needle used to sew garments. Scissor, cutter and cutting knife used to cut fabrics and thread. And must eliminate staples from all areas, sections, raw materials (like supplier’s cartons), and processes of the factory. Loose sharp objects in any production related area near fabric or garments are not allowed, they must be tied up. A general procedure for controlling all sharp tools are broken needle log/no needle on idle machines, no sharp points, no staples, and scissors attached & secured, blades control.

Needle and Sharp Tools Control Procedure in Apparel

Needle, Broken Needle and Sharp Tools Control Procedure in Apparel Industry

List of Sharps Tools Used in Garments

  1. Sewing Needle
  2. Scissor
  3. Cutter (Thread trimmer)
  4. Cutting M/C Knife
  5. Cutting Clamps
  6. Loose Metal or M/C Parts

Needle Control

A needle issue booth is to be available on every production floor, only one person in the relevant department should be given the authority to operate the needle control procedure. The apparel industry has to set needle control policy and manage the procedure effectively because safety is important for the Buyers & GMTS makers point of view. Applicable to sewing, embroidery, knitting & linking, or any other place where the needle is used or where there is a risk of metal contamination of apparel manufacturing industry.

Objectives of Needle Control

  • To ensure customer product safety
  • To ensure safety for employee
  • To ensure safety for the consumer
  • Keep discipline of sharp tools handling
  • Safe working environment

Application of Needle Control Procedure

Machines not in production, should not have a needle attached. Mechanics must not leave spare needles with the machine after servicing. No spare or replaced needles should be held at the machine by an operator. The only needle allowed at the sewing machine is the one in use. All spare needles should keep in a secure location, keys for that location should be kept by the person who is responsible for managing the needle control procedure. When a needle breakage occurs, all broken parts must be found and taken to the person responsible for managing the needle and this ensures proper control procedure of needle. Once all the broken needle parts have been recovered, they must be attached with clear adhesive tape to a control sheet; a new needle may then be issued by the authorized distributor. If all the broken needle parts cannot be located, the work in the immediate area of the machine must be isolated and kept in a locked box. A metal detector should then be used to locate the missing needle pieces. Once the location of the needle pieces has been determined, the needle should be removed.

Needle, Broken Needle and Sharp Tools Control Procedure in Apparel Industry

The article does not have to be destroyed if the whole needle piece has been removed. Handheld detectors are very useful for tracing lost needles in sewing rooms very quickly. One in each factory location is suggested. If the pieces cannot be located by the metal detector then the whole isolated batch of work should be destroyed. Records of all control sheets must be maintained. This also should be maintained in a locked, secure location. All whole needles replaced due to wear and tear should be held in a sealed container away from the factory floor and disposed of in a way, which would avoid injury to any persons. Glass items, e.g. bottles or paperweights, in the production area should also be discouraged in case of glass splinters. The use of snap-off blade type knives should not be used for any production or packaging, shipping areas – i.e. disposable metal blades, craft knives etc. should not be used. The whole needle must be sealed in containers prior to issue.

Action Need to Follow to Control Needle

  1. The Needle Status could be marked as “B” for Broken and “W” for Worn/Twisted/Crooked/Bent needles
  2. When a needle breakage occurs, all broken parts must be found and taken to the person responsible for managing the needle control procedure.
  3. Once all the broken needle parts have been recovered, they must be attached with clear adhesive tape to a control sheet; a new needle may then be issued by the authorized distributor.
  4. If all the broken needle parts cannot be located, the work in the immediate area of the machine must be isolated and passed through Metal Detector.
  5. If the pieces cannot be located by the metal detector, production in that area should be stopped; and the whole batch of work should be destroyed.

How to Control All Sharp Tools Used in Apparel/Garments

  1. Keep section wise records of all sharp tools quantity
  2. Supply all necessary sharp tools start of the workday and take this back end of the workday.
  3. Make sure any single number of tools not lost
  4. Keep section wise stock management report
  5. Tie all Scissor and cutter with relevant machine/table in work running time
  6. Staples should not use anywhere, staples threat for safety.
  7. Any metal or machine spare part not allowed to keep in the workplace.

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

Facebook: Amirul Islam Washim
E-mail: [email protected]

Metal Detection Procedure in Apparel

Metal Detection is the final precautionary measure used to get needle/metal free final product. It is not as a replacement for well-maintained needle control procedures. Metal Detection Procedure in Apparel could be the final needle detection system and machine calibration (whether machine is functioning properly or not) is checked  by 9-point calibration system. Metal detection machine should be located in packing section to ensure that after metal detection process, garments will remain inside a metal/needle free zone. Machine calibrated with 9-point method or any other suggested method given by the supplier/buyer. This process should continue for every hour & keep record.

Metal Detection Procedure in Apparel

Objectives of Metal Detection in Garments

Final product of garments should be metal or needle free, otherwise it can harm the user of garments. Here are the few objectives of metal detection:

  • To get needle free final product
  • To get metal free final product in carton
  • Secure product safety
  • Metal detection is mandatory for all children wear garments, and this also varies according to the buyer wise requirement.
  • To meet customer satisfaction

Metal Detection Procedure in Apparel

Metal Detection Procedure of Garments Manufacturing are explained below

  1. All goods must be passed through the Metal Detector except in exceptional circumstances where the nature of the product dictates that this cannot be done. This must be agreed with the buyer beforehand; and signed on the Operation Manual or Product Specification (I.e. (a) Certain accessories, (b) PRO, where the stitched upper is passed through the detector Goods with ferrous metal components.
  2. All goods must be passed through a Metal Detector set to the standard of a 1.2 mm sphere. As the majority of the trims and decorations are non-Ferrous, it is a requirement that ferrous metal detector be used.
  3. Records and samples must be kept of any contamination detected, starting date, and time, product type, and the cause of resultant actions to be kept in a secure location.
  4. When a metal is detected, only supervisors or manager can reactivate the equipment. It is therefore mandatory that a Security Key Switch is used to ensure this.
  5. X-ray machine is needed where tacks are used in production (i.e. hand sewn shoes, moccasins, etc.)

Metal Detector Machine Calibration by 9 Point System

9-point testing of metal detector refers below points

  • Calibrate (Test) machine 3 times each day at the beginning, middle and end of a working period by using the 1.2mm sphere ferrous checks cards to check machine sensitivity.
  • Test at 9 points at every time
  • Test from top, Centre and bottom position in left, middle and right side of machine, total 9 points.
  • If any point not detected by machine, should recheck the point again.

Description of Needle Calibration Check

Needle Calibration check purpose to check machine sensitivity. The sensitivity should be set by passing the test sample through/at the (i) Centre (ii) Left Side (iii) Right Side of the detector. This process will be repeated by placing the test sample at a raised height, allowing the test sample to pass through the middle of the detector. The 1.2mm test sample must be kept available at all times. The detector must be tested with the 1.2mm test sample a minimum of 3 times per working session, which is defined as a shift. The test should be carried out prior to starting detection, at an intermediate point, and at the end of the session using the test sample. A record should be kept of the time and date by the supervisor. When a detector fails to detect the test sample, all merchandise that has passed through the detector since the last correctly completed test must be rechecked through the metal detector. It is good practice to be able to identify each batch of production that has passed through the detector since the last test.

  1. The Metal detector is positioned such that goods need to pass through the metal detector in order to be shipped out (finishing to packing; or packing to warehouse).
  2. Best practice is to have a magnetized station/ table where the tacks are removed; when the operator holds the lasted upper on this and pulls the tacks out, they are pulled and held in place until the operator removes them to a dedicated sharps storage container. Alternative solution is to use a magnetic /generator coils (about 12 to 15 inches in diameter) as cradles during the de-tacking process.
  3. Machines must be serviced, certified and calibrated by the Metal Detection Company or recognized 3rd party testing company.
  4. Records are to be kept.

Needle Detecting Report

Metal Detection Procedure in Apparel also Refer to-

  • Needle detection procedure in Garments
  • 9 Points calibration system
  • Product safety in Garments

Download : Needle Detection Report Format (Excel 47kb)

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

Facebook: Amirul Islam Washim
E-mail: [email protected]

Implementation of 5S in Apparel Industry

5S comes from 5 Japanese words and each of them starts with S. These are seiriseitonseisoseiketsu, and shitsuke, if we translate these 5 Japanese words into English then we get Sort, Set in Order, Shine, Standardize, and Sustain. In garment industry 5S works as a basic tool of Lean Manufacturing, a technique to set well organized, clean and visual attractive workplace. That’s why the implementation of 5S in Apparel Industry is required.

Implementation of 5S in Apparel Industry

Implementing 5’S method is a base to implement quality improvement/lean procedures. Expecting the team to be and they do activities in each department: like monitoring, evaluate and drive the aspects very clean and organized so that, your Factory will look very planned and well Set-up.

Let’s have a look at the difference in English and Japanese words for 5S

5S Implementation Meaning in English and Japanese

Basic Concepts for 5S Implementation in Apparel

S1. Sort (Seiri)

5S start with sort. Sort means to sort out unnecessary items, use all machine, tools, equipment for regular use. Define daily needed items, weekly needed items, and monthly needed items and keeping separate. Store is broken, unusable or occasionally used items also should be defined. Keep records for eliminating unnecessary items exist and new in items. Each and every section of garments you may find many things are kept in a haphazard way. So for these, you need to follow first S from the 5S, i.e Sort. Sorting according to items characteristics and importance.

S2 – Set in Order – SEITON

Setting order is important for 5S. All items, section, and area (In, exist) are clearly identified by a label and everything should be well organized. Never mix/store two category items in one place. Dividing lines, aisle mark, Stairway is clearly identified and clean as per standard. Confirm that the exits are accessible and unlocked during working hours. Confirm that, where necessary, the emergency exit doors have no panic hardware or lever style (one hand, one motion door openers). If you keep all of your store materials in your garments warehouse in a planned order basis, then whenever required that materials you can easily find out and get those materials. That’s why all materials should be kept in accordance with set in order.

5s system in garment industry

S3 – Shining – SEISO

The third S from 5S is Shine, actually mean cleanliness. All items/place of workplace Floors, walls, stairs, ceilings, pipework Racks, cabinets, shelves, Machines, equipment, tools, Stored items, materials, products and lighting everything required to be kept clean. All cleaning tools and materials are easily accessible. Cleaning assignments are defined and are being followed by checklist and hang checklist on visible board. Do periodical pest control to make sure there is no insect. Cleanliness is not only the compliance issue but also this increase the healthy working environment in garments factory or office.

Shine-3rd S-Cleaning Schedule

Download: S3: Shine, Cleaning Schedule (Excel 20kb)

S4 – Standardize – SEIKETSU

First three steps of 5S are the key to implement 5S in the workplace. This section is about visualization by Information displays, related SOPs, signs, color coding and other markings are established everywhere of the factory also included procedures for maintaining the first three S’s are being displayed. Do regular 5’s audit using a checklist, give & post rating to each area. Need formal training, keep training records to approach towards improvement. These standardizations increase the operating efficiency of the apparel industry.

5S in Apparel Manufacturing Industry Store

S5 – Sustain – SHITSUKE

This section is to sustain 5S in the textile and garments factory to be the way of life rather than just a routine. Success stories are being displayed (i.e. before and after pictures) in every section of the 5S board. Give rewards and recognition is part of the 5S system to sustain 5S.

S6 and S7(Extension of 5S)

Now, 5S have two additional points 6th “S” for “Safety” and the 7th “S’’ is “Security”. These two new points objective is to make safe workplace for all employees. It is employer’s responsibility to provide safety and security for both factory and office place in apparel industry.

Advantages of 5S for Garments

If you properly follow 5S for your textile and garments industry, then you will get following benefits:

  • Health and Safety is ensured
  • Base of implementation of quality improvement
  • Productivity Increase
  • Save time, cost and storage space
  • Minimization of accidents & mistakes
  • Increases efficiency
  • Creates workplace ownership
  • First step for Lean procedures
  • Increase customer satisfaction
  • Reduce inventory time
  • Reduce downtime, wastage
  • Good working environment
  • Visualization and labeling
  • Boost morale
  • Improve company image
  • Optimize organization and workplace as per requirement
  • Routine wise work schedule and visual Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) everywhere
  • Everybody knows their working responsibility where and when
  • Disciplined housekeeping

Implementation of 5S in Apparel Industry
5S in Sewing Section

For implementing 5S in Apparel Industry you need to follow the followings:

  1. Need central 5S committee and section wise subcommittee
  2. 5S organogram and committee list as enclosed
  3. Section wise 5S checklist
  4. 5S display board in every section
  5. Make a separate T-shirt for a committee
  6. Conduct 5s training and drive for good housekeeping
  7. Conduct section wise 5S audit and submit a report.
  8. Evaluate score and take corrective action for improvement in every department.

Actions Need to Implement 5S in Garments Industry

  1. Take “before” photographs.
  2. Check that the first three S’s are implemented properly.
  3. All team activity documents/checklists should be publicly displayed on a 5S board.
  4. Establish the routines and standard practices for regularly and systematically repeating the first three S’s.
  5. Standardize red tag procedures and holding area rules (see Seiri).
  6. Create a maintenance system for housekeeping. Make a schedule for cleaning of the workplace. A common approach is to ask a cross-functional team to do it.
  7. Inter-departmental competition is an effective means of sustaining and enhancing interest in 5S.
  8. Assign responsibility to individuals for a work area and machinery.
  9. Regular inspection/audit and evaluation by a special team (including senior management persons) to be continued.
  10. Instead of criticizing poor cases, praise and commend good practices or good performers.
  11. Take “after” photographs and post them on the 5S board(s).
  12. Give a reward for the top scoring section.

You can download Presentation File on 5S if you need.

5S Presentation: PowerPoint (6.3MB)

5S Training: PowerPoint (5.1MB)

5S Presentation (English & Bangla): PowerPoint (6.9MB)

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

Facebook: Amirul Islam Washim
E-mail: [email protected]

Trims and Accessories Inspection in Apparel

Quality of Trims and Accessories quality is very important for garments because of its added value with the final product. Trims and Accessories Inspection in apparel is required to ensure the use of right quality trims and accessories for getting quality garments, although Trims and Accessories are supplied by the third party/buyer nominated supplier. Basically, garments maker check trims quality after receiving. If there is any quality issue, then they can claim for compensation within a certain date of Trims and Accessories in-house. If GMTS maker fails to identify defects in their inspection process, then they must have to carry liability. So Trims and accessories quality plays a vital role in the apparel industry.

Trims and Accessories Inspection in Apparel Industry

Trims and Accessories Inspection in Apparel

You can have a look at the list of trims and accessories from our previous article; List of Trims and Accessories

 Most Important Items for Inspection of Trims and Accessories

  • There must have a standard Trim card which is to be approved with signature & date by the factory or buying house Merchandiser.
  • Buyer style wise PDM must present to match label/ticketing requirement and sticker.
  • And there should have Acceptable Quality Limit (AQL) Chart to follow AQL.

Trims and Accessories Inspection Procedure in Apparel Industry

For inspecting trims and accessories, following standard procedure will be followed:

  • Trims and Accessories Quality Control (QC) will check trims after in-housed by using AQL 1.5 of every lot.
  • If this particular lot fails as per AQL, QC will check 50% Trims of whole lot.
  • If QC finds more defective Trims from out of 50% check, QC will check 100% Trims (whole lot).
  • After completing the check, QC will claim supplier via merchandising
  • A claim must be done within 7 days after in-house in factory.

AQL Chart of Trims and Accessories Inspection in Apparel Industry

Trims and Accessories Quality Defect Criteria to Identify During Inspection

  • Print Mistake
  • Color Problem
  • Code Mistake
  • Fitness Problem
  • Print Spot
  • Measurement Problem
  • Size Mistake
  • Gum Nil
  • Running Color
  • PO Mistake
  • Style Mistake
  • Letter Mistake
  • Spot
  • Broken
  • Logo Mistake

Explanation of Trims and Accessories Defects

  1. Print Mistake: Any problem showing for incorrect printing. Example: color bleeding
  2. Color Problem: Used different color/shade, not match with approved trims color
  3. Code Mistake: Barcode or any types of code mistake
  4. Fitness Problem: Not found as per ordered length and width.
  5. Print Spot: Any spot only for printing
  6. Measurement Problem: Any types of measurement do not match with an approved swatch
  7. Size Mistake: When everything okay but mentioned size not correct
  8. Gum nil: If there needed gum but not found in the inspection
  9. Running Color: Different types of color in trims when one color is approved
  10. PO Mistake: When everything is okay but mentioned PO number not correct
  11. Style Mistake: When everything is okay but mentioned style not correct
  12. Letter Mistake: Used capital letter instead of small or small letter instead of capital.
  13. Spot: Any type of spot is to be considered as a defect
  14. Broken: Trims and accessories broken is a critical defect.
  15. Logo Mistake: Any problem in logo design and color.

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

Facebook: Amirul Islam Washim

Phone:+8801929643301
E-mail: [email protected]

Job Responsibility of IE in Apparel Industry

Before appointing an industrial engineer for the apparel industry, you have to keep in mind the Job Responsibility of IE in Apparel Industry. Here IE means Industrial Engineering. The world has limited resources but day by day we need to produce more and more product. The challenge is to increase productivity by using least amount of resources. Garments industry is very much competitive. So in this competitive industry, it is a big challenge for Bangladesh or any other country to survive. We are looking for a solution where we will get more productive technology with lower cost. Industrial Engineering is all about optimization of limited resources. Generally, Optimization, Planning, and Process Control is the core work in apparel for the industrial engineering department.

Job Responsibility of IE in Apparel Industry

Nowadays IE playing the key role in the apparel industry. Industrial Engineering Job is not an easy job, always engineers need to take the challenge and bring a complete solution. The person who is responsible for industrial engineering is considered as an industrial engineer. I made a list of industrial engineering activities in the apparel industry.

Job Responsibility of IE in Apparel Industry

Major Work of Industrial Engineering in Garments

Industrial Engineering deals with the following activities:

  1. Time Study, Motion study
  2. Taking the capacity study of full-line and line balancing for clean-up bottleneck area.
  3. Methods developments & analysis as a side of quality & quantity.
  4. Follow-up the low performing Operators.
  5. Operation breakdown, Operation Bulleting / Layout
  6. SMV calculation by time study.
  7. Operator skill Summery.
  8. Train up production staff on efficiency.
  9. Process-wise operator skill development.
  10. Nonproductive time (Loss Time) record and reduce.
  11. Hourly Production Monitoring & Achieve the line Target.
  12. Prepare Man machine report.
  13. 5s implementation, Training, and Auditing
  14. Work on 7 QC tools to minimize defect.
  15. Statistical analysis for continuous quality improvement.
  16. Production Planning and control, Planning Calculations
  17. Capacity Study
  18. Production Study
  19. PDCA Cycle
  20. 7 Wastage reduce
  21. Manpower Budget Planning
  22. CPM, CM Calculation
  23. Line Cost Calculation, Floor capacity calculation
  24. SPM, EPM, PCL Calculation
  25. Reduce WIP (Work in Process)
  26. Operator, Line and floor efficiency Calculation
  27. Follow up KPI (Key points indicator) and Report
  28. Inventory Control in all section
  29. Implementation lean manufacturing tools and Six Sigma
  30. Provide Incentive for operator and Production staffs
  31. Manpower requisition and set up
  32. Eliminating excess manpower
  33. Improving Productivity through detailed analysis of process by process
  34. Smooth supply chain management from raw material to output
  35. Helping to launch TQM (Total Quality Management) system in a factory
  36. Implement traffic light system on the floor & reduced sewing defect percentage
  37. Co-ordination with merchandising
  38. Fabric & thread consumption.
  39. Garments analysis & style development for reducing costing.

Please mention in the comment box if I missed any point.

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

Facebook: Amirul Islam Washim

Phone:+8801929643301
E-mail: [email protected]

7 QC Tools in Apparel Industry

7 QC (Quality Control) tools are very effective for apparel or any other types of the factory to solve almost every type of problem in a factory operation. These are the tools of troubleshooting quality issues, based on numeric value. 7 QC tools in apparel industry is a set of data analysis tools used to support continuous quality improvement efforts. If you can use these seven fundamental tools, then definitely quality control will be effective for your company.

7 QC Tools in Apparel Industry

  1. Histogram
  2. Check Sheet (Tally Sheet)
  3. Cause-and-Effect Diagram
  4. Pareto Chart
  5. Scatter Diagram
  6. Control Chart
  7. Stratification

7 QC Tools in Apparel Industry

Benefits of 7 QC Tools

  • Improve management decision making skills
  • Collect, present, Identify and analyses data
  • Implement Six Sigma
  • Control cost of poor quality
  • Reduce variations and improve quality
  • Reduce defects and improve production
  • Reduce cycle time and improve efficiency
  • Continuous quality improvement
  • Encourages teamwork and confidence
  • Enhances customer satisfaction through improved quality product

Explanation of 7 QC Tools for Apparel Industry

  1. Histogram

Histogram is also a bar chart. It is a graphical chart based on numeric value for showing frequency distribution of database. People become confused among Histograms and Bar Charts. A histogram is used for continuous data, where the bins represent ranges of data, while a bar chart is a plot of categorical variables. Some authors recommend that bar charts have gaps between the rectangles to clarify the distinction.

Histogram for Apparel Industry

Download: Histogram Template (excel 31kb)

  1. Check Sheet (Tally Sheet)

The Check Sheet/Tally sheet is a simple document that is used for collecting data in real time and at the location where the data is generated. The document is typically a blank form that is designed for the quick, easy, and efficient recording of the desired information, which can be either quantitative or qualitative. When the information is quantitative, the check sheet is sometimes called a tally sheet. A tally sheet to collect data on frequency of occurrences which custom designed by user.

Check Sheet or Tally Sheet

Download: Tally-sheet-template (excel 75kb)

  1. Cause-and-effect diagram (Ishikawa Diagram / Fishbone Diagram)

Cause-and-effect diagram is look like a fish that’s why it’s called Fishbone Diagram, also called Ishikawa diagram, herringbone diagrams or Fishikawa diagrams, a visualization tool for categorizing the potential causes of a problem in order to identify its root causes. Causal diagrams created by Kaoru Ishikawa that show the causes of a specific event. Dr. Kaoru Ishikawa developed the “Fishbone Diagram” at the University of Tokyo in 1943.To break down (in successive layers of detail) root causes that potentially contribute to a particular effect. This diagram is used in process improvement methods to identify all of the contributing root causes likely to be causing a problem.

How to Work on Fishbone

If you find a problem and want to make fishbone diagram. First need brainstorming about the defect to find out types of causes based on 6 basic things. These are:

  • Machine
  • Manpower
  • Environment
  • Method
  • Materials
  • Measurement

Brainstorm all the possible causes of the problem. Ask: “Why does this happen?” As each idea is given, the facilitator writes it as a branch from the appropriate category. Causes can be written in several places if they relate to several categories. For example you can see fishbone in the below:

Fishbone Diagram of QC Tools

Download: Cause and Effect diagram Template (excel 34kb)

4. Pareto Chart (80/20 Rule)

A Pareto chart is a bar graph. The lengths of the bars represent frequency or cost (time or money), and are arranged with longest bars on the left and the shortest to the right. In this way the chart visually depicts which situations are more significant.

The Pareto principle

The Pareto principle (also known as the 80–20 rule, the law of the vital few, and the principle of factor sparsity) states that, for many events, roughly 80% of the effects come from 20% of the causes. More generally, the Pareto Principle is the observation (not law) that most things in life are not distributed evenly. In apparel industry, you can see the data in the below that first 5 defects covered 50% of total defect. So 80-20 rules will not cover all-time 80% problem for 20% causes. It can mean all of the following things:

  • 20% of the defects number cumulate 80% of the total defects
  • 20% of the operator produce 80% of the defects
  • 20% of the customers create 80% of the revenue

Pareto for Apparel Industry

Pareto Chart of Cutting Defects

Download: Pareto Chart Template (excel 25kb)

5. Scatter Diagram

The scatter diagram graphs pairs of numerical data, with one variable on each axis, to look for a relationship between them. If the variables are correlated, the points will fall along a line or curve. The better the correlation, the tighter the points will hug the line. The scatter diagram Collect pairs of data where a relationship is suspected.

Scatter Diagram

6. Control Chart (Shewhart Chart)

Control charts, also known as Shewhart charts or process-behavior charts, are a statistical process control tool used to determine if a manufacturing or business process is in a state of control. A control chart shows how data frequency changes, defects trends and compares with previous time record. Control chart monitor process and hypothetical prediction. Apparel industry need to reduce defect frequency to get quality improvement.

Control Chart for Apparel

Download: Control Chart Template (excel 17kb)

7. Stratification (Divide and Conquer), can be alternative of flow chart or run chart

Stratification is a method of dividing data into subcategories and classify data based on a group, division, class or levels that helps in deriving meaningful information to understand an existing problem. The main purpose of Stratification is to divide the data and conquer the meaningful information to solve a problem. The visual nature of the chart makes patterns jump out.

Implementation of 7 QC Tools

To implement these tools in your industry, you must have to do Pareto, Fishbone for every section. Result publishes visibly in each line or area in board. People will be conscious to reduce defect. There improvement tracking on control chart also visible for each line/area. You have to find root cause from the root level for cause and effect diagram. Data and data collection must be accurate. Every section has to be taken corrective action based on quality data. Every section must do a quality meeting to take new decision for quality control at least once per month.

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)

Facebook: Amirul Islam Washim

Phone:+8801929643301
E-mail: [email protected]