What does a Financial Analyst do

What does a Financial Analyst do?

If you have the plan to become a financial analyst, then you must know the responsibilities and Functions of Financial Analyst that is to know about what does a financial analyst do. So that you can prepare yourself accordingly. Several times many people ask me that what is finance and what does a financial analyst do. For them, I have listed 5 questions with the answer to help them understand.

  1. Who are the financial analysts?
  2. What are the responsibilities and functions of a financial analyst? Or what does a financial analyst do?
  3. Is there any Demand of Financial Analyst?
  4. What are the Educational Qualifications Required to become a financial analyst?
  5. Why your company should have at least one financial analyst?

Who are the Financial Analysts?

Financial Analysts are the individuals responsible to do financial analysis. But their responsibilities and functions are not limited to only financial analysis. They do economic analysis, business process analysis, market analysis and many other things. A person who is involved with analysis of financial matters is considered as a financial analyst. Financial Analysts are the key to the financial decision makers and their business decision is based on extensive financial analysis.

What does a Financial Analyst do

What does a Financial Analyst Do?

Answering this question will also answer the question of what are the responsibilities and functions of a financial analyst and how they perform. Actually financial analysts do

  1. Conduct Financial Analysis
  2. Capital Budgeting and decision making
  3. Ratio Analysis
  4. Identifying Cost of Capital
  5. Determine Optimal Capital Structure
  6. Dividend Policy Analysis
  7. Analysis of Financial Statements
  8. Financial Forecasting
  9. Cost-Benefit Analysis
  10. Portfolio Analysis
  11. Economic Analysis
  12. Market Analysis (Capital Market Analysis)
  13. Business Process Analysis
  14. Conduct Feasibility Study

Responsibilities and Functions of Financial Analyst

Conduct Financial Analysis

The main job of a financial analyst is to do financial analysis, where the analyst can work for individual, company or any other business organization. Financial analysis is a broad category of analysis where many types of analysis are included. As per the instruction and the requirement of the management, the analyst does their work. As a part of financial analysis job, analysts actually do the followings:

  • Capital Budgeting: Investment opportunities for long-term are analyzed by the financial analyst so that organization can select the most beneficial investment where NPV, IRR indicates positive outcome.
  • Ratio Analysis: Ratio analysis is basically done for evaluating the company’s performance, asset, and liability position. Based on the analysis of financial analyst, top management take required important decision for their organization.
  • Evaluate Cost of Capital: Financial analyst first calculates the cost of capital and then decide which financing decision is optimal for minimizing the cost of capital. Lower the cost of capital means lower cost of collected funds and which helps to higher the return.
  • Optimal Capital Structure: A Financial analyst also works for determining what should be the optimal capital structure for a particular company and how they can get the benefit of an optimal amount of capital.
  • Effective Dividend Policy: An effective dividend policy can improve the company’s financial position and a financial analyst do required analysis and suggest what type of dividend policy that a company may go for.
  • Analysis of Financial Statements: You know financial statements are the key statements where we can evaluate both the performance and financial position of a company. It is financial analyst responsibility to analyze financial statement and report to the management.

Financial Forecasting

It is one of the core functions and responsibilities of a financial analyst. Because financial forecasting will guide a company where to move in the future. And forecasting basically done with the existing data, so proper analysis of data is done by the financial analyst. An effective and efficient financial analyst work as a key factor in minimizing future loss and maximizing benefits.

Cost-Benefit Analysis

A business always needs to choose from different options. And from the available options, it is financial analyst responsibility to conduct a cost-benefit analysis. From the result of cost-benefit analysis make or buy decision can be made and invest or not invest in a particular sector is also decide.

Portfolio Analysis

If a business is dealing with multiple businesses then he/she needs to analyze all of his/her business and its products so that they can decide which combination will give then minimum risk with maximum return. Analysis of the portfolio is also conducted by the financial analyst because analyst knows how to analyze portfolio.

Economic Analysis

Here economic analysis includes both micro and macroeconomic analysis where different factors are continuously monitored and analyzed so that if there is any change in influencing factors then a financial analysis can inform and suggest to take a required decision.

Market Analysis

A financial analysis also works with market analysis, the reason behind is to monitor market share, competitors situation so that it would be possible to make a strategic move to become successful in a particular industry.

Business Process Analysis

Business process analysis is one of the critical jobs for any person. Although everyone can not analyze business process because here critical thinking and proper understanding are required. I believe that a financial analyst can work for business process analysis as because he used to involve with the key analysis of the business.

Conduct Feasibility Study

An experienced financial analyst can do the feasibility study for any industry because he has the capabilities, compassion to conduct a comprehensive feasibility study and make a report where all the functions of financial analyst are applicable for doing a feasibility study.

Is there any Demand of Financial Analyst?

Yes, there is a huge demand for financial analyst in different industries. You may find, the demand of financial analyst is most for the investment bank, capital market, financial institution, bank, non-bank financial institutions etc. that is for company/organization who do a business of money or financial assets, a financial analyst is must for them. Nowadays every company tries to keep at least one financial analyst for their organization. So there is no question that there is an increase in demand for a financial analyst. Companies recruiting financial analyst because they are helpful for identifying different success factors.

What are the Educational Qualifications Required to become a financial analyst?

To become a financial analyst, first of all, you required to have at least one finance degree, it can be graduation. It is not necessary to have post graduation as in your graduation you will have enough scope of learning core concepts of finance and financial analysis. You may find that many people are working as the financial analyst but they do not have any finance degree. They actually do their graduation in a business major in accounting but they have the minimum level of knowledge of financial analysis. But if you have a finance degree then it will give you an extra edge to perform financial analysis efficiently.

Educational Qualifications of Financial Analyst

  1. At least one Bachelor Degree (BBA) concentration in Finance, Finance & Banking, Accounting,
  2. Post Graduation (MBA) Major in Finance (will add value)
  3. CFA – Chartered Financial Analyst (will add value); CFA is the most attractive degree accepted worldwide for the financial analyst
  4. CIMA – Chartered Institute of Management Accountants (will add value)

Why your company should have at least one financial analyst?

Your company should have at least one financial analyst because a financial analyst can help you to make the right investment decision. He can help you to do your business in the most cost-effective way which will bring you maximum profit for your company. Every time he will analyze cost-benefit analysis of your business process and business alternatives. You know business is all about making money, so if you want to make a maximum return from your investment and take right financial decision then you must have a good financial analyst who will guide you all the time and works as a supporting partner of whom you can trust.

Finally, financial analysts do so many things for a company and they are capable of doing. But it is a management choice how they utilize a financial analyst for taking the right decision for their company. The challenging job for the recruiter to recruit best suitable financial analyst from the competitive market,

Importance of Capital Budgeting

First of all, let’s have some discussion about capital budgeting so that you can understand what capital budgeting is and why there is the importance of capital budgeting for financial decision making.

Importance of Capital Budgeting

Capital budgeting is the process of evaluating investment alternatives. Here investment alternatives are the long-term investment opportunities available to invest. Caution must be taken when capital budgeting because it is long-term in nature, an involvement of a large amount of money, and use of monetary resources.

The process of Capital Budgeting

At the time of Capital Budgeting, a simple decision-making process is followed by the finance manager. The process is as follows:

  1. Identify available project which may have future prospects.
  2. Calculate the amount of fund required to be invested (Outflow) for different projects
  3. Calculate all expected benefit will receive within the project tenure
  4. Conducting cost-benefit analysis
  5. Compile all the results of the analysis
  6. Evaluate each of the alternatives
  7. For single project selection, select best one from the alternatives and for multiple projects, select the most beneficial project.
  8. Finally, start with the selected project/ projects to implement.

Now come to the point why managers give too much emphasis on capital budgeting, actually managers concern about capital budgeting because capital investment can bring both profit and loss. Managers actually want to see whether the project will be beneficial for the company or not. If it is beneficial then the project can be implemented by investing a large amount of money, otherwise not. And the tools help to identify the right project is capital budgeting tools.

Importance of Capital Budgeting

Importance of Capital Budgeting in Corporate Finance

  1. Investment of a Large Amount of Money
  2. Long-Term Investment
  3. The probability of Incurring Enormous Loss
  4. Evaluation of Available Investment Alternatives
  5. Selection of Right Investment
  6. Proper Utilization of Funds

Investment of a Large Amount of Money

A proper analysis must be done before investing a large amount of money because our valuable money may be spent out for wrong investment. Capital budgeting is one of the popular tools to evaluate investment alternatives of a large amount of money.

Long-Term Investment

In case of long-term investment, precautions must be taken because from the long-term investment we expect long-term benefit and money will be stuck for a longer period. There is less flexibility of movement of money form long-term investment. That’s why the importance of capital budgeting is increasing day by day.

The probability of Incurring Enormous Loss

You know the future is always uncertain and for a large amount of investment, there is a probability of incurring an enormous amount of loss if you chose a wrong investment opportunity. So, you must do capital budgeting first then chose an investment opportunity where you will get an optimal amount of return.

Evaluation of Available Investment Alternatives

Basically, we do capital budgeting for the purpose of evaluating all available investment alternatives so that we can invest for right amount in right place. Remember that before evaluation you must take valid data otherwise you would not get a proper result of the analysis.

Selection of Right Investment

After analyzing all the things related to investment using capital budgeting techniques a corporate finance manager can select a right investment for his firm, which has a good potentiality of bringing benefit for the organization.

Proper Utilization of Fund

As because you choose the right investment for your company, you may assume that you are utilizing the valuable fund of your organization.

The success of Business Depends on Capital Budgeting

We use different tools of Capital budgeting to make the financial choice for large investment. The process of capital budgeting not only helps us to evaluate but also to choose the right investment. That’s why I personally consider capital budgeting as one of the success factors of the business. An effective analysis will give you proper guidelines for the right investment. And the right investment will generate the best possible revenue for your business, which is the key considerations of the success of your business. That’s why we give importance to capital budgeting for investment decision making.

Different Parts of Jeans Pant

This article will help you to learn about jeans pant and answer the question of what are the different parts of jeans pant.

Parts of Jeans Pant

Pant is one of the common forms of garments which ware by both male and female to cover waist to lower part of our body. Although jeans are one type of casual dress it is becoming more popular because of comfortability, affordability, durability, availability, and style. The consumption of jeans is increasing around the world. As the demand for jeans increasing in the Asian subcontinent, many industries already established in this region. Jeans pants are made from denim, a special type of fabric. World consumption of denim is for Jeans pant is much compared with other forms of dresses. So if you want to get into the market or you want to involve in jeans pant business then you must know the different parts of jeans pant. If you have detail knowledge of parts of pant, then it will be helpful for you to make stylish and comfortable jeans pant for man.

Different Parts of Jeans Pant

There are fifteen different parts of jeans pant you can identify from the following anatomy analysis of jeans pant

Different Parts of Jeans Pant

  1. Waist Band
  2. Belt Loop
  3. Button
  4. Fly
  5. Watch Pocket
  6. Front Pocket
  7. Back Pocket
  8. Jeans Rivets
  9. Crotch Point
  10. Back Yoke
  11. Bottom Hem
  12. Back Rise
  13. Side Seam
  14. Inseam
  15. Zipper

parts of jeans pant 


The waistband is made from denim fabric which surrounds our waist when we wear jeans pant or any other pants. On this waistband, we basically wear a belt to fit properly. A jeans pant contains only 1 waistband on it.

Belt Loop

Belt loops are added with jeans pant so that belt can fix on it and hold the pant where we supposed to hold. There are five to seven loops are there in a jeans pants. But most of the designer prefer five loops onto the waistband.


The button is used to close the top of the fly of jeans pant.

Fly of Jeans Pant

The fly is the opening part of the middle of the pant which is used to hide the zipper or button attached in there.

Watch Pocket

Watch pocket is the small pocket which places in the upper part of the front right pocket of jeans pants. Watch pocket is also known as a key holder which make the jeans pant more attractive. There is only 1 watch pocket for Jeans pant.


In clothing, a pocket is mainly used for holding small materials but it also increases the attractiveness of cloth. A pocket is one of the main part of jeans pant where there is four pocket. Two-pocket are in front side and other two are on the back side of the jeans pant.

Jeans Rivets

In a jeans pant, you may find rivets which are made of metal. Rivets actually used in the joining point of pockets of each side which not only holds the denim fabric together but also increase the attractiveness of that jeans pant.

Crotch Point

Crotch point is the joining point of two parts below the fly of jeans pant.

Back Yoke

In a jeans pant, you may find yoke which is located in the back side of the pant, attached with the waistband. Back yoke ensures the close fitting of jeans pant to our body.

Bottom Hem

Bottom hem is in the bottom of jeans pant which is folded and attached by sewing.

Back Rise

Back rise is the middle back joining point of jeans pant.


Side seam and Inseam basically the part of jeans pant where two parts joint together by sewing.


A zipper is used to close the front opening part of the jeans pant where both chain and button system can be used in jeans pant. Two buttons can be used instead of using a chain system zipper.

Parts of Jeans Pant

Ready Made Garments Export of Bangladesh

The condition of RMG Ready Made Garments Export of Bangladesh 2018

Bangladesh is now one of the developing countries in the world. Ready Made Garments (RMG) has a huge contribution to the economic growth of this country. The current condition of RMG – Ready Made Garments Export of Bangladesh seems good because there is a positive growth of export earnings. According to Export Promotion Bureau of Bangladesh (EPB), for the year 2017 to 2018 (July 2017 to April), Bangladesh Apparel Export is growing at the rate of 9% which seems a significant amount.

RMG Export Growth Over the Year 2010 to 2018

Here you can see that the growth rate of RMG export is always fluctuating, the reason behind this is a change in market demand, increase in the cost of making, political condition, market competitiveness, and the exchange rate of USD to BDT.


Total Export Million USD

2010 14855 25%
2011 19214 29%
2012 19788 3%
2013 23501 19%
2014 24584 5%
2015 26603 8%
2016 28668 8%
2017 29213 2%

Export Growth of Ready Made Garments (RMG) of Bangladesh

Bangladesh RMG Growth for the Year 2017-2018

Ready Made Garments industry is growing at the rate of nine percent compared with the previous year. But in 2016-17 this growth rate was only 2%. So there is a significant positive change in the export.

Total RMG Export Growth 2017-2018
Year Woven Knit Total Growth
2016-2017 10,785 10,144 20,929           –
2017-2018 11,513 11,321 22,834 9%

Broad RMG Export Category of Bangladesh

Product Type Million USD Percent
Woven 11,513 50.42%
Knit 11,321 49.58%
Total 22,834 100%

We mainly divide our apparel product into two broad categories. One is knit and other is woven.

Ready Made Garments Export of Bangladesh

Monthly RMG Export Growth for the year 2017-2018

Although the growth of Ready Made Garments increased in every month there was an exception for the month of September 2017. It is not clear why suddenly growth rate reached to a negative figure.

Monthly Ready Made Garments Export Growth 2018

Main Apparel Export Items of Bangladesh for the Year 2016-2017

Bangladesh is mainly exporting Shirts, T-shirt, Trousers, Jackets Sweater among these Trousers and T-Shirt are exporting a huge amount, which is contributing at the rate of 29% and 28%. So these two products added significant value to the export earnings of Bangladesh.


Million USD

Shirts 2108 10%
Trousers 6027 29%
Jackets 3547 17%
T-Shirt 5862 28%
Sweater 3362 16%
Total 20905 100%

Bangladesh Main RMG Export Product Type

Bangladesh RMG Export to the World 2017-2018

Most of our RMG is Exported to the European Union, where we export about 65% of our total export of apparel. Our second biggest client is the USA and the third one in Canada.


Million USD

EU Countries 14735 65%
USA 3929 17%
Canada 713 3%
Others 3457 15%
Total 22834 100%

Bangladesh RMG Export to the World

Top 10 European Union (EU) Countries Bangladesh Export their RMG

  1. Germany
  2. UK
  3. Spain
  4. France
  5. Italy
  6. Netherlands
  7. Poland
  8. Belgium
  9. Denmark
  10. Sweden

Top European Union Ready Made Garments (RMG) Buyers of Bangladesh

Export of RMG by Bangladesh in European Union (EU)

Here look into this list that for the last 10 month EU countries is contributing 14734.69 million dollars. So there is no question of EU is the largest buyers of garments in our country.

EU Countries Million USD Percent
Germany 4205 28.537%
U.K. 2847 19.322%
Spain 1714 11.633%
France 1328 9.012%
Italy 1086 7.371%
Netherlands 717 4.866%
Poland 645 4.381%
Belgium 534 3.626%
Denmark 504 3.420%
Sweden 395 2.679%
The Czech Republic 352 2.386%
Ireland 131 0.890%
Slovakia 64 0.433%
Portugal 50 0.338%
Slovenia 44 0.298%
Greece 40 0.270%
Finland 22 0.152%
Austria 22 0.147%
Romania 13 0.086%
Croatia 10 0.069%
Malta 5 0.033%
Bulgaria 2 0.013%
Hungary 2 0.012%
Lithuania 2 0.011%
Cyprus 1 0.006%
Estonia 1 0.006%
Latvia 0.5 0.004%
Total 14735 100%

RMG Export Market of Bangladesh Source: Export Promotion Bureau of Bangladesh, BGMEA

Written by

Md. Nahian Mahmud Shaikat

Email: [email protected]

Qualities of a Fashion Merchandiser

Qualities of a Fashion Merchandiser

In early days of human history, people were not concern about fashion. But with the improvement of living standard around the world people are becoming fashion conscious. People are ready to pay a higher price for a fashionable dress. But the question is how we can make the fashionable dress and how we can meet customer’s desire through delivering the right product. Here the responsibility goes to the fashion merchandisers and the person who is responsible for merchandising of fashionable dress is known as a fashion merchandiser. To become a successful fashion merchandiser a merchandiser, need to have qualities of a fashion merchandiser which may help to deliver the right product to the right customer at the right place for a right price and by this process business of fashionable dress expanding.

Qualities of a Fashion Merchandiser

The demand for fashion merchandiser is increasing over the years in the Indian subcontinental areas. People have more desire for fashionable clothes that’s why fashion merchandising getting preference. Near future, this will create a huge job opportunity. So this is the right time to take a degree in fashion designing and apparel merchandising.

Difference Between Apparel Merchandising and Fashion Merchandising

The main difference between apparel merchandising and fashion merchandising is, fashion merchandising is a specific area of apparel merchandising. Where fashion merchandiser focus is only a part of that specific area. Although if you consider the functional qualities the job is more or less similar. But here the sense of fashion is more focused rather than normal apparel goods.

Qualifications Required to be a Fashion Merchandiser

To become a fashion merchandiser, you need to have knowledge of fashion, fashion designing and how it works. If you have a good perception of fashion trends, then you can be a better fashion merchandiser. It will add value if you have merchandising and fashion designing degree.

List of Qualities of a Fashion Merchandiser

To become a successful fashion merchandiser, you need to have the following qualities

  1. Ability to Communicate
  2. The Ability of Understand Fashion Trends
  3. Ability to Convince People
  4. Ability to Visualize Market Needs
  5. Ability to Analyze
  6. Ability to Negotiate
  7. Knowledge of Costing
  8. Ability to Apply Creativity
  9. Language Skills
  10. Active Learner
  11. Being Self Motivated
  12. Ability to Work Under Pressure
  13. Team Player
  14. Think Out of the Box
  15. Ability to Meet Customer Satisfaction

Ability to Communicate

The first thing is a merchandiser need to have good communication skill because in every stage of merchandising a communication media is required. Communication can be oral, written, or digital communication. Fashion merchandiser should be smart enough to deliver the message clearly.

The Ability of Understand Fashion Trends

As a fashion merchandiser, you need to understand the fashion trends. How current trends are moving and what can be in future. So it is necessary to collect all the information related to that particular fashion you are working with. Although apparel industry is huge, it is better to work in a particular field so that you can focus accordingly. To become successful in the fashion industry as a merchandiser this quality of understanding fashion trends is must. Because the better you understand the trends then better you will work to deliver. In this case, fashion merchandisers have to have the trait of pro-activeness.

Ability to Convince People

Merchandiser always works for the convincing of their clients. You can use a different strategy to convince because it varies from person to person, company to company. Convince about the design of cloth, price offering and finally induce to buy that particular product from you. This is also one of the key qualities of fashion merchandiser.

Ability to Visualize Market Needs

Based on market needs, we want to meet the desirability of the customer. Market needs of fashionable dress are influenced by the season and occasional change. So as a fashion merchandiser you need to be careful about the market needs.

Ability to Analyze

Analyze each and every factor which is related to merchandising of goods. The better you understand the better you will be able to deliver to the customer. For understanding what customer is demanding and what you have to meet that demand, if you able to analyze the situation quickly then you can deliver the service quickly.

Ability to Negotiate

Your employer always wants from you that you will get a competitive price of your fashionable cloth. So as a fashion merchandiser you must work as a good negotiator. If a person has this quality, the owner of that fashion clothes will generate much profit for their company.

Knowledge of Costing

Before offering a price you need to know the costing of that fashion products. Every time you cannot get other people to support, so it will be better for you if you have enough knowledge of cost. I think there will not be much problem if you understand the costing method properly because costing method will remain same but the amount will vary.

Ability to Apply Creativity

In fashion designing creativity brings success. A fashion merchandiser needs to be creative to apply creative ideas for getting more buyers attention. Creativity is the outcome of creative ideas and it is generated from a creative mind. As a fashion merchandiser, you will have more scope to apply your own creativity.

Language Skills

As a fashion merchandiser, you need to communicate with different parties. If you have a good language skill of different region, then you may get extra benefit from it.

Active Learner

One of the key qualities of a successful fashion merchandiser is an active learner. Active learner person basically learns fast and apply their learning for selling the merchandise. This behavior also helps to improve knowledge and skill of an individual.

Being Self Motivated

If you are self-motivated then no one can stop, you from what you want to do. As a fashion merchandiser, it is not necessarily that every time you become one of the top successful people. Sometimes you may not be successful but if you learn from your previous experience and motivated by your own then definitely success is yours.

Ability to Work Under Pressure

Everyone cannot work under pressure. If you can work under pressure, then you have the quality of becoming successful fashion merchandiser.

Team Player

A team player has the advantage of working together. You may learn a lot of things from the members of a team. If you work in a fashion house as a merchandiser, then definitely you will be required to work with your team.

Think Out of the Box

The new idea came when you think out of the box. A new idea can bring a new fashion and a new fashion can bring success for a fashion merchandiser. Critically thinking is not bad if critical thinking generates new ideas.

Ability to Meet Customers Expectation

Merchandiser always works for the purpose of meeting customer expectation. So you must be able to provide what your customer is desiring from you and your product. The more you meet customer demand the more your customer will grow and become loyal towards your fashion brand which is one of the pre-condition of becoming successful fashion merchandiser.

After reading this hopefully, you already understood what are the qualities are required to become a successful fashion merchandiser.

Written by

Md. Nahian Mahmud Shaikat

Email: [email protected]

What are the Three Forms of Market Efficiency

What are the Three Forms of Market Efficiency?

Whenever you talk about you may find three form of efficiency exists in the market. So, what are the three forms of market efficiency? The answer is:

  1. Weak form of Efficiency
  2. Semi-Strong form of Efficiency
  3. Strong form of efficiency

What are the Three Forms of Market Efficiency

Weak Form of Efficiency in the Market

In case of weak form of efficiency, the current price of securities is fully affected by all the past information in the market, for this reason, you will not get any additional benefit if you work with historical data that is your decision is based on past information. Price should change time to time with the change of previously available information.

Example of Weak form of Efficiency

Suppose the share price of Lanka Bangla Finance rises last seven days but we can not be sure that whether the price of the stock will increase in future or not because the price is already adjusted with the past information.

Semi-Strong Form of Efficiency in the Market

Another capital market hypothesis is semi-strong form of efficiency, where current price of securities is fully affected by the all past information and all publicly available information. If this form of efficiency exists in the market then you will not get any additional return in case of relying on the past price movement and information came from print or online media.

For testing whether there is semi-strong form of efficiency exists or not, you can test by two measures; one is checking how past information how it was adjusted with the price changes and the second one is how professional managers were performed in the market for making extra profit. Actually, in this world of capitalism, most of the capital market exists semi-strong form of efficiency.

Example of Semi-Strong Form of Efficiency

Suppose IDLC finance announce that first week of the next month they will introduce a new financial product. After the announcement, the price of their stock in the market rises sharply. This means a publicly available information creates an impact on the price of the stock but there is no influence of insider information. If this is the case then we can say that there is semi-strong form of efficiency exists in the market.

Strong Form of Efficiency in the Market

In a capital market strong form of efficiency exists when there is a reflection in the price of securities by the all publicly and privately available information. Here publicly information available through news briefing published a journal, research paper, market update or any other. And privately information is inside information can come from the insiders of the organization. But in the real world, there is no market where the strong form of efficiency exists.

Example of Strong Form of Efficiency

Suppose Union Capital is doing well in the financial industry and they officially declare that they will provide dividend at 30% of par value of their share and also management is thinking that within next few months they will add a new business line with the existing product line. The thing is the information of dividend declaration is publicly available information and the introduction of a new product line is private information which is not yet publicly available. But if a scenario is there where the price of a stock is changed by the all these private and public information and known to the general public then that market will be considered as a strong form of efficient market.

Difference among weak form, semi-strong and strong form of efficiency

The main difference among different form of market efficiency is an availability of publicly and privately available information and past information (historical data). Because these actually supposed to influence the market price of securities. The main thing is how market behaves with the addition of new publicly and privately available information related to the market.

List of Machinery for Knit Composite Dyeing and Garments Factory

List of Machinery for Knit Composite Dyeing and Garments Factory

List of Machinery for Knit Composite Dyeing and Garments Factory


Knit Composite Factory

Generally knit composite receive yarn from spinning. The process starts with yarn dyeing and finishes with fully knitted garments ready to send to the customer. Different stages and process involved in a knit composite factory. In this article, I made a List of Machinery for Knit Composite Dyeing and Garments Factory which will be required for doing the process of a composite factory. Machinery and Equipment may have different brands sourcing from the different country, its varies from factory to factory but working principle is more or less same.

Process List of Knit Composite Factory

Process of Knit Composite Factory

  1. Yarn Dyeing
  2. Knitting section
  3. Knit fabrics dyeing
  4. Dyeing finishing
  5. Washing section
  6. Allover print section
  7. Screenprint
  8. Embroidery section
  9. Knit Garments Cutting section
  10. Knit Garments sewing section
  11. Knit Garments Finishing section
  12. Factory utility section

List of Machine for Yarn Dyeing

  1. Yarn Dyeing
  2. Hydro
  3. Dryer
  4. Random Winding
  5. Soft Winding
  6. Sewing Thread
  7. Lab Dyeing
  8. Lab Dryer
  9. Lab Washing

List of Machine for Knitting Section

  1. Single Jersey
  2. Rib / Interlock
  3. Three Thread Fleece & Heavy Jersey
  4. Auto Stripes
  5. Flat Knit
  6. Fabrics Inspection

List of Machine in Knit Fabrics Dyeing

Only dyeing machine is used in this section

  1. Dyeing

List of Machine in Knit Fabric Dyeing Finishing

Not only in garments, finishing is mandatory after fabrics dyeing as well

  1. Stenter
  2. Compactor
  3. Dryer
  4. Active Stabilizing Dryer
  5. Slitter
  6. Squeezer
  7. Fabric Turning
  8. Seuding
  9. Raising
  10. Fabric Heat Setting
  11. Enzyme Cleaning
  12. Fabric Inspection

List of Machine for Knit Washing Section

  1. Washing M/c
  2. Sample Washing
  3. Deep Dyeing
  4. Ozone
  5. Jeanologia
  6. Tonello
  7. Tumbler Dryer
  8. Oven Dryer
  9. Hydro M/c

List of Machine in Allover Print Section

  1. Rotary Print Machine
  2. Flat Bed Print
  3. Loop Steamer
  4. Wash Machine
  5. Stenter Machine
  6. Compactor Machine
  7. Screen washing Dry Machine
  8. Flat Screen Dryer Machine
  9. Flat Screen Coating Machine
  10. Screen Engraver
  11. Screen Banding
  12. Luscher Blu Diod Exposing
  13. Fimafe Screen Preparation Units
  14. Rotary Sample Paint Machine
  15. Color Kitchen Units

List of Machine in Screen Print

  1. Light Expose
  2. Grunig
  3. Mixer Unit
  4. Flash Cure
  5. V-2002 EX
  6. Easy
  7. Manual
  8. Curing Oven
  9. Hit Press
  10. Traveling Carriage
  11. Stone

List of Machine in Embroidery Section

  1. Sun Star
  2. Wuhan Golden
  3. Wuhan Golden
  4. Yueming
  5. Hashima
  6. Dichi
  7. Laser Cutter

List of Machine of Knit Garments Section

As like woven Garments, there cutting, sewing and finishing section in knit garments. Please see below section wise machine list.

List of Machine in Knit Cutting Section

  1. Cloth Cutter
  2. Plotter
  3. Auto Cutter
  4. Auto Spreader
  5. Spreader
  6. Plotter
  7. Pattern Cutter

List of Machine in Knit Sewing Section

  1. Single Needle Lock Stitch machine
  2. Two Needle Vertical
  3. Two Needle Lock Stitch machine
  4. Three thread Over Lock Machine
  5. Four thread Over Lock Machine
  6. Six thread Over Lock Machine
  7. Flat Lock Cylinder Bed
  8. Flat Lock Small Head
  9. Flat Lock Fabric Trimmer
  10. Flat Lock Tape Binding
  11. Flat Lock Narrow Head
  12. Flat Lock Top Feeder
  13. Flat Bed Machine
  14. Latch Attaching
  15. Back Tape Attaching
  16. Single Needle –Two Thread Overlock machine
  17. Single Needle Chain stitch machine
  18. Button Attaching
  19. Cycle Sewing
  20. Picoting & Fagoting
  21. Buttonhole machine
  22. Single Needle Zigzag
  23. Bartack
  24. Snap Button
  25. Rib Cutter
  26. 4 Needle Flat Seamer
  27. VT Fit of the Arm (Flat-Lock)
  28. 2 Needle Fit of the Arm
  29. 3 Needle Fit of the Arms
  30. Shirring & Smoking Machine
  31. 11 Needle Plan Machine
  32. 18 Needle Pre-Close Elastic Machine
  33. Elastic Attaching Machine

List of Machine in Knit Garments Finishing Section

  1. Iron
  2. Vacuum board
  3. Thread sucking matching
  4. Needle defect machine
  5. Strapping machine

List of Machine in Garments Utility Section

  1. Generator
  2. Boiler
  3. Air Compressor
  4. Air Dryer
  5. Water Pump

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)
Email: [email protected]


Mold Prevention in Apparel Industry

Mold is a type of fungus. Mold can grow on almost all organic material as long as moisture and oxygen are present. Mold eventually cause structural damage to the building, building materials and manufacturing product of a garments industry. To control mold you need to have a good idea of how mold prevention in apparel industry can be applied.

Mold Prevention in Apparel Industry

Due to molding in garments, apparel manufacturer gets a big amount of financial claim from customer. So it’s very necessary to adopt a control measure to prevent mold from garments.

Molds can be Grown on the following Materials

  • Wood
  • Paper
  • Carpet
  • Food
  • Insulation
  • Cotton
  • Fabric
  • Leather
  • Any organic surface

Mold Prevention in Apparel Industry

Causes of Mold in Apparel Industry

  1. Humid house
  2. Improper storage method / conditions
  3. Unsealed packaging
  4. Incorrect procedure to operate the vacuum system of pressing table.
  5. Poor storage of anti‐molding materials before packing.
  6. Poor ventilation of finished garments.
  7. Poor storage of finished garments.
  8. Wrong vacuum system setting of pressing table.
  9. Wrong timing to pack pressed garments
  10. Poor loading environment
  11. Minor and major roof leaks
  12. Dark space in factory indoor also create a mold
  13. Leaking in roofs
  14. Leaking or condensing water pipes, especially pipes inside wall cavities or pipe chases.
  15. Leaking fire protection sprinkler systems.
  16. Landscaping gutters and downspouts that direct water into or under a building.
  17. High humidity (60% or more relative humidity) and condensation.

 Mold Preventive Action for Garments

  1. Set mold prevention policy or SOP for workplace
  2. Staff training, awareness creation
  3. Develop humidity control system for every section
  4. Keep good general housekeeping
  5. Daily checks humidity level and keep records accordingly
  6. Good Storage condition of incoming materials & finish products
  7. Good shipping condition of finish products and checking the delivery container
  8. Ensure section cleanness
  9. Use ultraviolet light; mold cannot grow under ultraviolet light
  10. Maintain relative humidity (RH) less than 55% or 60%
  11. Maintain temperature 70-72° F
  12. Ventilation or dehumidifiers system should be there.
  13. Improve general housekeeping system.

Mold Preventive Areas in Garments Factory

  1. Raw material and finished goods warehouse
  2. Garments manufacturing workplace
  3. Finishing and packing section

Mold Prevention in Garments Warehouse/Store

  1. Keep your warehouse organized
  2. No sign of mildew on the wall, floor in the warehouse and conduct mold check weekly basis.
  3. All packed cartons (for trim & finished garment) must be loaded on the wooden/plastic pallets and at least about one meter away from walls & windows. (Nonwooden pallets is better).
  4. Maintain relative humidity of about 55% and humidity is to be measured daily basics and maintain proper records.
  5. Protect all trims, fabric, and garment by storing them in polybags or cartons.
  6. Empty cartons must be placed on pallets and well covered by poly sheets or clothes before use.
  7. When there is any doubt, then you need to measure the moisture content on carton by “moisture meter machine”. The reading should be less than 8%.
  8. Apply First in First out (FIFO) method for all raw materials.

Mold Prevention in Factory Workplace

  1. Apply vacuum function correctly on pressing table. Leave the garments on vacuum table for 5 seconds more after steaming (in order to remove moisture from the garments)
  2. The pressing table must connect with steam ducts to remove the vapor out from the building.
  3. Increase air ventilation by using big fans in the finishing areas.
  4. Garments cannot be piled up too high right after pressing. Quantity can be 20 pcs for denim products and 30 pcs for non‐denim products.
  5. Garments cannot be packed until they are exposed to open environment at least 12 hours.
  6. Anti‐molding materials (e.g. silica gels) must be stored in the original packing material until they are required to put into the polybags/cartons.
  7. Measure the garment moisture content by “moisture meter machine” for each Shipments (especially during the high humid season). The max reading is 8%. If garments are failed, dry them in the de‐humidifying room for about 1 day before re‐
  8. Measure the relative humidity in the finishing and packing area at least twice per day. Max reading is 55%. Walls show no sign of mildew. Conduct mold checks in every week and keep a record.
  9. Avoid placing the garments directly on the floor, placing them at least one meter away from the wall/windows.
  10. Good pressing table maintenance. No water leakage foam steam pipe. Keep the cloth and foam clean and dry by changing it at least once per week. 

Mold Prevention in Garments Shipping Container

  1. Check container before loading to ensure that there is no hole/leakage on the container wall.
  2. Container floor must be dry and clean.
  3. Loading the goods under a sheltered roof.
  4. The container must be fully loaded.

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)
Email: [email protected]


Technical Audit in Apparel Industry

Technical Audit (TA) is a very crucial task of garments manufacturing. Every buyer (Customer) do a technical audit before placing an order to any garments factory. In this article, I am going to talk about what is a technical audit in apparel industry and how we can use and for what purpose technical audit fulfill. Many garments buyer have their own technical audit checklist, Audit must be done routine wise time to time. Through Technical Audit, auditors actually assurance of ability to make export quality garments of garments maker. Technical audit checklist can vary buyer to buyer.

Technical Audit in Apparel Industry

Technical Audit in Apparel Industry

Objectives of Garments Buyer Technical Audit

  1. Ensure the QMS is effectively
  2. Audit quality control system
  3. Ensure compliance with customer quality standard
  4. Ensure customer manufacturing and process control requirement
  5. Apply best practice in garments manufacturing.
  6. Ensuring effectiveness, efficiency, improvement and customer satisfaction.
  7. To get excellence & sustainable results in the long run of customer product quality and as a supplier.

Types of Technical Audit (TA)

Internal Audit/ 1st Party Audit

Performed by factory internal Auditor assigned by factory management. Internal auditor report for factory management, management evaluates the report and take corrective action. Here supplier has a scope of improvement as per customer quality and technical requirement by their own (internal) audit system.

Customer Audit/ 2nd Party Audit

Performed by customer/ buyer own self, report to their supplier and ask for corrective action, available scoring or rating system to classify supplier. Customer audit is very important for the supplier.

External Audit/ 3rd Party Audit

Third party audit is external independent audit performed by a party hired or approved by the customer to verify their process standard and requirement. 3rd party is a contracted organization work on behalf of the customer, make a report or certify supplier for a certain period.

Technical Audit Categories/Sections for Apparel

  1. Factory Warehouse (Incoming Goods Storage)
  2. Trims & accessories area
  3. Fabric Inspection
  4. CAD
  5. Cutting
  6. Pre-Production
  7. Fusing
  8. Sewing
  9. Finishing
  10. Final Inspection
  11. Quality Control
  12. Packing/ Finished Goods

Technical Audit Criteria for Garments

Factory Warehouse

  1. Product identification, FIFO-LIFO, storage items tracking system and inventory
  2. Mold prevention system, relative humidity %, and controlling system
  3. Trims, accessories and fabrics storage using pallet or rack
  4. 5S implementation effort

Trims and Accessories Inspection

  1. Approved trim card for every running style
  2. Inspection procedure and lighting
  3. Rejected items isolation and keeping an isolated area
  4. Third party or supplier internal test report of all Trims and Accessories.
  5. Complain against the failed product to the supplier and replace, show documents.

Fabrics Inspection and Procedures

  1. Fabrics inspection system, procedure, and Report (Follow 4 point or 10-point system)
  2. Shrinkage test accuracy
  3. Lightbox for shade evaluation
  4. Color evaluation, shade grading as per customer requirement


  1. Pattern Library and E-pattern library
  2. Marker calibration, verification (pattern or dies, bundles, direction) and Report
  3. Making separate pattern as per shrinkage variation


  1. Grainline/notch indication, cut mold, stripe & check matching indication
  2. Pattern measurement for verification
  3. Process sequence of fabric cutting
  4. Fabric relaxation procedure and report documentation
  5. Spreading quality control- Table marking –Ends-Leaning-Tension-Narrow Goods-Remnants-Counts-Ply High-Marker placing-Fabric Flaws
  6. Cutting quality control- Miss cut –Rugged Cutting –Notches-Matching Plies and pattern check
  7. Bundling and numbering separation, its accuracy and proper report to sewing
  8. Cut panel inspection
  9. Preventive Maintenance system and report
  10. 5S implementation effort
  11. Using all types of personal protective equipment. Cutting safety materials: Hand gloves, musk,

Sampling and Pre-production

  1. Pre- Production meeting for very style and keeping document
  2. Sampling and pattern correction before bulk start


  1. Proper sewing allowance vs. machines and making before wash measurement spec
  2. Needle Control Policy; Sharps tools and Staples control
  3. Preventive Maintenance system and report
  4. Roaming QC Audit system
  5. Overclock machine fabric trimming check, keep guide for maintain proper seam allowance
  6. Approved trim card and approved sample for each running style
  7. In-process quality checkpoint, defects type record, and alteration
  8. Mockup (with written instruction) or JQS (job quality standard) for every sewing operation
  9. Checking garments for construction, seam quality, and overall garments appearance.
  10. Garments measurement and construction checking comparing with approved sample and customer provided spec
  11. Seam puckering, SPI, stitch tension, needle mark and all others stitching quality
  12. Approved lighting condition in all QC checkpoint, customer required lux and checking report
  13. 5S implementation effort


  1. Interlining bonding strength, temperature, time and pressure


  1. Pull test of snap and shank button and pull tester machine calibration
  2. Quality inspection system and report
  3. Metal and needle detection in place and effectiveness
  4. Garments measurement procedure as per customer requirement
  5. Preventive Maintenance system and report
  6. Excessive WIP, dumping garments in finishing workplace
  7. Approved lighting condition in all QC checkpoint, customer required lux and checking report
  8. Pressing system. (Temperature, steam, Iron shoe and head)
  9. Show approved sample or customer provided data for attaching finishing sticker and folding.
  10. Garments AQL Audit
  11. 5S implementation effort

Carton Warehouse

  1. Carton keeping system
  2. Mold prevention system, relative humidity %, and controlling system
  3. Packing, inventory and delivery/shipment system
  4. Moisture percentage checking in garments
  5. Carton weight report, scan and pack system

Final Quality Audit Room

  1. Location of Audit room, separated from production area or not
  2. Available necessary for final Audit; approved sample, trim card, inspection table.
  3. The customer required a light source

Documentation to Show During Technical Audit

  1. Complete own Quality control manual of a factory
  2. Quality inspectors training and evaluation exam
  3. Quality management system and their activities
  4. All section SOP separately as following
  1. Analysis with section quality result and setting target
  2. Factory performance report from customer end
  3. Factory layout, evacuation, management, and quality organogram
  4. All machine calibration report attaching with the machine by the supplier, 3rd party or own calibration system
  5. Quality analysis and control report
  6. ISO, ASQ or any other international certificate
  7. Quality tools calibration report. E.g.: Measurement tape

 Audit CAP and Follow up Improvement in Garments

End of an audit, auditing party make a report with their comments where requirement does not meet as per standard or customer requirement. Audit result by the scoring system by marks (Performance rate) or classify Good, alert and risk. Supplier takes corrective action as per 3rd party auditor or customer recommendation for their customer requirement.

CAP Report Includes

  1. Audit observation/findings
  2. Auditor recommendation/Comments
  3. The corrective action plan of supplier
  4. Estimated completion date
  5. Progress status
  6. Follow up improvement 

Follow up Improvement of Audit

As per audit checklist report by an auditor, a supplier has to fill up customer requirement by a certain time. Customer follows up improvement of CAP in every week or month. If the number of CAP decrease after every month, supplier improving towards customer requirement. Anytime or after certain period buyer audit again.

This article also refers to few headlines as following

  1. Garments manufacturing best practice
  2. Benchmark apparel manufacturing industry
  3. Garments quality management system (QMS)
  4. Export garments quality control system
  5. Garments factory standardization
  6. Technical Audit checklist in the apparel industry
  7. Technical checking points in garments buyer audit

Download PDF: Technical Audit in Apparel Industry

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)
Email: [email protected]


Quality Control Manual of Garments

Quality Control Manual of Garments

Every factory has their own policy to control quality to get a better product. Everything is to be written in a document; how to control quality and how to get the best quality product. For quality control, this document is known as a quality manual, which is followed by each and every company in the apparel industry. A complete quality control manual of garments factory actually increases the effectiveness of quality control by providing guidelines to the related parties. Here in this article, you will find a complete quality control manual of a typical Garments Industry. After reading this, you will have detail idea of a complete quality manual of a garments factory.

Quality Control Manual of Garments

Quality Control Manual of Garments Factory and Its Working Procedure

Quality Control Chart of Garments IndustryA) Sampling

1. Styling Sample

At first, we need to make styling sample for getting styling approval as per buyer’s specification, fitting & workmanship. Everything we need to follow as original sample & comments. For styling sample, we give fabric & accessories similar to original color or approved lap dip. We, make a paper pattern of sample size as buyer requirement. As per styling sample comments, we make the size set pattern.

2. Size Set Sample

Size set sample covering all size & covering all size & color. All actual fabric & accessories are used for styling sample. Must adjust the pattern as require fittings, grading, workmanship according to approval specification & comments.

3. Pre-Production Sample (P.P Sample)

For the final configuration of styling fitting & workmanship, before state production we make another size set sample covering all size & color for approval. After receiving p.p sample comments, manufacturer meet all of buyer requirements, then start bulk production.

4. Counter Sample

In every step of sampling, we kept a counter sample with marking the sample name. Pre-production sample counter should follow with p.p comments for bulk production. We make the copy of p.p sample with comments to give every line in production.

5. Shipment Sample

Shipment sample has to prepare for buyer 15 days before shipment covering all size & color with all actual accessories. These requirements very buyer to buyer. we always fulfill our buyer’s requirements.

6. Trial Cutting

We cut 60 pcs of garments as a 1st trail to see the measurement. If any correction is required then we do it accordingly. For the safety, we again cut 300 pcs of garments as 2nd trail cutting. After full confirmation, we start bulk cutting.

7. Pilot Run/Size Run

A pilot run is a small cut across all sizes & colors that will identify & potential problem in manufacturing prior to the factory cutting bulk. The inspection of the pilot run should be carried out by the factory Quality Control (QC).

Pilot Lots are Required When

  • A new fabric is being introduced and the factory has not handled it before.
  • Machine setting must be reevaluated and set accordingly.
  • New construction methods are being introduced for critical fit tests.
  • New machinery or new settings are being introduced.
  • To ensure that shrinkage allowances built into patterns are corrected for steam shrinkage, washing shrinkage, fusing, printing or any other after treatment to standard.

8. Pre-production Meeting (PPM

The Pre-production meeting should be held to review all aspects of production. It should be held after PP sample has been approved & sealed. Line managers should attend this meeting which should be facilitated by production head and attended by PP sample maker.

The meeting agenda should include style file checklist, production T & A plan, PP sample and comments review and other aspects of the manufacturing run which could impact garments of the manufacturing run which could impact garment Quality and delivery. The factories in-house documentation/from is also acceptable.

Criteria for Pre-Production Meetings (PPMs)

(requested when factory received advice of pp sample approval)

  • A new fabric is being introduced (including repeat orders)
  • Machine setting must be reevaluated and set accordingly
  • New construction methods are being introduced for critical fit tests
  • New machinery or new setting are being introduced
  • To ensure that shrinkage allowances built into patterns are correct for seam shrinkage, washing shrinkage, fusing, printing, or any other after treatment to standard.
  • Repeat order of same season without any change, no need to attend PPM repeat order with changes PPMs need to attend. Repeat order of previous season (no change) need to have pp reference review.

B) Warehouse/Store

1. Accessories Inspection

We inspect 1.5 AQL/10% of accessories as per packing list quantity, by store Q.I we use quality manual. Q.I checks the accessories quality & safety issue. And write down the information about quality, safety issue & short excess quantity. For that, we can take an effective action from the very beginning.

 Fabrics Procedure

  1. Fabric inspection

We import 10% of fabric as per receiving quantity. we make the fabric lot in various stages, these are like:

  • Without Inspection. (Those are not yet starting inspection)
  • Inspection running. (Inspection running but yet not finish)
  • Quality pass. (That means permitted for cutting)
  • Rejected lot. (Not permitted for cutting)
  • Held up. (Waiting for a decision from buyer side or supplier)

We inspect fabric by a 4-point system, where 40 point is our acceptable range. Q.C inspects fabric and gives the report. As per inspection report, we take a final decision. Point rating for inspection is given below:

  • 0 to 3″ defects = 1 point
  • Over3″ to 6″ defects = 2 point
  • Over3″ to 9″ defects = 3 point
  • Over 9″ defects = 4 point
  • Any hole = 4 point

2. Blanket Making

For every style, it is washed or non-washed, we make a blanket to see the fabric shade & variation of color. We mark rejected roll on that one, which is out of color standard. We divide the toll as per shade wise to ensuring shade wise cutting.

Shade Blanket


  • To find or all shade from bulk fabric for shade band making. Shade band to be made base on the outcome of shade blanket.
  • To evaluate bulk fabric shade before bulk production to ensure all shade lots within an acceptable range
Making Method
  • Shade blanket to be made once bulk fabric available in factory
  • Each roll of bulk fabric to be cut an 8″(weft) x 6″ (warp) swatch for shade blanket making
  • Roll number to be marked on the back side by textile maker pen
  • Join all fabric swatches together by overlock stitch then join the left-right side to make a blanket in leg panel form
  1. Shade Band

  • To set up an acceptable shade range for factory bulk production guideline.
  • To find out off shade & solve a problem at the earlier stage before bulk production.

Shade Band Making Method

  • Shade band must be submitted before bulk production is started.
  • Each shade let made two set of leg panels for buyer approval.
  • Leg panel dimension is to be (8″half x 16″)
  • Whenever the handstand/Ppspray effects are presented in the standard, they should be demonstrated on one side of the leg panels.
  • A pocket to be sewn on one side of the leg panel
  • Leg panel to be washed same as the bulk washing
  • Achieve shade as close as the washing standard
  • Half/Cut leg panels are not acceptable for approval
  1. Shrinkage & Distortion Testing

The Objective of Shrinkage Testing

  • To determinate bulk fabric shrinkage for paper pattern adjustment to ensure washed garment measurement meet with the size space.
  • To determinate whether the fabric shrinkage fulfills buyer requirement at the earlier stage before bulk production.

The Objective of Distortion Testing

  • To determinate whether the fabric skew movement is fulfilling buyer requirement at the earlier stage before bulk production
  • Defect twisted issue before bulk production

Shrinkage Testing Method

  • Shrinkage & Distortion testing to be done once the bulk fabric is in-house
  • Shrinkage & Distortion testing could proceed with the same template at the same time with the same yardage.
  • For normal fabric, minimum 10% of bulk fabric is being tested.
  • For low stretchability fabric, minimum 30% of bulk fabric to be tested.
  • For high stretchability fabric 100% of bulk, fabric to be tested
  • Please refer to the purchase order to determine bulk fabric is high stretchability fabric or not.
  • Specimen for testing to be selected for each dyeing lot.
  • 100% test when shrinkage in bulk fabric is unstable. Such as part of fabrics shrinkage exceed the tolerance, shrinkage range is too wide in the same lot of bulk fabric.
  • Specimen for testing must be fully relaxed before marking.
  • Mark two 50 cm x 50 cm squares (Minimum) on specimen’s left, right.
  • Specimens must be washed as bulk production; no ironing /pressing/steaming on the washed specimen for shrinkage test result.
  • Measure the length difference between the before wash and after a wash in weft & warp
  • Convert in percentage
  • Take the average of the 2 parts
  • For distortion test result
  • Measure the length of diagonal (AC & BD) after wash
  • Calculate the percentage by using below formula X =100x[2(AC-BD)/(AC+BD)]
  • Show 2 parts results, do not take the average
  • None of them can exceed buyer requirement :3%

For Example:

When AC is 70 cm & BD IS 72 cm

X =100x [2(70-72)/ (70+72)]

X =100x [2(-2)/ (142)]


X=-2.8169(Acceptable, with intolerance)

When AC is 73 CM & BD is 69 cm

X=100x [2(73-69)/ (73+69)]

X=100x [2(4)/ (142)]


x=5.6338(Unacceptable, with intolerance)

C) Cutting Inspector’s Instructions

Spreading:  The Quality Control inspector should check the work of each spreader for the following

Placement of Marker: Check and verify so that the marker is sited on the range with the brink matching to the selvage of the piece goods. Also, you need to Confirm that all cut pieces will be finished properly.

Shading: A control system should have for checking of shading if all parts are ply marked.

Table Marks: Table is be marked so check the table marks and please do not allow any splices.

Markers: Make sure that there are no makers with creased or overlapped parts in the markers.

Splices: After spreading is finished then check the splice laps that both plies extend past the marked splice by less than 1/2 (half) inch and not more than 1 (one) inch.

Narrow Goods: After completion of the spread, check the “far edge” of the spread to see that all plies extend beyond the marker line.

Tension: Check tension during spreading. This is very important on knit fabrics

Count: Check the count after completion of spreading, and before cutting. Count all plies at both ends. There is no tolerance.

Leaning: Check carefully to ensure that one edge of the fabric is square to the tabletop. Visually inspect the alignment of the edge with the table top.

Record spreading defects by the number of defects found for each checkpoint. For fabric utilization purposes, the sample form includes columns for edging end and remnants.

Calculate the defect rate for the spreader by dividing the number of defects found by the height.

Cutting: The quality control inspector should check each cutter at a 2.5 acceptable Quality Level (A.Q.L) based on the number of parts being cut.

The Quality control inspector should check for

Miscut: Check for miscut or the failure of the cutter to “split the line “Tolerance is 1/16” Report all defects for miscut to the cutting foreman (Supervisor)

Matching: Plies check the top ply with the bottom ply. Compare both to a hard pattern or the paper marker Comparison to a hard pattern is best. Tolerance is +- 1/8”. Report each defect found to the cutting foreman(supervisor).

Rugged Cutting: Check for rugged cutting according to the standards for your product. This a judgment defect. It is more important on critical parts if the part has to be recut, it is a defect.

Notches: Check the notch location by placing the pattern over the top ply. Tolerance is +- 1/8″ If the botch is more than 1/8″ off. Contact the cutting foreman (supervisor).

Pattern Check: Compare the pattern to maker paper to ensure that the maker was correct.

Record cutting defects on a cutting quality control form along with the number of bundles examined. To calculate the defect rate for cutting, divide the total defects found by the number of bundles checked.

Often changes are made to patterns to adjust for production problems. Some suppliers note such changes on the pattern and/or maker for the cutter to correct. Do not allow such a policy. Preventive measures are the best control for quality. Make a new pattern with the correction.

D) Sewing

100% in Line Q.I Audit

We follow root canal system in sewing. For that, we analyze the source & reason of defects and take preventive action as per the root cause. Q.I checks 100% incomplete garments of quality control manual. Q.I writes the operator name & I.D in the format and make that, how many defects she has done in one hour and then one day. And this daily total result is added for monthly summarization for the quality evaluation process. The hourly defects record is very important for root cause analysis. If anyone of Q.C sees the hourly record, he can easily imagine that what is going on & what have to do?

100% End Line Audit

End line Q.I checks 100% garments. Q.I writes down the name & ID no of operators & keeps an hourly record of defects. So that we can easily identify the most defective operation and take preventive immediate action. We compare both reports of inline & end line to see the efficiency of Q.C, either he is doing proper work or doing homework.

In-house Q.C Check

An in-house audit is another station audit done by line Q.C we do that for the more safety.  When comes first output, Q.C check the styling & the statistical audit to find out any mistake which has done in sewing. In finishing a section, finishing Q.C will again do the statistical audit for find out any error, which has done in finishing section. For that, we can solve any problem from the very beginning.

E) Finishing Procedure

After Receiving From Wash

After receiving from wash we start finishing the procedure, at the same time we press covering all size & color to see the measurement, wash standard, hand fill & any wash defect by wash factory. Also, carton & poly, measurement ensure by the first production.


Trimming is a most important thing of quality issue. For that, we establish a trimming section to strictly control the uncut thread. We don’t allow tread end over 3 mm. We should take care of trimming throughout the stitching process. Final trimming is done in the finishing area before packing.

Inside Checking

A large quantity of Q.I recon check 100% garments, process-wise in the side of garments. They ensure that no defect & uncut thread inside of the garments. For every Q.I give their personal Q.C pass number inside of the pocket.

Thread Shaking

For removing the loose thread & number sticker garments we use thread shaking machine.100% garments go finishing area through the thread shaking action.

Preliminary Top Side Checking

In finishing section Q.I person check 100% garments, process-wise top side of garments. They ensure that no defect & uncut top side of the garments. For that every Q.I give their personal Q.C pass no inside of the pocket.


We have a gas steam boiler for clean ironing. We use the iron shoe to avoid the shining mark. For the perfection, we press a garment two time. One is called preliminary pressing & another is called repressing. This has after final & getup checking.

Final Checking

After preliminary pressing Q.I person check topside of whole garments. They ensure that no defect, spot & uncut thread top side of the garments. For that every Q.I give their personal Q.C pass no inside of the pocket.

 Measurement Check

100% garments should a measurement check before packing. Measurement defects garments should not advance for packing. Defect means out of tolerance, if it can rectify, it will be pack otherwise it will be count as a reject.

Getup Checking

Q.I check there is something odd looking at a glance in whole garments, like out of shape, spot, poor pressing and mainly checks any missing of a hand tag price tag, and size tag. And match the barcode number, bar, wording everything with the approval trim card.


Re-pressing is needed to recovering the damage by Q.C handling. We do this for an attractive outlook.

Metal Detection

There is no perfection to enter any okay garments without metal detector machine checking. We sent all okay garments to packing section through metal detector machine. Packing section is isolated by gatekeeper system. Our detection standard is 1.0 mm diameter sphere of ferrous metal. We keep 100% record of metal detection.

Ratio & Shade Checking

Before seal, the carton Q.C check the ratio & garments shade that, the ratio & garments shade is as per buyer requirement & same shade in one carton. If both thinks are okay Q.C give a sign inside of carton, then the carton should seal in front of Q.C.

Pre-Final Inspection

There is an in-house pre-final audit for self-confirmation, done by the chief quality controller.  He audits by 2.5 A. Q.L as receiving the Q.C pass report we offer for final inspection. Our A.Q.L chart is shown as bellow.

Hopefully, after reading this you already understand that how you can maintain a better-quality control. If you follow this type of manual and make your own manual for each section of your garments factory then it will be easy for you to ensure a quality production.

If you need more guidelines regarding this then please do not hesitate to ask, our comment section is always open for your opinion.

You can download this Complete Quality Manual of Garments Factory

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)
Email: [email protected]