In garments manufacturing fabric, cutting means to cut out the garment’s pieces from lays of the fabric with the help of cutting template or marker. Cutting is one the major step to make a complete garment. For cutting of fabric generally, the marker is applied to the top ply of a lay.
Process Sequence of Fabric Cutting Section
In garments manufacturing industry the term cutting is used in a different meaning. Here the term cutting is used in the sense of cutting room which indicates an area which normally includes the activities of marker planning, spreading, and preparation for sewing.
Stages of fabric cutting
Generally, fabric cutting is carried out with two stages. They are as follows:
A cutting (Separating the individual pieces.)
A final cutting ( accurate cutting of the individual shapes)
Objectives of Cutting
To separate fabric parts from the spread of lay according to the dimension of the marker.
To make the garments according to the required design and shape.
To prepare garments pieces to go forward with the next process of garments manufacturing.
Cutting Section in a Garment Factory
The requirement of Fabric Cutting
To achieve the required objectives by cutting fabric in the garments manufacturing process, the following requirements must be fulfilled.
The precision of the cut
Unscorched, infused edges
Support of the lay
Different types of fabric cutting
There are mainly three types of cutting techniques. They are as follows:
Completely by manual
By hand operated Scissor.
Manually operated powered knife
Cutting by water jet
Plasma torch cutting
Flow Chart of fabric cutting
Flow Chart of Fabric Cutting
Working procedure in fabric cutting section
By following production planning at first sample is collected from the sample section with pattern and garments approved.
Lay order sheet/ratio sheet fill up by cutting section
Item, fabric width, color, etc.
After putting all information in order sheet then send to CAD section for marker making. Or if it is to do manually than make marker manually.
Checking marker after getting a marker.
Sending fabric requisition from cutting section to store for cutting according to plan.
Receiving fabric in cutting table as per marker and cutting plan.
Matching fabric to trim card by merchandiser approved fabric.
Then starting layering manually or with the machine.
Completing layering then spread marker upon on the fabric.
Marker checking by quality people & keep all document of style, size wise report to send to the store & sewing section.
Before cutting attaching clamp and gum tape on the layer.
If there is any drill mark in marker then need to drill.
Starting cutting by cutter man.
Then dividing group and ratio wise.
Make bundle chart as per lay order sheet and sending for bundle card printing.
Numbering as per bundle chart-wise.
If there is any fault need to replace cut bundle roll and shade wise then bundle and send to sewing section.
If there is any fusing or embroidery then send for this process.
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Carded yarn is formed by carding operation without combing. This yarn made from short staple spinning. Generally less 60s count yarn manufactured without bombing machine. But in particular time 60s or 80s count yarn manufactured without combing. There lots of short fibre in carded yarn, which produced less strength, yarns than combing.
Features of Carded Yarn
Low quality yarn
Herded hand fillings
Short fibre percentage is high
Little hairy yarn
Low count yarn(10-45)
Less water absorbency
Produced lower quality fabric
Low production coast
Dyeing & Knitting wastage very high
Carded yarn manufacturing process
The manufacturing sequence of carded yarn is followed by blow room, carding, draw frame, simplex of speed frame, ring frame and finally winding.
Carded Yarn Manufacturing Process
Process flow chart of Modern Carded Yarn Manufacturing
Modern carded manufacturing process is followed by mixing, blow room, carding, breaker draw frame, finisher draw frame, simplex or roving frame, ring spinning, winding (Auto cone), heat setting and finally packing.
Flow Chart of Modern Carded Yarn Manufacturing
Mixing depends on cotton grading, micro near value and other properties of raw cotton, how much will be use.
This process removes up to 70 trash or foreign matters of cotton. The delivery product of blow room is chute/lap.
Knitting is the process where yarn is manipulated to make cloth. Knitting can be done by hand or with the help of a machine. In other words, knitting is a technique of producing two-dimensional fabrics into one-dimensional yarn.
Knitted fabric consists of a number of consecutive rows of loops, called stitches. As each row progresses, a new loop is pulled through an existing loop. The active stitches are held on a needle until another loop can be passed through them. This process eventually results in a fabric, often used for blankets or garments.
Flow Chart of knitting
Normal process/ flow chart of knitting/sequence of knitting started with yarn in cone package form, place the yarn package in the creel, feeding the yarn in the feeder, set the m/c as per design & GSM, knitting, withdraw the roll fabric and weighing, roll making, inspection, numbering and finally dispatch.
Flow Chart of Knitting
*One set of yarn (warp or weft) can produce knit fabrics.
*No need to sizing warps yarn. Knitting is quite different from weaving.
Desized textile materials till containing oil, fats, and waxes which are removed by alkali or detergent are called scouring.
Objectives of Scouring
To remove natural and added oils, fat and wax are from the textile materials.
Prepare for the next process.
To get uniform bleaching result.
Flow Chart of Scouring
Flow Chart of Scouring
There are two types of scouring process-
In this process, the fabric is boiled in an open trough with NaOH common soda and t.r oil for after a few hours. But be careful so that fabric does not come in contact with air otherwise fabric strength can be reduced. After that wash with cold water sour with dilute HCl to remove alkali from the fabric.
Now a day’s various types of machines are available for scouring with alkali. This alkali treatment can be divided into three categories.
Lime acid soda process.
Caustic soda process.
Soap soda process.
Engineer Sheikh Nurja
B.Sc engineer of textile
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The combed yarn is a yarn which is produced by the combing process. This yarn is finer than carded yarn. Generally combing produced 60 counts or more than 60 count yarn. But sometimes 32 counts or 40 counts yarn also produced by combing process. It is high-quality yarn and it is more expensive compared with carded yarn because its combining process is time intensive.
Functional steps of Combed yarn manufacturing process
Functional steps related with this manufacturing process are blown room, carding, pre-comb drawing frame, lap frame, combing, post-comb drawing frame, simplex, and finally ring frame.
Combed Yarn Manufacturing Process
Features of combed yarn
There are several features of combed yarn can be identified these are given below shortly:
Flow chart of apparel Manufacturing Process /Garments Manufacturing Process
Garments manufacturing process is related with several process that starts with the receiving of order and make shipment to the ultimate buyer. The process flow chart is based on the type of product and it can be different from one another.
Flow chart of apparel/garments manufacturing process consists of design/sketch, pattern design, sample making, production pattern, grading, marker making, spreading, cutting, sorting/bonding, sewing/assembling, inspection, pressing/finishing, final inspection, packing and finally dispatch to the buyer.
Textile industry produces textile materials. Different sectors of this industry are spinning, weaving, knitting, dyeing, and garments. Basically the working flow chart of textile industry consists of getting a buyer order, understanding buyer requirements, brought raw material, set program, start production, processing step by step, finishing (if need), testing product, qualified product according to buyer requirement and finally make delivery to buyer according to the buyer requirements. I made a common flow chart to show how they work which is given bellow:
Working Flow Chart of Textile Industry
Buyer requirement refers which process will be done, how to do that, Quality of the product. Everything they provide with the order. They control manufacturing process.
Raw materials are relative word. Spinning raw material is textile fibre, for weaving yarn, for wet processing Grey fabric. So feed material is raw material any kinds of textile production.
Industry has to provide to buyer the latest update of their production order in proper time.
Weaving is a process of producing fabric in which two separate sets of yarns are interlaced at right angles to form a fabric or cloth. In a weaving factory basically woven fabric are made. Basically the process of making woven fabric is known as weaving.
Flow chart of weaving
The process of weaving related with yarn form spinning, doubling & twisting, winding, creeling, warping, sizing, drawing-in/drafting-in, denting, looming, ltying-in, weaving and grey fabric. This process is shown in the following chart:
Flow Chart of Weaving
Winding is the process of transferring yarn or thread from one type of package to another to type of package.
Sizing is the method of adapting material size on yarn. It is mainly used to twist yarn to attach the fiber together.
Warping is the process of using lengthwise yarns that are seized to form a frame or loom.
The denting plan indicates how each of yarn is pinched through a dent in the reed.