5S Implementation in Apparel Educational Institution

5S Implementation in Apparel Educational Institution

This article is mainly focused on the implementation of 5S in educational institutions, a Japanese Technique in order to manage the waste and improve the cleanness of the Institution. 5S is an approach to make the workplace a better organization with an efficient and managed production. It is not only used to identify and eliminate the waste but also to work with improved methods where many teams get involved in the process. In this study, we concentrated the enactment in the Garment construction Laboratory. Firstly, the tools and equipment in the laboratory were identified and sorted according to their requirement. Later, they were arranged in a systematic order and standard operating procedure for each process was created considering safety and rules and regulations of the institution. Awareness was created among the members of the institution.

5S Implementation in apparel educational institution

  1. Introduction:

Today, every organizations has implemented the 5s management techniques for enhance productivity and competitiveness. 5s is mainly concerned with creating a well-organized and clean working environment in the whole working place. In educational sector the implementation of 5s will improve the work place, enhance better environment and elimination of accidents in workplace. This report will help to know and identify the wastes and also would provide the methods for removing and controlling the waste in the institution which will help in more systematic work procedures in the college. Students will easily adopt the industry management techniques and systems through the best practice of 5s in the educational institution. This project explains the importance of a well-organized work place in an educational institute and benefits of that is implemented. This project helps to creates clean workplace and systematic work process in the institution.

  1. 5S policy

5s is the technique to create systematic culture of organization. It is the basic foundation for the lean manufacturing. 5s is a management technique from japan. This technique focuses on establishing a quality environment in the organization, creating standard operating procedure, continuous improvement of the organization.

5s is the acronym of five Japanese words

  • Seiri – Sort
  • Seiton – Set in Order
  • Seiso – Shine
  • Seiketsu – Standardize
  • Shitsuke – Sustain

1S: Sort: Clearly distinguish needed items from unneeded and eliminate.

2S: Set in order: Keep needed items in the correct place to allow for easy and immediate retrieval.

3S: Shine: Keep the workplace neat and clean.

4S: Standardize: The method by which Sort, Set in order, Shine are made habitual.

5S: Sustain: Maintain established procedures.

Additional S: Safety – Strive to eliminate the accident in workplace.

process chart of 5sFig. no. 1- Process chart of 5S

Implementation of 5s in educational institute is making the professional with the best practice of 5s. It is not only for identifying the waste and removing, it is a process of creating quality environment and improving the safety of the organization also improving the productivity in the industries and educational institute. It will help to the student in future; they can easily adopt the 5s system in the industries after completing the studies.

3. Benefits of 5s implementation in educational institutes:

  1. Reduce the wastage level such as
  • Waiting for materials, machines, or instruction
  • Unwanted transportation or movement
  • Excessive inventory
  • Inefficient machine processing and/or operation
  • Producing defects
  • Inadequate housekeeping
  • Miscommunication or inadequate instruction
  • Time
  1. Effective utilization of resources
  2. Identification of materials makes easy accessible of workplace.
  3. Clean working environment
  4. Health and safety is ensured
  5. Machine maintenance easy
  6. Organized and disciplined way of work by sop (standard operating procedure)
  7. Uniform terminology created
  8. Quick retrieval
  9. Accidents & mistakes minimized
  10. Increases space
  11. Visual management system

4. Step by step implementation of 5S in educational institution:

1S-Sort:

Sort is the process of clearly distinguish needed items from unwanted and eliminate the unwanted items. By using the sorting form the necessary items are identified (table: 1). Then it eliminate the waste materials from the workplace. It helps to maintain the clean workplace and improve the efficiency of the searching things also the time will be reduced.

1S sortFig No: 2

After listing the Materials ask the following questions

5s implementation in apparel educational institutionFig No: 3

Step: 1 – List out the things present in the workplace.

Step: 2 – Is it needed or unwanted.

Step: 3 – If it is needed means, how much needed?

If it is needed means, when it is needed?

Step: 4 – If it is unwanted means, Move the material to red tag area

Table No 1 – 1S in Stationary

Serial No. Item Needed How much needed When needed
1 Pen Yes 1 Daily
2 Pencil Yes 1 Daily
3 Stamp pad Yes 1 Weekly
4 A4 Paper Yes Maximum 10 Daily
5 Petrol No
6 Eraser Yes 1 Daily
7 Snacks No
8 Scale Yes 1 Daily
9 Stapler Yes 1 Daily
10 Mobile charger No

2S: Set in order:

set in order

It is very important to make the visualization of workplace. Here the shortlisted needed items should be placed in appropriate place. Floor marking helps to identify the places of storage of each material and transport ways or pathway. Labeling helps to identify the material easily.

setps in set in orderFig No: 5

Step: 1- Shortlist the needed things and allocate the place for the things

Step: 2 – Needed things are divided into the following category

  • Daily usage, Weekly Usage, Monthly Usage

Step: 3 – Floor marking & Mark the location for placing the things, and give labeling to the same

Step: 4 – Prepare overall layout for the workplace to find the location.

                 Prepare the switch board layout for easy identification of switch.

Step: 4 – Always kept the things in that allocated place

3S: Shine

shineFig No: 6

Daily cleaning of workplace permits to identify and eliminates dirt and dust sources from the workplace. It maintains the workplace clean and neat.

3s stepsFig No: 7

Step: 1 – First of all find the dirt sources and identify causes for the same.

Step: 2 – Then make schedule for cleaning the workplace. According to the schedule make the cleaning checklist. Make Sign after the cleaning process.

Table no. 2- Cleaning Schedule

cleaning schedule

4S: Standardize

standardize

Implemented Sort, Set in order, Shine steps must be made habitual. Form the standard operating procedure for each and every process. Standardization helps to effective communication and easy to understand. SOP (Standard operating procedure) should not violate the standard rules of organization.

4s standardization stepsFig No: 9

Step: 1 – Standardize every process in the institute

Step: 2 – Giving responsibility to every one

5S: Sustain

sustainFig No: 10

Maintain the established procedures in the organization. Create awareness to new comers of the educational institute. They should obey the system of 5S.It helps to continuous improvement of the institute. Once a month must make a 5S inspection of workplace and everyone should know the importance of 5S concept. It helps to the sustainability of 5S in the educational institute.

5s sustain stepsFig No: 11

Step: 1 – Follow and maintain the established standards

Step: 2 – Monthly once make auditing in the workplace.

  1. During 5S Implementation:

5S Implementation10. Before 5S and after Implementation of 5S Photos

effect of 5s implementaion in apparel industry

Before and After Implementation of 5S

effect of 5S implementation in apparel educational institution

5S implementation techniques11.Conclusion

Implementation of 5S in college and educational institute, the workplace becomes organized and proper place for education. Implementation of 5S helps to make the work of each and every individual easier. Students discipline improved with the help of 5S practice. In future student can easily adopt the industry rules and regulation through the best practice of 5S. This helps to make every work in smart way. Most of the accident and mistake reduced. 5S implementation in the college will improve its effectiveness.

References:

  1. Michalska Cwiek,“The quality management system in education, implementation and certification” , Dec-2009, Volume 3 Issue 2, JAMME
  2. Nik Zainiah Nik Abd Rahman, “Step by step implementation of 5S” www.npc.org.my
  3. K. Ho, TQM N INTEGRATED Approaching- Implementing Total Quality through Japanese 5S and ISO 9000, Kogan page, London. 1996

AUTHOR BIOGRAPHY

 SIVAKUMAR.P

 P. Sivakumar

The author is currently an industrial engineer in JayJay Mills (India) Pvt Ltd. His area of interests includes standardization, Lean Manufacturing. Email: [email protected]

Productivity Improvement Techniques in Apparel Manufacturing Industry

Productivity Improvement Techniques in Apparel Manufacturing Industry

In this article, a study was conducted in the sewing section under a garment manufacturing company. We have mentioned many techniques where you can focus and start working on improving productivity. Most of the techniques mentioned in this article are mainly on

Productivity Improvement Techniques in Apparel Manufacturing Industry

Productivity Improvement Techniques

To get excellent result you may need external recommendation and support but without the external help you can surely get measurable improvement once you start implementing the above mentioned techniques.

Production

The processes used to transform material inputs (raw materials, semi finished goods, sub-assemblies) and immaterial inputs (plans, ideas, information, knowledge) into goods or services. Basically resources are used in this transformation process is to create a goods or services which has value and contributes to the utility of individuals or groups.

Productin process in apparel manufacturing industry

Productivity

Productivity is a measure of the efficiency and effectiveness to which organizational resources (inputs) are utilized for the creation of products and/or services (outputs). Productivity measurement is both a measure of input utilization and an assessment as to whether or not input utilization is growing faster than output.

Productivity Improvement Techniques

  1. Conducting Work Study

There is a saying “Even best can be improved”. Prepare a check list for good methods and movements. At time of motion study observe operator’s movement and compare with you checklist. If you found wrong movements or unnecessarily extra movement is present in the operation cycle correct it. By doing this you can reduce operation cycle time and can improve labor productivity up to 100%* in individual operations. Also it will help to reduce operator fatigue.

  1. Hourly Operator Performance Check

There must be a system which will responsible to check the operators performance hourly basis so that, effective corrective measure can be taken to ensure the efficient operation and production. If it can be ensured that there must have an improvement in the technology.

  1. Research& Development for Improving Productivity

A non-value added (NVA) process but having a strong Research and Development (R&D) team in the factory brings lot of benefits.

  1. Following Systems such as 5S and Kaizen

  • 5S

5S is also a known method of reducing waste, increasing productivity and clear visibility of

Nonconformance at workplace.

  • Kaizen

Kaizen Chinese and Japanese for “continuous improvement” when used in the business sense and applied to the workplace, kaizen refers to activities that continually improve all functions and involve all employees from the CEO to the assembly line workers.

  1. Select suitable line layout

Line layout means placing of machines and center table (trolley with wheel) as per style requirement. The main purpose of choosing a better layout is to reduce transportation time in the line as much as possible.

  1. Reduce Line Setting Time

Reason – lot of time is lost during setting of the line for a new style. This reduces overall machine productivity and line efficiency. There may have several production line in a production process. And it is engineers responsibility to use that type of line structure which not only ensure the less duration in the setting process but also increase the productivity through reducing the time used to assign task to each and every parts of production line.

  1. Improve Line Balancing

Purpose of balancing a line is to reduce operator’s idle time or maximize operator utilization. In a balanced line work will flow smoothly and no time will be lost in waiting for work. Always select operators for the operation matching operator skill history and skill required. Following this method you will select highly skilled operators for higher work content operations. Once line is set conduct capacity study at a regular interval then find bottlenecks inside the line. You have to think how you will reduce the WIP (Work in Progress) at bottleneck operation.

  1. Use Work Aids

Work aids are Additional devices that can be added to basic sewing machines such as folders, guides and pressure foots. If work aids are used effectively operation cycle time can be reduced many fold than existing cycle time.

  1. Continuous Feeding to the Sewing Line

It is not a fault of production department if they did not get cuttings to sew. All plans and efforts towards productivity will fail. Once operators get the rhythm, they should be given non-stop feeding until style changeover to keep up the productivity.

  1. Feed Fault Free Garment Components to Line

Inspect each and every garment components and accessories before starting production. It will help to prevent the defective garments.

  1. Leadership Training for Line Supervisors

Line supervisor play a vital role in production. Their main job is providing instruction, transferring information.

  1. Skill Training to Sewing Operators

Operators are main resources in the apparel manufacturing. They are most valuable resource to the company. So, factory must work on developing operator skill where required. “Training is not cost but an investment” said by many experts. Production from an operator depends on his skill level to the task. A low skilled operator will consume higher resources (time) and give less output. You will find quality related issues with low skilled and untrained operators. As the skill level of the operators is increased through training lines output will improve. Training does mean lot of time and money.

  1. Fixing Individual Operator Target

Instead of giving equal target to all operators working in a line, give individual target as per operator’s skill level and capacity. Set an achievable target for each operator so that they would try to reach the target. This will help improving operator’s individual efficiency.

  1. Eliminate Idle Time

Utilize operator’s time as much as you can. If there is idle time in a production process then this idle time will delay the overall operation of the process. And delay in operation reduce the production of the production. So to ensure the effective use of the time you must work for the elimination the idle time.

  1. Using UBT Sewing Machine (Under Bed Trimmer)  

Just think how many pieces an operator is producing in a day? Each time an operator trims thread using a trimmer or scissors consume time minimum 10% of cycle time (approx). Even machine without auto trimmer consumes more sewing thread.

  1. Inline Quality Inspection at Regular Interval

Effective inspection will help to reduce defect generation at source. Less number of defective seam is made less the time will be lost in repairing it. Inline checking system will alert operators in concentrating their job. It helps to find quality issues earlier and prevent that.

  1. Give Pleasant Working Environment

It may sound unlikely, but some research shows outfitting an office with aesthetically pleasing elements–like plants–can increase productivity by up to 15 percent. Jazz up your office space with pictures, candles, flowers, or anything else that puts a smile on your face.

  1. Operator Motivation

Employee motivation generally depends on various factors like work culture, HR policies, incentives, bonus on extra effort or achieving target. In case of garments employee motivations there may have monetary and non monetary benefit, but monetary benefit is more preferable because its visible benefit.

  1. Plan for Operator’s Incentive Scheme

Based on the efficiency of the operator incentives should be allotted to the operator.

Example:

  • Operator efficiency 70% – 10 INR
  • Operator efficiency 80% – 20 INR
  • Operator efficiency 85% – 30 INR
  • Operator efficiency 90% – 40 INR
  • Operator efficiency 95% – 50 INR
  1. Take Regular Breaks

It sounds counter intuitive, but taking scheduled breaks can actually help improve concentration. Some research has shown that taking short breaks during long tasks helps you to maintain a constant level of performance. While working at a task without breaks lead to a steady decline in performance.

  1. Use ERP Software’s

It will help to reduce the communication time, easy monitoring of production details and can able to easily find out bottle necks and balance that.

Conclusion

The suggestive techniques developed in this article cover a comprehensive series of aspects in minimizing reworks in the sewing section of apparel industries by ensuring quality Production also helps to improve the productivity. Productivity help to reduce the cost of product and Quality is ultimately gives customer satisfaction. Good Quality increases the value of a product or service, establishes brand name, and builds up good reputation for the garment exporter, which in turn results into consumer satisfaction, high sales. The study clearly indicates that by eliminating non-productive activities will improve the productivity of apparel manufacturing industry.

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AUTHORS BIOGRAPHIES

 LAKSHMIIN ARAYANAN.G

LAKSHMIIN ARAYANAN.G

The author is currently an undergraduate student at the Department of Fashion Technology, Angel college of Engineering and Technology, Tirupur. His area of interests is production, product development.

Email: [email protected]

 

SIVAKUMAR.P

P. Sivakumar

The author is currently an undergraduate student at the Department of Fashion

Technology, Angel college of Engineering and Technology, Tirupur. His area of interests includes standardization, Lean Manufacturing.

Email:[email protected]

You can download this article here Productivity Improvement Techniques in Apparel Manufacturing Industry

Standardization of Apparel Manufacturing Industry

Standardization of Apparel Manufacturing Industry Focusing on “Cutting Section”

In this paper, a study was conducted in the cutting and CAD section under a garment manufacturing company. The implementation of standards in industry became highly important with the onset of the industrial revolution. Maximum garment industries are facing different problems like low productivity, longer production lead time, high rework and rejection, low flexibility, lower quality product, high non-value added work etc. In this study these different problems were identified by using numerous effective production control tool like work standardization. The encouraging results after implementing the tool give the way to go forward and thrust to reach at the end point. Some key benefits of this implementation are decrease in sample rejection level by 60%, reduction of work level for repairing works by 70% eliminating bottleneck process results in reduction of excess motion and non-value added works by 50%. As a result, total processing time for final output is decreased. After the implementation of standard operation procedure effectively, the result shows a significant improvement of the production than before.

Introduction

A SOP (Standard operation procedure) is a process that describes in details in detail the way that an operator should perform a given operation. SOPs include the purpose of the operation, the equipment and materials required how to perform the setup and operations required for the process, how to perform the maintenance and shutdown operations carried out by the worker, a description of safety issues and checklist. This SOP is one of several process documents required for consistent operation of a given process, with other documents including process flow chart. For example, Taylor (1998/1911) believed that workers were incapable of designing efficient processes, hence the need of management to design standard operating procedures. The objective of SOP is ‘optimal’ way to perform a given process. It helps to improve the process performance. SOPs are updated and workers are trained to the new procedures. Standardization is the process of developing and implementing technical standards.

standardization of apparel manufacturing industry focusing on cutting section

A study was conducted in the cutting and CAD section under a garment manufacturing company. Cutting section plays a vital role for apparel industries. Cutting section involve different types of critical process like pattern preparation, spreading, cutting, snickering, bundling, etc.

Pattern preparation: Preparing the template for garments

Spreading: Spreading of the fabric to form a lay.

Cutting: Cutting of the fabric.

Labeling: It is the process of stick the stickers on garment component for identification and tracking purpose.

Bundling: Here the garment components are bundled according to the requirement.

This study introduces standard operation procedures in cutting department of the garment industry. Standardization is the process of developing and implementing technical standards. Standardization can help to maximize productivity, safety and quality.

Steps for Developing Standard Operation Procedure

First of all we have to study the particular place where we are framing standard operation procedure. Find out the problems present in the cutting department. Also get some ideas from the workers for standardization then frame the standard operation procedure for the cutting department. While framing the SOP we have to consider the quality parameters, it should not affect the quality of the product. Then consider the safety, it should not affect the safety of the labor and try to simplify the operation. Frame the SOP according to the 5S and kaizen system. It will help to improve the productivity, quality of the product, safety, effective utilization of machines and equipment.

5S to Transform the Working Condition towards Excellence

5S is also a known method of reducing waste, increasing productivity and clear visibility of non conformance at workplace. Evolved in Japan, 5S has been adopted worldwide to transform the working condition towards excellence. The methodology has 5 major steps each of the step starting with a Japanese word which gives a sound of “S” therefore known as 5S. Those steps are:

  • SEIRI means SORTING
  • SEITON means SET IN ORDER
  • SEISO means SHINE
  • SEIKETSU means STANDARDIZE
  • SHITSUKE means SUSTAIN

The above system needs to be implemented in-order to get the desired results.

 Additional S’s

Other phases are sometimes included e.g., safety, security, and satisfaction. These however do not form a traditional set of “phases” as the additions of these extra steps are simply to clarify the benefits of 5S and not a different or more inclusive methodology.

KAIZEN

Kaizen Chinese and Japanese for “continuous improvement” when used in the business sense and applied to the workplace, kaizen refers to activities that continually improve all functions and involve all employees from the CEO to the assembly line workers. It also applies to processes, such as purchasing and logistics that cross organizational boundaries into the supply chain. It has been applied in healthcare, psychotherapy, life-coaching, government, banking, and other industries.

By improving standardized activities and processes, kaizen aims to eliminate. Kaizen was first implemented in several Japanese businesses after the Second World War, influenced in part by American business and quality management teachers who visited the country. It has since spread throughout the world and is now being implemented in environments outside of business and productivity.

Standard Operation Procedure for Pattern Making Process

standard operation procedure for pattern making

Figure: 1 Standard operation procedure (SOP) for the pattern making process is shown in the figure:1

After receiving the order first of all the pattern master should study the sample and technical package of the style. Then note down the requirements of the buyer. Prepare the pattern according to the measurement and also check the pattern shape, measurements. Cut the fabric and sew the garment. Inspect the garment according to the specification sheet. If there is any changes required means alter the pattern and finally implement the requirements to the final pattern. After that start the bulk production by using he final patterns.

Before Standardization

  • Quality issues on the pattern shape, measurement.
  • It may affect the quality of the garment.

After standardization

  • Quality issues on the pattern size, shape, measurement will be altered before mass production.
  • Eliminating the non value added activities.

Standard Operation Procedure for Machine Spreading Process

standard operation procedure for machine spreading processFigure: 2

Standard operation procedure for machine spreading process is shown in the figure: 2. First of all preset the machine like cleaning, sharpen knife, marker length, no of lays, speed of the spreader) spreader clean the spreader and sharp the blade. Then verify the marker width and fabric width. Set the marker length and numbers of lays in the control panel of the spreader. Set the end catcher of the spreader. Starts the spreading process also measure the length of the lay by using the measuring tape for verification. Spread the fabric without any wrinkles. Maintain the end bit of the roll document. It is shown in the table: 1. then spread the marker on the lay. Pull the lay to the cutting area and start the cutting process.

Fabric Maintenance Document

fabric Maintenance document

Before standardization

  • Quality issues in the lay like wrinkles and shrinkages.
  • Improper maintenance of the fabric

After standardization

  • Quality issues are rectified by SOP
  • Improving the safety of the operator
  • Productivity improved

Standard Operation Procedure for Cutting by Using Straight Knife Cutting Machine

standard operation procedure of cutting by using straight knife cutting machine

Figure: 3

Standard operation procedure (SOP) for the straight knife cutting process is shown in the figure: 3. before staring the cutting process check the placement of the marker in the lay. Mention the required details on the lay also fix clip around the lay. To get the machine ready for chine should be cutting-To check if the cutting blade is sharpened evenly. The oiled &ensure there is no oil leakage. Wear mask and metal gloves for safety purpose of the operator. Start the cutting process and check the notches and symmetry of the pattern.

Before Standardization

  • Improper safety of the operator
  • Quality issues in the garment components like serrated edge and shape

After standardization

  • Safety of the operator improved
  • Quality improved
  • Production improved

Standard Operation Procedure for Stickering Process

standard operation procedure for stickering process

Figure: 4

Standard operation procedure for stickering process is shown in the figure: 4.Before starting the process the operator should wear the mask and clean the stickering machine. Select the color of the sticker and gum level of the sticker. There are many more color stickers are available like red, green, Yellow etc..,, Select the gum level depends upon the fabric type (heavy, medium, light).

Example: Table: 2

standardization of apparelCheck the gum level before staring the mass production. Stickering at right place of the garment component, it should not disturb the sewing process. Finally verify the numbers to the bundle sheet.

Before standardization

  • Quality issues in the garment component like stain

After standardization

  • Quality issues are rectified by the SOP
  • Productivity improved

Before Standardization Percentage of Quality

quality percentage before standardizationAfter Standardization Percentage of Quality

quality percentage after standardizationBy the standardization here the quality issues are rectified and the production improved in the cutting department of apparel industry likewise the safety of the operator improved.

Conclusion

The suggestive SOP developed in this article cover a comprehensive series of aspects in minimizing reworks in the cutting section of apparel industries by ensuring quality production. Standardization depends upon the type of industry. So manufacturing the quality product is mandatory to sustain in this global competitive market. Cutting is the heart of the apparel industry also the perfect pattern and garment components only can make the quality product like good fit and size. Quality is ultimately a question of customer satisfaction. Good Quality increases the value of a product or service, establishes brand name, and builds up good reputation for the garment exporter, which in turn results into consumer satisfaction, high sales. The study clearly indicates that by eliminating non-productive activities like reworks in the apparel industries time as well as cost is saved by SOP (Standard operation procedure).

REFERENCES

[1] JUKI corporation sewing research institute. Production Control Tools for Garment Industry 1st Edition.

[2] Heizer, J., and Render, B. (2000), Principles of Operations Management 4th Edition. Pearson College Div.ISBN-10: 0130271470.

[3] L. C. PIGAGE, J. L. TUCKER. Motion and Time Study, Institute of Labor and Industrial Relation, UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS BULLETIN

[4] Roy, R. N. (2005). Modern Approach to Operations Management. Daryaganj, Delhi, India: New Age International.

[5] Bheda, R., Narag, A.S. And Singla, M.L. Apparel Manufacturing a Strategy for Productivity

Improvement, Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, Volume7

[6] Adnan Maroof Khan and Md. Mazedul Islam, Application of 5S System in the Sample Section of an Apparel Industry for Smooth Sample Dispatch, Research Journal of Management Sciences, Vol. 2(7)

Standardization of Apparel Manufacturing Industry Focusing on “Cutting Section”

This journal is written by

P. Sivakumar

P. Sivakumar

The author is currently an undergraduate student at the Department of Fashion Technology of Angel college of Engineering and Technology, Tirupur. His area of interests includes standardization, Lean Manufacturing.

Tamil Nadu.

Email: [email protected]

If you like this article please do not forget to share on facebook and put your valuable comment.