Operation Breakdown and SMV of T-shirt of Knit Garments
T-shirt named for its T shape, collarless and short sleeves. Generally, a T-shirt made by light cotton fabrics, very comfortable to wear, casual wearing dress. A T-shirt is more comfortable than Polo shirt, male and female both can wear it. This article is all about T-shirt manufacturing, operation breakdown of T-shirt. Total SMV of T-shirt is 8.41. From this article, you will know, list of operation, machine list, SMV of every single operation, the production target of T-shirt manufacturing in the sewing section. So, let’s have a look at Operation Breakdown and SMV of T-shirt of Knit Garments.
Operation Breakdown and SMV of T-shirt of Knit Garments
Cargo Pant: Cargo Pant is a pant includes cargo pocket, generally loose-fitting, comfortable casual wear. Cargo Pant can be the long and short type of. Here SMV, total SMV found 36.28 which can be varied factory to factory. This data will give you a clear idea about the list of operation of cargo pant and their SMV. For a cargo pant, you may find more process are involved than 5 pocket pant. Hopefully, Operation Breakdown and SMV of Cargo Pant which be helpful for you.
5 Pocket pant can be long or short, most commonly manufactured in the apparel industry, 3 pocket in the front side and 2 in the back. Generally, 5 Pocket pant is Slim Fit Skinny Leg types. 5 pocket pants can be made by jeans or non-denim Twill Pant. Nowadays 5 pockets jeans pant is very commonly used garments and it is very popular. This article will help you to know about a list of operation and SMV of 5 pocket long pant. Hopefully, you will understand after reading Operation Breakdown and SMV 5 Pockets Long Pant.
Operation Breakdown and SMV of Men’s Long Sleeve Shirt
Operation Breakdown for Garments Manufacturing: Operation breakdown is a list of processor operation in sequence wise with SMV or SAM and machine Helper list. Style-wise operation breakdown is done by an industrial engineer in an excel chart. Operation breakdown report help to set the line layout of every style. For your better understanding, I made an Operation Breakdown and SMV of Men’s Long Sleeve Shirt in an excel sheet.
Before appointing an industrial engineer for the apparel industry, you have to keep in mind the Job Responsibility of IE in Apparel Industry. Here IE means Industrial Engineering. The world has limited resources but day by day we need to produce more and more product. The challenge is to increase productivity by using the least amount of resources. The garments industry is very much competitive. So in this competitive industry, it is a big challenge for Bangladesh or any other country to survive. We are looking for a solution where we will get more productive technology at a lower cost. Industrial Engineering is all about optimization of limited resources. Generally, Optimization, Planning, and Process Control is the core work in apparel for the industrial engineering department.
Job Responsibility of IE in Apparel Industry
Nowadays IE playing the key role in the apparel industry. Industrial Engineering Job is not an easy job, always engineers need to take on the challenge and bring a complete solution. The person who is responsible for industrial engineering is considered as an industrial engineer. I made a list of industrial engineering activities in the apparel industry.
Major Work of Industrial Engineering in Garments
Industrial Engineering deals with the following activities:
Time Study, Motion study
Taking the capacity study of full-line and line balancing for clean-up bottleneck area.
Methods developments & analysis as a side of quality & quantity.
7 QC (Quality Control) tools are very effective for apparel or any other types of the factory to solve almost every type of problem in a factory operation. These are the tools of troubleshooting quality issues, based on numeric value. 7 QC tools in apparel industry is a set of data analysis tools used to support continuous quality improvement efforts. If you can use these seven fundamental tools, then definitely quality control will be effective for your company.
7 QC Tools in Apparel Industry
Check Sheet (Tally Sheet)
Benefits of 7 QC Tools
Improve management decision making skills
Collect, present, Identify and analyses data
Implement Six Sigma
Control cost of poor quality
Reduce variations and improve quality
Reduce defects and improve production
Reduce cycle time and improve efficiency
Continuous quality improvement
Encourages teamwork and confidence
Enhances customer satisfaction through improved quality product
Explanation of 7 QC Tools for Apparel Industry
Histogram is also a bar chart. It is a graphical chart based on numeric value for showing frequency distribution of database. People become confused among Histograms and Bar Charts. A histogram is used for continuous data, where the bins represent ranges of data, while a bar chart is a plot of categorical variables. Some authors recommend that bar charts have gaps between the rectangles to clarify the distinction.
The Check Sheet/Tally sheet is a simple document that is used for collecting data in real time and at the location where the data is generated. The document is typically a blank form that is designed for the quick, easy, and efficient recording of the desired information, which can be either quantitative or qualitative. When the information is quantitative, the check sheet is sometimes called a tally sheet. A tally sheet to collect data on frequency of occurrences which custom designed by user.
Cause-and-effect diagram is look like a fish that’s why it’s called Fishbone Diagram, also called Ishikawa diagram, herringbone diagrams or Fishikawa diagrams, a visualization tool for categorizing the potential causes of a problem in order to identify its root causes. Causal diagrams created by Kaoru Ishikawa that show the causes of a specific event. Dr. Kaoru Ishikawa developed the “Fishbone Diagram” at the University of Tokyo in 1943.To break down (in successive layers of detail) root causes that potentially contribute to a particular effect. This diagram is used in process improvement methods to identify all of the contributing root causes likely to be causing a problem.
How to Work on Fishbone
If you find a problem and want to make fishbone diagram. First need brainstorming about the defect to find out types of causes based on 6 basic things. These are:
A Pareto chart is a bar graph. The lengths of the bars represent frequency or cost (time or money), and are arranged with longest bars on the left and the shortest to the right. In this way the chart visually depicts which situations are more significant.
The Pareto principle
The Pareto principle (also known as the 80–20 rule, the law of the vital few, and the principle of factor sparsity) states that, for many events, roughly 80% of the effects come from 20% of the causes. More generally, the Pareto Principle is the observation (not law) that most things in life are not distributed evenly. In apparel industry, you can see the data in the below that first 5 defects covered 50% of total defect. So 80-20 rules will not cover all-time 80% problem for 20% causes. It can mean all of the following things:
20% of the defects number cumulate 80% of the total defects
The scatter diagram graphs pairs of numerical data, with one variable on each axis, to look for a relationship between them. If the variables are correlated, the points will fall along a line or curve. The better the correlation, the tighter the points will hug the line. The scatter diagram Collect pairs of data where a relationship is suspected.
6. Control Chart (Shewhart Chart)
Control charts, also known as Shewhart charts or process-behavior charts, are a statistical process control tool used to determine if a manufacturing or business process is in a state of control. A control chart shows how data frequency changes, defects trends and compares with previous time record. Control chart monitor process and hypothetical prediction. Apparel industry need to reduce defect frequency to get quality improvement.
7. Stratification (Divide and Conquer), can be alternative of flow chart or run chart
Stratification is a method of dividing data into subcategories and classify data based on a group, division, class or levels that helps in deriving meaningful information to understand an existing problem. The main purpose of Stratification is to divide the data and conquer the meaningful information to solve a problem. The visual nature of the chart makes patterns jump out.
Implementation of 7 QC Tools
To implement these tools in your industry, you must have to do Pareto, Fishbone for every section. Result publishes visibly in each line or area in board. People will be conscious to reduce defect. There improvement tracking on control chart also visible for each line/area. You have to find root cause from the root level for cause and effect diagram. Data and data collection must be accurate. Every section has to be taken corrective action based on quality data. Every section must do a quality meeting to take new decision for quality control at least once per month.
KPI stands for Key Performance Indicator. This is the era of competition and we have to survive with a global challenge in the apparel industry. If you carefully work with Key points that is KPI Factors of Garments then surely Garments business will flourish. The management team should focus on KPI for their industry. KPI report will help you to look into the actual condition of your garments.
KPI Factors of Garments
There are many KPI factors which are directly and indirectly related to garments, especially in factory operations.
KPI for Garments Cutting
Cutting efficiency one of the most important factor. If an efficiency increase in the cutting section then production will increase by using a minimum number of workforce.
Cutting production is another important factor as like Cutting efficiency. Cutting production is related to Spreading, cutting, numbering and bundling.
DHU (Defect per Hundred Units) in Cutting
In cutting, there is no way to repair the defect, must replace panel as per marker with shade matching. So if DHU is high, you will be needed to rework.
Cutting Delay/Input Delay in Sewing Line
Sometimes cutting and sewing does not start as per plan. Only two reasons behind this. If PP/Size Set or pilot run sample fail to buyer QC to meet the quality standard, apparel manufacturers have remake sample and submit again to buyer QC to pass sample and get cutting approval. Sewing can be delayed for Trims and accessories delay receive from the supplier.
KPI for Sewing
Line Wise Sewing Efficiency
Sewing makes the whole garments, so sewing efficiency is an important factor for the garments industry.
An operator was doing an operation of SAM (Standard Allowed Minute) 0.60 minutes. In 10 hours day, he produces 600 pieces. So according to the efficiency calculating formula, that operator’s overall efficiency is as follows:
Efficiency (%) = [Total minute produced by an operator/Total minute attended by him *100]
Efficiency (%) = [(Total piece made X SAM of the operation)/ (Total working hour X 60) * 100]
= [(400 x 0.60) / (10 X 60)*100%]
The ratio among production/hour/manpower/machine is to be optimal. Every factory has self-study to reduce manpower, keeping less helper with the best possible production outcome.
Machine Trouble/Machine Downtime
Because of Machine trouble production is stopped. The machine maintenance department has to do their best effort to reduce machine downtime. An electrical problem also can be the cause of Machine trouble/machine downtime.
DHU in Sewing
Defects rate also a key point in garments manufacturing. Factory has to rework for repairing defects. Defect generation reduces the operator’s efficiency. Factory wants to keep defects as low as possible for per hundred units.
Operator absenteeism hampers sewing production, create the bottleneck. Every factory target employee absenteeism rate is zero % but sometimes it may not possible to keep this percent.
No. Style Change
Style change effect on productivity, efficiency, and quality. So garments manufacturer wants big lot order more rather than small quantity order for any lot.
Plan vs Actual Production Ratio
All factories have the planning department to make a plan for cutting, sewing, finishing and shipment to meet buyer required shipment date. The gap between plan and actual production is the reason for not meeting on time delivery.
Idle time is also known as loss time. For any type of reason, operators are not working is considered as loss time. Common reasons for idle time are; using a new layout, machine trouble, no work etc.
Operator Wise Efficiency
The best way of efficiency calculation is to calculate individual operator efficiency every day, show report weekly and train up lower efficient operator for improvement which ultimately increases the operational efficiency.
Industrial engineering (IE) department do time study, motion study and work study to find out SMV (Standard Minute Value), to minimize unnecessary motion for sewing operations. By this way, the factory saves SMV time for garments manufacturing.
Operator Turnover Rate
Since sewing is the key process of apparel, sewing operator turnover percentage is important. Turnover means the number of employees got fired or left from the job and replaced at the workplace by a new operator. If the turnover rate is lower in the factory then it will be better for the company.
Monthly turnover % = (Employees separated/Average number of employees during the month) *100
Example, If Employees separated = 21, Average number of employees during the month= 950
So, Monthly Turnover % = (21/950) × 100 = 2.21%
KPI for Trims and Fabrics
Claim Amount vs. Recovery Amount
According to the buyer quality standard, garments manufacture has to reject fabrics, trim if there is any quality issue. So, the maker must claim for compensation by replacing or giving back their money.
KPI for Finishing, Final Audit, and Shipment
Cut to Ship Quantity
As PO wise buyer order quantity cutting department try to cut extra as much as possible. It could be from 2% to 5%. GMTS reject due to a different quality issue. Below data will give an idea about GMTS (Garments) production flow.
For some critical quality problems like wash damage, measurement out of tolerance, work hole, and unrepeatable problems GMTS rejected by finishing the quality team.
DHU in Finishing
Defects rate also a key point in garments manufacturing. Factory has to rework to repair defects. Finishing team has to repair whatever defect come from sewing or finishing they found. Factory wants to keep defects per hundred units as low as possible. If too many products are defected then to rework the garments may add extra cost to the product which to totally unexpected.
Final Audit Pass Rate
The final Audit pass rate is the number 1 KPI factor for Garments Quality. For some buyer final audit, if fail once any PO in final Audit, Factory has to give a penalty for that. Any PO fail in final audit, a factory has rechecked full quantity of goods again. Could imagine how much cost need to recheck, and it also does hamper running production as well.
Finishing is the last step in apparel manufacturing. On time delivery, sea or air shipment mainly depends on the finishing of production.
Finishing efficiency is also very important key factory. If efficiency increases, production will increase with minimum manpower and ultimately it will increase profit for the company.
Order and Ship Ratio
Order and ship ratio should be equal at least or ship quantity could be more than order quantity since cutting quantity is more than 2% or 3% of the order quantity by reducing reject %.
Air Ship Quantity
Two reasons are cause for air shipment. One, If Garments maker cannot meet on-time delivery date then the maker have to ship goods by air at his own cost. GMTS suffer a huge financial loss for air shipment because the rate is more for air shipment. Number two would be merchandising reason for not sourcing raw material on time.
Templates and KPI Dashboard Presentation
You may need to present your factory KPI data with Top management or may need to report them. Here I am sharing you a complete presentation and Excel database for your convenience for free. I hope these would help you to work with KPI smoothly.