Classification of Singeing


Singing is a process of burn out the projecting fibre to increase smoothness and evenness of the fabric.

Objective of Singeing

  1. Burning of projecting fibres from yarn/fabric surface.
  2. Fabric/Yarn surface become smooth, even and clean.
  3. Maximum Luster is produced by mercerizing.
  4. Help to create smart design by printing.
  5. Save from uneven dyeing & printing.

Classification of Singeing

There are three types of singeing. They are

classification of singeing

Classification of Singeing

Plate Singeing

In plate singeing open fabric is passed upon the copper plate. To maintain ever speed some guide roller and draw roller are used. The temperature of singeing plates are heating but problem is the plate temperature vary. The process speed vary 135-225 m/min.

plate singeing

Plate Singeing

Advantages of plate singeing

Due to friction between cloth surface and copper plate fabric surface become smooth.

Disadvantages of plate singeing

Copper plate not to be evenly so uneven singeing is performed.

Roller Singeing

  • Some defects of plate singeing machine are overcome in roller singeing machine.
  • In roller singeing machine there is used rotating cylinder instead of stationary curved plate as plate singeing machine. It may be made of either copper or cast iron and provided with internal firing system.
roller singeing

Roller Singeing

  • In this machine the surface temperature of the cylinder is more uniform at all places.
  • The rotation of the cylinder is opposite to the fabric movement, so raise the nap ensuring efficient singeing.

Gas Singeing :( Will discuss in my next article as it is so important types. Stay with us.)


Engineer Sheikh Nurja

B.Sc engineer of textile

Merchandiser at buying house

If you like this article please do not forget to share on facebook and put your valuable comments.

Flow Chart of Weaving

What can be the flow chart of weaving?

Weaving is a process of producing fabric in which two separate sets of yarns are interlaced at right angles to form a fabric or cloth. In a weaving factory basically woven fabric are made. Basically the process of making woven fabric is known as weaving.



Flow chart of weaving

The process of weaving related with yarn form spinning, doubling & twisting, winding, creeling, warping, sizing, drawing-in/drafting-in, denting, looming, ltying-in, weaving and grey fabric. This process is shown in the following chart:

flow chart of weaving

Flow Chart of Weaving

  • Winding is the process of transferring yarn or thread from one type of package to another to type of package.
  • Sizing is the method of adapting material size on yarn. It is mainly used to twist yarn to attach the fiber together.
  • Warping is the process of using lengthwise yarns that are seized to form a frame or loom.
  • The denting plan indicates how each of yarn is pinched through a dent in the reed.

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)
E-mail: [email protected]
Cell : +8801929643301

Job Description of Financial Manager

Simple Job Description of Financial Manager

Financial manager are responsible for managing financial resources of an organization. Basically those who make financial plan for effective use of the fund to ensure organizational wealth maximization are known as financial manager. The success of an organization depends on the right use of the financial resource, although it is very tough job to manage. But financial manager/ finance manager always work for collecting fund from least costly sources and invest in potential sector where maximization of return is insured.

Job Description of Financial Manager

A job description contains a list of responsibilities that have to be performed by a financial manager/ finance manager. It also contains what are the qualities and qualifications are required to be a finance manager. A simple job description may include followings:

  1. Title of the Job: This indicates the position of financial manager that is position can be of assistant manager / manager / senior manager.
  2. Role of the Job or job responsibilities: There are several roles that a manager have to perform, these are
  • Required to formulate financial planning and taking financial decision as per requirement of the company.
  • Preparing monthly/ quarterly/ yearly budget for the company.
  • Monitoring cash inflow and outflow over the period.
  • Preparing reports and financial statements.
  • Ensuring wealth maximization of the company as it is primary goal.
  • Prepare financial report to check the performance of the company, that whether the performance is upward or downward.
  • Make forecast of future demand of the fund and take initiative to manage this fund timely.
  • Maintain good relationship with the creditor.
  • Ensuring balance between long term and short term asset and liabilities.
  • Formulating collection and payment mechanism (collection of accounts receivable, payout the accounts payable)
job description of financial manager

Simple Job Description of Financial Manager

  1. Location of the Job: Location of job or workplace for the manager, current location or probable future location need to be mention clearly.
  2. Remuneration/ Benefit of the Job: The amount of remuneration which will be provided for the financial manager over the period is needed to be mentioned. Because this one is the influential factor that that will create interest of working.

An Overview of Wet Processing

An overview of wet processing

Wet process must have to do for both Woven and knit fabrics. It’s a textile engineering department. It is very sensitive process done by chemicals and water. Mainly wet processing includes three processes. These are:

  1. Pretreatment
  2. Coloration
  3. Finishing
an overview of wet processing

Wet Processing


Pretreatment is the treatment before Coloration process. The main objective of pretreatment is to make ready for coloration. All the steps of pretreatment should follow:

  • Singeing
  • Desizing
  • Scouring
  • Bleaching
  • Mercerizing


Coloration is to color the textile material using dyes or pigment. Two process of coloration are:

  • Dyeing
  • Printing


Finishing is done to make useable, getting comfortable wear. Some Finishing process are:

  • Soft Finish
  • Hard Finish
  • Medium Finish
  • Urea Finish
  • Curing
  • Heat setting

If you like this article then please do not forget to leave your valuable comment. Because your comment works as a feedback for us.

Written by

A.M. Amirul Islam (Washim)
E-mail: [email protected]
Cell : +8801929643301

Costing of Polo Shirt

Costing of Polo Shirt

Description of product

Here I am going to calculate price of a polo shirt of having following configuration:

100% cotton pique polo-shirt containing two buttons in the front placket having side band with flat-knit collar and cuff and Small embroidery on left chest.

costing of polo shirt

Polo Shirt

For calculating price of polo-shirt at first we have to calculate the fabric consumption from the size spec sheet given by buyer.

If you want to know how to calculate the consumption of polo-shirt then you can check my other article “Fabric consumption of polo-shirt”.

Let consider,

Fabric consumption per dozen : 3.80 kg
So, Yarn consumption will be : 3.80 + (3.8×8%)
  = 4.104 kg/dz

So, Fabric costing

So, costing for yarn per dozen = US$3.90 × 4.104 kg/dz(price of yarn = US$3.90/kg)
= US$ 16 /dz
Knitting charge (pique) = US$ 0.15 × 4.104/dz(Knitting charge = US$ 0.15/kg)
= US$ 0.62/dz
Dyeing Charge = US$ 1.3 × 4.104/dz(Dyeing Charge = US$ 1.3/kg)
= US$ 5.34/dz
So, Finished fabric cost per dz = (16+0.62+5.34) US$/dz
= 21.96 US$/dz

For Collar & Cuff Costing

Yarn cost = 0.70 × 3.90 US$/dz
= 2.73 US$/dz
Knitting Charge = 0.07 × 12
=0.84 US$/dz
Dyeing Charge = 1.3 × 0.70
= 0.91 US$/dz
So, Finished collar & Cuff cost = (2.73+0.84+0.91)US$
= 4.48 US$/dz

Now, production cost per dz

For Fabric = 21.96 US$
For Collar & Cuff = 4.48 US$
Cost Management (CM) = 6 US$
Accessories cost = 3 US$
So, Total Production cost   = 34.44 US$/dz

Finally FOB price

Total production cost = 34.44 US$/dz
Commercial Cost (3% of total production cost) = 0.88 US$/dz (without CM)
Profit ( 20% of CM) = 1.2 US$/dz
Total FOB Price Per Dz = 36.52 US$/dz
So, FOB price per piece      = 3.04 US$/pc

Final quoted price for Buyer = 3.1 US$ / pc (FOB)



Engineer Sheikh Nurja

B.Sc engineer of textile

Merchandiser at buying house

If you like this article please do not forget to share on facebook and put your valuable comments.

Functions of Financial Manager

Functions of Financial Manager

Finance works as a lifeblood for an organization, without finance, it is not possible to run any business. Every business organization requires managing and ensuring the effective use of funds and financial resources. But the question is who will manage these funds. It is a financial manager’s responsibility to manage funds (collection and proper use of funds). Managing funds is the main functions of financial manager.

Financial Manager

Financial Manager

Financial Managers are those who mainly deal with financial resources and make a decision about financial matters. Every decision taken by financial managers is concerning investing and financing.

Basically, the functions of a financial manager can be categorized into three main functions. These are:

  1. Capital structure decision
  2. Investing and Financing Decision
  3. The decision about dividend policy

Functions of Financial Manager
Capital Structure Decision

The main function of a financial manager is to form an optimal capital structure for the organization. The optimal capital structure depends on the type of company and its financial capability. Capital structure means the ratio of debt and equity. The financial manager set the proportion of debt and equity for a company. It can be 50/50 ratio or 60/40, or 70/30, or 55/45, or others according to the decision of managers.

Investing and Financing Decision

Financial managers always concern about the cost of collecting funds and the return on the invested capital. Where cost is less, the fund should be collected from there. And where the return is maximized with lower or moderate level of risk, funds should be invested there. So it’s a financial manager’s responsibilities to make the right choice which can bring profit for the company.

Dividend Policy

When companies make a profit, a question arises there that whether profit will be distributed or not. If distributed then what proportion of profit will be distributed among the shareholders and what will be kept as a retained earnings. As a function of managing funds, the financial manager makes a decision about dividend policy.

In addition to these, there are many functions/ roles that financial manager does. Some of these functions are given below:

  1. Identifying what amount of funds is required for the company.
  2. Managing working capital which mainly deals with short-term asset and liabilities.
  3. Cash forecasting that is forecasting of cash inflow and outflows.
  4. Provides required fund to every department of the company.
  5. Ensuring optimal use of the financial resources.
  6. Ensuring substantial growth of the company.
  7. Buying and selling of financial assets.
  8. Valuation of a company’s stock.
  9. Maximizing the wealth of the company by increasing the stock price in the market.

Written by

Md. Nahian Mahmud Shaikat

Student of MBA

Institute of Business Administration (IBA)

Jahangirnagar University

Email: [email protected]

What is dye

What is dye?

A dye or dye stuff is usually a colored organic compound or mixture that is used for imparting color to a substrate such as cloth, paper, plastic or leather in a reasonably permanent fashion.

In other words, a dyed substrate should be resistance to a normal laundry or cleaning procedures.

 what is dye

Dye can be synthetic or natural i.e. it can be collected from nature or can be made by chemical. Traditionally natural dye was used but in 19th century synthetic dye produced in a large scale and created demand in the market. Now for dying purpose most of the cases synthetic dye is used rather than natural dyes. Synthetic dye is human made dye getting very popular because of low cost and availability.

 White dye

White dye is one kind of commonly used dye. Some colorless compounds are used as the optical brightness. They may also be called white dye. They have the special properties of absorbing uv light & re-emitting the visible light so that the fabric appears bright Example: OBA that means optical brightening agent.

 Selection of dye

There are numerous factors involved in the selection of dyes for coloring a fabric in a particular shade. Some of important factors that need to consider before selecting dye are:

  • Types of fibre
  • Form of textile materials
  • Fastness properties
  • Method of dyeing
  • Cost
  • Available machine
  • Available of dyes.

Written by

Samina Ferdous (pue)

Chittagong textile engineering college (CTEC) 6th batch.

What is Pigments

What is Pigments?

Pigments are such colorants which composed of particles that are insoluble in the application medium. They have no substantivity for the material since the particles are too large to penetrate into the substrate. They are generally present on the surface of the substrate. That’s why pigments are made fixed with an adhesive to the surface so that they are not being removed easily.

What is pigments

Pigment Dyed Fabric

A pigment is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength-selective absorption. This physical process differs from fluorescence, phosphorescence, and other forms of luminescence, in which a material emits light.

Required Properties of pigments

  1. Pigments should be opaque in such a way that they may have good covering power.
  2. Pigments should be chemically insert so that after use remain stable and get long life.
  3. They should have the properly to freely mix.

General Classification of Pigments

Natural or mineral pigments:

These are pigments such as

  • Iron
  • Ores
  • Clays
  • Chalk etc.

Chemical or synthetic pigments:

These mainly include

  • Zinc oxide
  • White lead
  • Titanium dioxide
  • Larger number of inorganic and organic colors

Reactive pigments:

Some pigments on account of their chemical character react with oil, fatty acid and soaps, e.g

  • Zinc oxide
  • Red lead

Inert pigment: As for example titanium dioxide

 Classification of Pigments as textile use

Pigments are used in textile may be broadly classify as

  1. Azoic pigments
  2. Vat pigments
  3. Miscellaneous pigments

Of all the Azoic pigments are occurring major places in pigments.

 Advantages of pigment dyeing and printing

  • No wet treatment so it is so simple to do dry and curing
  • It is applicable to all fibres
  • Extensive color range with high light fastness

 Disadvantages of pigment dyeing and printing

  • It has adverse effect due to binders
  • Chemical and physical properties of binders influence in dyeing and printing
  • Using of solvent like kerosene, Spirit etc. produce problem of flammability, pollution etc.
  • It covers high cost.


Engineer Sheikh Nurja

B.Sc engineer of textile

Merchandiser at buying house

If you like this article please do not forget to share on facebook and put your valuable comments.


Overview and Growth of Financial Industry

Overview and Growth of Financial Industry of Bangladesh

The economy of Bangladesh is a mixed economy where both government and private sector control the economy by planning and mixture of market. In a broader sense we can divide our economy into several industries. Financial industry is one of the leading industries which have great potentiality. Every year this industry is contributing large amount of value to the GDP (Gross Domestic Product) of our country (Bangladesh).

With the expansion of the economy we require to ensure security of money and effective use of the money. Considering these needs financial institutions are formed. In our country both bank and non bank financial institutions are available. Bank provides pure banking services and other financial services provided by non-bank financial institutions. Non bank financial institution can be financial intermediaries, insurance companies and leasing companies.

Central Bank of Bangladesh (Bangladesh Bank) is the sole institution responsible for controlling the financial institution and financial industry. Under the control of Bangladesh bank there are 65 banking institution (private, public/ state owned, specialized, and foreign) and 32 non bank financial institutions (mainly private) provides leasing and investment facilities and 62 insurance companies (private, public, foreign) providing life insurance and non life insurance policies.

Contribution of Financial Institutions to our (Bangladesh) GDP

Every year millions of taka is contributed by these financial institutions and is expanding exponentially. For this reason this industry considered as a base industry for our country. If we see the trends of contributions made by this industry then it will be clear that how much value added. From the last 5 years of data we can forecast that in the upcoming year our GDP will grow much more than these years.

contribution of financial institutions to our GDP

Contribution of Financial Institutions to our GDP

Percentage of Contribution to our GDP:

People can say that only 3% plus contribution is not much for an economy. But I am strongly saying that this percentage looks small but the amount of contribution is huge. In 2009-10 the contribution was 3.08% but with the passes of time this percentage is increasing. Last year that is 2013-2014 the contribution was 3.85%. Hope in the next year this will reach to 4%.

overview and growth of financial industry

Percentage of Contribution to our GDP

Growth of Financial Industry:

Although this industry is doing well but with the change in the economic condition the growth also changes. There is huge change in 2011-2012 in the financial sector according to the contribution to our GDP. Because of more foreign direct investment there is inflow of funds in the economy which circulate through financial institutions. Investment in long term asset and infrastructural development was done by the government and private sector. The positive sign is average growth is 15% plus. Near future hope this will reach at 20% plus with the expansion of total economy.

growth rate of financial institution

Growth Rate of Financial Institution over the Years

From the above identification we can assume that one day our economy will be much more efficient. Because we have financial institutions with modern technology which providing services as per required by the people at any time anywhere.

Written by

Md. Nahian Mahmud Shaikat

Student of MBA

Institute of Business Administration (IBA)

Jahangirnagar University

Email: [email protected]